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Earth : Africa : East Africa : Somalia : Somaliland
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Camels and nomads on a beach, Berbera
Somaliland in its region (de-facto).svg
Flag of Somaliland.svg
Quick Facts
Capital Hargeisa
Government Presidential republic declared independence from Somalia in 1991, but not internationally recognized
Currency Somaliland shilling, Somali shilling (SOS)
Area 137,600km²
Population 3,500,000
Language Somali, Arabic
Regionally Spoken:English
Religion Islam
Electricity 230V, 50Hz (European plug)
Country code +252
Internet TLD .so
Time Zone UTC+3

Somaliland (Somali: Soomaaliland, Arabic: صوماللاند‎ Ṣūmāliland) is an autonomous region in northwestern Somalia that functions as a de facto country. Although the government is working to establish full safety there, visiting is still not advised by the governments of Canada, New Zealand, the UK and the US. However, it is seen as much safer than its counterparts: Somalia and Puntland.

The local Somaliland authorities declared the region's independence from the rest of Somalia in May 1991, but neither the Somali federal government nor any other country or international organization has recognized its sovereignty.

The area is viewed as much safer than most of its neighbouring East African countries. The local government is very anxious to show its stability and, as a result, foreigners are generally treated with respect and interest. High unemployment and increasing discontent at being an unrecognized area of stability in a grim region does cause some resentment, yet very little and nothing too serious to worry about. For visitors exercising caution and respect, Somaliland is a fascinating and quite safe place to visit.


  • Hargeisa — the capital city of Somaliland and is perhaps the safest city in the entire region. It's very cosmopolitan with a rich history and culture.
  • Berbera — major port and the economic lifeline of the Somaliland economy.
  • Boorame
  • Burco
  • Laascaanood
  • Zeila — a historic city near Djibouti and the beautiful Zeila Coast.
  • Erigavo


Initially a British protectorate, Somaliland gained its independence in 1960 and entered voluntarily into a union with the former Italian Somaliland five days later. Before long, struggles erupted, but the country remained lashed together under the dictator Mohammad Siad Barre until a vicious civil war broke out in 1988. During the civil war, tens of thousand of Somalilanders were killed by the Siad Barre regime due to their tribal affiliations. At conclusion of the war in 1991, Somaliland had been decimated and bombed to the ground. It is still recovering today: travellers will see shells of tanks along major roads, blast marks from artillery along hillsides, bombed-out buildings and ruins remaining in cities.

After 1991, Somaliland began the painstaking process of separation and reconstruction. By 2010, it had its own free and fair parliamentary and presidential elections, with the presidential elections notable in particular for unseating the incumbent in a very close race. A remarkably peaceful transition of power followed.

Somaliland is a peaceful region. Violence is rare, and there is an active police force to ensure that laws are respected and that people abide to them.

As with the remainder of the former Somalia, law comes from three sources: the government, Islam (Sharia law), and clan (Xeer law). Extended family is of paramount importance in Somaliland, and the country now largely survives on remittances from relatives working abroad. Because no countries recognize Somaliland as independent, there are few employment opportunities. Unemployment is estimated to be at a staggering 80%.

Get in[edit]

Entrance Fees
Although the visa costs a reasonable USD30, there are many additional fees. At Hargeisa airport, you must exchange USD50 to Somaliland shillings at a bank rate so atrocious that you will surrender USD25. On top of this covert bank fee is an entrance tax of USD30. On the way out, you must pay USD32 to leave the region. Fees may vary.

You need a Somaliland visa to enter--Somalia visas are not accepted. Most travellers get a visa in Addis Ababa in Ethiopia or the Somaliland Mission in London. You can get details from the Somaliland government website or contact the Somaliland liaison office in Addis Ababa, phone +251 11 6635921, though they rarely pick up. To get to the office (opens at 9:30 am) you should find the Edna Mall, go north on Namibia Avenue for about 100 meters until you see the Sheger Building on your left. Turn to the right on a street that has sign for the liaison office and walk down this street for about 300-400 meters. When you see another sign on your right, turn and you will see the embassy. Note that it changes locations often, this is valid as of January 2016 (since the 2013 Lonely Planet, it has moved twice). The visa now costs $70 and ($120 multiple entry), and you will also need a photocopy of your passport (available at Sheger Building, the mall opposite to it and the little print shop in the shack on the corner of the first turn to the embassy for 1 birr) and one passport photo. You are issued a visa on the spot and given a letter telling you to not pay any more money at the airport in Hargeisa or at the border (they have pestered travelers for money before). However, as of Jan 2017 there was an entry tax at the airport so make sure to ask about that at the visa office. A Somaliland visa is also allegedly available from the Somaliland representation in Djibouti. The unofficial Somaliland embassy in London will also issue a visa. The whole process is refreshingly non-bureaucratic and can be handled by post, which makes London the most convenient place to get a visa for travellers who live in Europe and/or want to obtain a visa before travelling to the region.

You can also apply online for a visa through the Somaliland Mission in the USA for USD80.

By plane[edit]

There is an international airport in Hargeisa with flights to/from Dubai, Djibouti City, and many other cities and towns across the Horn of Africa and the Somaliland region. There is also an international airport at Berbera with many international flights, most notably to Dubai. Note that some flights from Hargeisa actually start with a bus ride to Berbera. If you are not Somali you may have difficulty getting through the police checkpoints unless you have written permission from the commander of police or take an armed guard (the Jubba flight from Hargeisa to Dubai is like this).

Ethopian airlines has direct flights from Addis Ababa to Hargeisa. Daallo Airlines is wildly inconsistent. Jubba Airways or African Express are good options, with several flights a week connecting Hargeisa to Djibouti, Dubai, Nairobi and Entebbe. Djibouti to Hargeisa is about an hour-long flight. Dubai to Berbera takes three hours.

All flights to and from Somaliland are expensive by most standards - there are no budget airlines. The cheapest flights will be to and from Djibouti, usually around US$125 one-way when taxes and fees are figured in (but not including the entry/exit/visa/exchange fees, which will tack on about another US$100 to any trip).

The most reliable way to travel to Somaliland appears to be with Ethiopian airlines as it is the safest and cleanest airline currently flying to Hargeisa and its flights are consistent, it flies to/from Addis Ababa daily, and soon a direct Nairobi route should hopefully begin. Tickets can be purchased in advance either online or at their ticketing offices in Addis or Hargeisa.

  • African Express [1] is a Kenyan airline that flies to/from Berbera, primarily from Mogadishu, Nairobi and Dubai, but also less frequently from smaller locations such as Sharjah, Entebbe or Jeddah. Major routes use MD-82 jets, shorter hops may be on a DC-9 or 120-ER.
  • Jubba Airways is a Somali airline. Their flights go from Hargeisa and Berbera. They use a Soviet-made Ilyushin-18 aircraft. They are the only airline to/from Somaliland that currently accepts online booking reservations, but confirm with them seven days in advance before flying.
  • Daallo Airlines was formerly the only international carrier to fly to Somaliland or the former Somalia. They are currently (as of August 2011) open, but are famed for inconsistent service. Earlier in 2011, they had been shut down. They currently operate 2-3 services per week from Djibouti also using a Ilyushin-18 aircraft.

Also be aware that Jubba Airways usually waits until enough people have purchased tickets before departing. You may be waiting a week or more for a flight, regardless of whether you have a ticket or not.

It is very important to to re-confirm all flights 7 days in advance! All of the airlines above will not hesitate to sell your ticket to someone else if you don't take the warning seriously, Jubba in particular.

Ticket offices are closed on Friday (the weekend in the Islamic world). Plan accordingly.

Recently, East African Safari Air Express began regular service between Nairobi and Hargeisa, but it's very expensive (a return flight from Nairobi to Hargeisa costs USD600). They can be reached at [email protected] or +254 020 6654321. As of April 2011, their flights NBO-HGA-NBO operate on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays.

By car[edit]

Desert-type terrain Berbera to Hargesia Somaliland where nomads graze herds (taken at end of dry season in March)

It is possible to enter Somaliland from Ethiopia by road. You can avoid paying many of the fees charged at the airport. However, if you plan to leave Somaliland by road, it is advisable to make Ethiopian Visa arrangements (multiple entry) before traveling to Somaliland as the process of getting an Ethiopian Visa in Hargeisa can be quite cumbersome and time consuming (Info from 2009: The Ethiopian visa in Hargeisa is easy to get, requires no paperwork and is available in one morning - cost USD20). Another option is the open border to the north to Djibouti. (Info from 2009: Public transport 4x4s leave Djibouti every day in the late afternoon and travel across the desert throughout the night to arrive in Hargeisa the next morning. They leave from Avenue 26 in Djibouti City, at a price of DJF 5500). Despite government efforts, there are still some landmines. It is rare to see any, but look out for coloured rocks next to the road. If you see painted rocks DO NOT leave the Tarmac as a safety precaution just in case.

Get around[edit]

There is a bus service in Hargeisa, Burao, Berbera and Borama. There are also services between the major towns and adjacent villages operated by different types of vehicles such as 4 wheel drives and light goods vehicles (LGV).

To travel outside of major cities, the central government requires foreigners to take an armed guard with them (see "Stay Safe" below).

See[edit][add listing]

The capital, Hargeisa, has a provincial museum. There is also a menagerie that includes lions, leopards, antelopes, birds, and reptiles. Outside of Hargeisa is Laas Gaal, a complex of caves and rock shelters that contain some of the earliest known art in the Somalia and the African continent, dating back to 9,000 B.C.

Do[edit][add listing]

Buy[edit][add listing]

A picture of one of the many Money Changers in Hargesia who will exchange US Dollars (most larger payments) to Somaliland Shillings (used for micro-payments)



Eat[edit][add listing]

For breakfast, Somalis eat a flat bread called laxoox and cereal or porridge made of millet or cornmeal. They also eat rice or noodles with sauce or meat for lunch. Pasta became very popular under Italian rule. Bananas are common in the south of the region. A traditional soup called maraq (also part of Yemen cuisine) is made of vegetables, meat and beans and is usually eaten with flat bread or pitta bread. Beans are usually eaten for dessert, also oat or corn patties and salad can be eaten too.

Though not commonly served, Somalis eat xalwo, a jelly-like sweet made with water, sugar, and honey, though peanuts are sometimes added. Somalis who have spent some time in the Middle East eat baklava. Dates are also popular in Somaliland.

Drink[edit][add listing]

Many Somalis adore spiced tea. Milk is also common in rural areas of Somaliland. Alcohol is prohibited and you will not find it publicly served anywhere in the country.

Sleep[edit][add listing]

Man-Soor One of the handful of larger hotels in Hargeisa Somaliland

There are hotels being constructed in all of Somaliland's major cities. Hargeisa has seen most development, with regards to its infrastructure and capacity, the airport has been expanded to cater to an increase in tourists, both foreign and domestic.

Stay healthy[edit]

Locals in Hargeisa drink tap water filtered and treated by the Chinese government. The cleanliness is not adequate for visitors though. If you are not a local, you MUST drink bottled water, as drinking tap water can cause digestive issues (diarrhea and/or vomiting) It is however very uncommon to find diseases such as cholera in the drinking water.

As with many developing-world countries, animals roam the streets and sanitation is poor. Be very aware of the very real risk of rabies. Bats may inhabit the countryside and their bites can be nearly invisible, leaving a person unaware until it's too late.

There is a low risk of malaria in Somaliland, but that threat is still present in rural areas. Many foreigners choose not to take anti-malarials.

Yellow fever is seen in the rural parts of Somaliland. If you plan to travel to other countries that require proof of yellow fever vaccination, be sure you are vaccinated!

Vaccination against other endemic diseases common in developing countries (typhoid, polio, hepatitis A & B, etc) is strongly recommended. however these diseases are not common.

The infrastructure of this region is still lacking in parts and that includes healthcare. If you have health problems or have concerns about getting treatment in an emergency, you will be putting yourself at great risk as the medical services are primitive and unsanitary by modern standards in most areas.

The most modernized (and written-about) hospital is the Edna Adan University Hospital in Hargeisa. It's mostly a maternity hospital and, although the staff is excellent, medical treatment is limited by the serious dearth of resources in the country. Serious conditions will require evacuation. Come prepared or do not come at all.

Stay safe[edit]

A new large building being constructed in Hargeisa, apparently this will be a shopping mall
Travel Warning WARNING: The Republic of Somaliland is not recognized by any government. If you run into legal problems, you are on your own as there are no consulates to turn to for help. Learning of local laws is very important if you wish to minimize the chances of conflict with local authorities.

Somaliland is quite safer compared to other parts of Somalia. Knowing a little of the local language or having an interpreter can go a long way when requesting information should you wish to learn about the surrounding area.

The Somaliland government requires that all foreigners take armed guards when traveling outside of the major cities as an extra precaution. These guards are known as SPUs (Special Protection Units) and are available from the local police department or the office of tourism in Hargeisa.

Travel Warning WARNING: LGBT Travelers: Homosexuality is illegal in Somaliland and can lead to imprisonment and even execution. If you plan to engage in homosexual activity, do not visit Somaliland.

Get out[edit]

African Express, Jubba and Daallo airlines fly to Djibouti, Dubai and Jeddah, Kenya, Mogadishu, and Uganda. Ethiopian Airlines has twice daily flights to Addis Ababa. Be prepared to pay a $60 entry fee in the airport. Main Airport is Egal International Airport in Hargiesa (HGA).

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