Santiago de Compostela is the capital city of Galicia, Spain, and one of the most important places in Catholicism because it is believed by many to be the place where St. James, one of the twelve Apostles of Christ, is reputedly buried.
Santiago de Compostela was originally founded by the Suebi in the early 400s, as part of the collapse of the Roman Empire. In 550 the whole settlement together with the rest of Galicia and northern Portugal was incorporated by Leovigild into the Visigothic kingdom of Spain. Raided from 711 to 739 by the Arabs, Santiago de Compostela was finally conquered by the Visigothic king of Asturias in 754, about 60 years before the identification of remains as those of Saint James the Great, and their acceptance as such by the Pope and Charlemagne, during the reign of Alfonso II of Asturias. Certainly, the remains were found in the small and close town of Iria Flavia, but they were moved to Santiago according to political and religious reasons. From then on, this settlement was not just a city, but a holy city, and one of the main centers of Christian pilgrimage. Still, there are some who claim that the remains found here were not those of the apostle James and one of the most famous theories is that these are the remains of the philosopher and former bishop of Avila Priscillian. They are also thought by many to be someone else altogether.
Santiago de Compostela was captured by the French during the Napoleonic War and its capture broke the spirits of the many Spanish guerillas who were fighting the mighty invading armies of Marshals' Soult, Victor, Massena and Napoleon's brother, the new King of Spain, Joseph Bonaparte (called Pepe Botella by the Spanish resistance). During the war, many attempts were made to recapture it by Spanish partisans, who believed St James would come down on the field and destroy the French if they earned his favor by beating the French out of the holy city, which was St James's city. During the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), Santiago was under the control of the fascists from the very beginning and it suffered from a very brutal repression during the early years and during the whole Dictatorship. After the Spanish Transition, when the democracy was restored, Santiago de Compostela was declared the capital city of Galicia.
Santiago de Compostela today
With a population of about 96,000 inhabitants, it's one of the most important cities of Galicia and the most touristic of them, receiving thousands of visitors every year, many of them attracted to the ancient history and the religious tradition. It was declared by the UNESCO World Heritage Site because of its cathedral and old city center.
The University of Santiago de Compostela (USC) is one of the oldest Spanish universities and it has more than 30,000 students, making Santiago one of the centers of the university education in Spain, with Salamanca and Granada.
The climate of Santiago is typical of the Spanish Atlantic coast: oceanic with a large amount of precipitation. Santiago de Compostela is one of the rainiest cities in Spain and Europe with a total amount of precipitation of above 1,700 milimeters (70 inches) annually. Winters are damp, cool and rainy most of the time in the city with nighttime lows being around 5°C (42°F) and daytime highs hovering around 10°C (50°F). Temperatures do drop below freezing on some nights per year but it's very rare for them to drop below -5°C (23°F). The record low is -9°C (16°F). Snowfalls are infrequent but flurries do occur on average 2-3 days annually. Santiago also has one of the coolest summers in Spain with the 24-hour average in August being 19°C (66°F). Even during August nights are pretty cool (between 10-15°C or 50-60°F) and daytime highs are around 25°C (75°F). Temperatures above 30°C (85°F) are uncommon and temperatures above 35°C (95°F) are very rare. The record high is 39.4°C (103°F). Despite summer being the driest part of the year in the city, a sizable amount of 40 milimeters (1.6 inches) falls as rain in July.
The most common way of getting to Santiago is by walking (see the Way of St. James) followed closely by bus. The bus station is located in the outskirts of the city, but there you can get a public bus or a taxi to get to the city centre. You can get to Santiago by bus from several places:
- From cities and towns of Galicia, try Arriva or Monbus. Unfortunately, the last link is only available in Spanish.
- From other parts of Spain, try Alsa, one of the most important bus companies of Spain.
If you want to arrive to Santiago by train, you should visit the RENFE webpage . The train station is relatively close to the city centre.
From Porto in Portugal, there is a daily direct ALSA bus (€31), leaving Porto at 13:00 (Portuguese time) and arriving at 18:00 (Spanish time). Travelling by train requires a change at Vigo.
By air, the closest airport is Lavacolla  (ICAO: LEST, IATA: SCQ), about twenty minutes by bus from the city centre. Companies operating at this airport include:
- Aer Lingus: Dublin
- Air Europa: Fuerteventura, Lanzarote, Gran Canaria and Tenerife
- EasyJet: Geneve and Basel
- Iberia: Madrid and Bilbao
- Ryanair: Frankfurt, Milan, London, Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Alicante, Malaga, Palma de Mallorca, Lanzarote, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Tenerife
- Vueling: Barcelona, Málaga, Paris and Zurich
Santiago is a relatively small city (about 95,000 inhabitants) and you can get anywhere by walking.
Even so, there are several bus lines that connect every part of the city. These services are offered by the company Tralusa. The ticket costs €1.00 for adults (for people under 18 it costs €0.55). If you are going to take several bus trips, you may buy a bono (Bus Pass) of 10, 20, or 30 tickets with a price of €0.55 for each one. You can buy these bonos from the bus drivers and you must pay a deposit of €3 that will be refunded back to you if you return the card in good condition. The most interesting line for visitors is the number 5, that stops at the bus station and goes to the city center.
Taxis are not very expensive and the taxi drivers are usually kind and willing to help tourists.
Taxi from to and from the airport are available at a fixed rate of €21 (2018 rates).
In the parts of the city most frequented by tourists, it's easy to find someone that speaks English or even French, Italian or German. Some restaurants even have English menu. It's more difficult, but not impossible to find menus and signs in Japanese and Chinese. Due to the high number of students in Santiago, it's not difficult to find someone with a good level of English in the streets that will be willing to help.
The official languages of the city are Galician and Spanish. Galician is a language with great similarities with Portuguese, so speakers of this language will not have a lot of trouble understanding people.
- Praza do Obradoiro is the heart of the city, and it's named after the workshop of the stonemasons that was established during the construction of the Cathedral (Obradoiro is the Galician word for workshop). This is the arrival point of thousands of pilgrims every day and kilometer 0 of the Way of St. James is located just in the center of this square. The surrounding buildings are examples of different architectural styles. At the East, the baroque front of the Cathedral with the Museum at its right and the Gelmírez Palace at its left. At the West, the Rajoy Palace, which serves as the current city hall. At the North, the Catholic Kings Hostal, a plateresque building destinated to host the pilgrims. At the south, the San Jerónimo College, an old students residence and now the head office of the University of Santiago de Compostela.
In center of Praza do Obradoiro
- Catedral Santiago de Compostela (Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela) - This Cathedral has so many examples of different architectural styles that it would be impossible to reflect here everything. Maybe the most important are the Baroque front of the Praza do Obradoiro and the interior porch, Pórtico da Gloria. The tomb of Santiago ("Saint James") is located under the Cathedral, and there's the possibility to visit its tomb and even hug the sculpture that represents the saint. On regular occasions the church shows its "Botafumeiro", a huge solid silver incense burner which is swung from the ceiling of the church by a team of energetic men ("tiraboleiros") hauling on ropes.
- Hostal dos Reis Católicos (Catholic Kings Hostal) Originally it was a hospital built after the visit of the catholic Kings to Santiago in 1486, to attend the pilgrims. With the years, the Catholic Kings ordered the built of a big hostel with the money they had earned with the conquest of Granada. Its style is Plateresque. At its front, two coats of arms of Castilla can be seen.
- Palacio de Raxoi (Rajoy palace) - Building of the XVIII century, it was built to host the city council, a jail, a seminary and the residence for the children of the choir. It was built under the classic canons. At the top, there's a sculpture of St. James riding his horse and fighting with the Arabs.
- Colexio de San Xerome (San Jerónimo College) - It was founded by the archbishop Alonso III de Fonseca to host poor students. Its front has a Romanesque style.
- Palacio de Xelmírez (Gelmírez Palace) - Built in the XII and XIII centuries, it's the current home of the archbishop of Santiago. It's a great example of the Romanesque civil architecture.
- Praza da Quintana (Quintana Square) - This is the square situated at the other side of the Cathedral. It's divided in two, Quintana dos Mortos, just until the staircase and Quintana dos Vivos, the upper side. In the past it served as cementery and market. There's a legend that tells that if you're at this square alone at midnight, you will be able to see all the deads there buried.
- Praza de Praterías (Silversmith's Square) - Close to the Quintana, it has a well-known fountain and it offers one of the best sights of the Cathedral.
- Monasterio de San Martiño Pinario (San Martín Pinario Monastery) - Benedictine monastery of the XI century. The current building is baroque. It's one of the most emblematic buildings of all the city. It's situated in the Praza da Inmaculada.
- Casa da Parra (Parra House) - Situated at the Quintana dos Vivos, this building has the typical chimney of the XVIII century.
- Praza de Abastos (City Market) - The second most visited monument. This market is the typical Galician market and one of the biggest all over Spain. It's the perfect place to buy some fresh seafood, vegetables and meat.
- Cidade da Cultura (City of Culture) - Eisenman's ambitious project in the outskirts of Santiago. Yet to be finished, but impressing especially for those interested in architecture. It consists of a museum, a library, cafeteria and archives, which are all open and functioning at present. Buses run every hour (line 9) from the centre of the city. Guided tours are available for free.Cidade da Cultura
The city has also several museums that are worth the visit. Some of them are:
- Cathedral Museum: it shows the Cathedral’s history and artistic testimonies, from the first basilicas and archaeological remains, the Romanesque period, the work of Master Mateo, with the reconstruction of the Cathedral’s Stone Choir; sculpture in the Cathedral between the 13th and 18th centuries, a tour of the Mannerist Cloister, Library, where the Botafumeiro censer is exhibited and the Chapterhouse, ending on the top floor with an important tapestry collection, which includes a room dedicated to Goya, and the spectacular continuous balcony that dominates Plaza del Obradoiro and the streets of historical Santiago. It opens all the days except on Christmas Day, New Year's Day, January 6th, St. James' Day and August 15th. The prices depend on the person, but it's between 3 and 6 €. Praza do Obradoiro.
- Museum of the Galician People: the former Convent of Santo Domingo de Bonaval, situated on a hill outside the walls of the historical city, beside the road used by pilgrims to enter Compostela, now houses the Museo do Pobo Galego (Museum of the Galician People), which, provides a general view of the most representative expressions of Galicia’s own culture. It displays different aspects of costal life, traditional trades, the country, traditional costumes and architecture. It also includes sections of Galician archaeology, painting and sculpture. Different temporary exhibitions are regularly organized on a variety of subjects. The entrance is free and it's open all the year except on Mondays. It's also the place where many important Galician figures are buried. Rúa de San Domingos de Bonaval.
- CGAC (Galician Centre of Contemporary Art): open since 1993, and holding a stable programme since 1995, the Centro Galego de Arte Contemporánea is located in the limits of the Old Town in Santiago de Compostela. The building was designed by Portuguese architect Álvaro Siza and finds a careful balance between the outer and innerspace. The entrance is free and it's open always except on Mondays. Rúa Ramón María del Valle-Inclán.
- Pilgrimage Museum: the exhibition highlights the importance, for European culture and Hispanic America, of the pilgrimage and worship of St. James. The entrance is free for people under 18 and over 65, and it costs 1.20 € for students and 2.40 € to the rest of people. Rúa de San Miguel.
- One of the best ways (and maybe one of the most comfortable) of seeing the city and learning things about its building and history is to get on a little train that will take you through different parts of the city showing it in an unique way. It has an English speaking guide. It departs from the Praza do Obradoiro it costs €5 for adults and €3 for children between 4 and 12. Here you can check the route 
- If you want a guided visit on foot through the Old District, just try one of the guided visits that the City Hall organized with an English speaking guide. These visits depend on the day and the season. For more information check this link 
- There are several guided visits, but they are only available in Spanish. For example there are a night tour or a tour visiting the different churches. Although this, if you're a big group (more than 15), you could ask for them in the Official Tourism Office at Rúa do Vilar, 63 or through this email: [email protected]
- If you feel like having a different view of the city you could book an aeroplane tour of Santiago de Compostela. It's expensive (and prices vary by tour) but it's an original way to see the city. For more information see 
- If you are one of the hundreds pilgrims that arrive following the Way of St. James you can get a diploma certifying that you completed the pilgrimage.
- Fundación Museo Eugenio Granell, Plaza del Toral (Old area of Santiago), ☎ 981576394. 11 - 7. Eugenio Granell donated his own Surrealist works as well as his collection of surrealist paintings (Picasso, Matta, Miro) and his collection of ethnic works (Aftica, Guatemala, Puerto Rico, Spain, USA). It is the only surrealist museum in the world showing works by Granell and other surrealist artists old and new. You can also visit its two libraries And children can enjoy the Didáctic Área. Its shop offers souvenirs as well as jewelry by local artists. 2€. edit
The town is now a very important center for pilgrims. You can find all sorts of souvenirs related to "the camino": walking sticks, the typical water-bottles, and the shells that are typical for the camino. Also you can buy typical sweets and drinks in many shops at the Zona Vella (Old District). If you want to buy an original gift, visit the Sargadelos  shop at Rúa Nova and see the modernist ceramics of this old and legendary factory in the province of Lugo. Also in the Old District you can find many jewellery shops where to buy typical jewels made of silver and jet, many of them of celtic inspiration.
If you want to buy clothes, move to the Zona Nova (New District) and visit the stores that are all over these district. Here you can find Zara, Bershka, Pepe Jeans... and other famous brands. Maybe the most original brand you could find is Rei Zentolo at Rúa Santiago de Chile, a Galician brand with original and really funny T-shirts and other clothes.
There are two shopping centers in the city. The first one, Área Central, is located at the district of Fontiñas (you can get there by taking the bus number 11 in the City Centre) and it has fashion shops, fast food restaurants and one big supermarket. The other one, Hipercor, at Rúa do Restollal, is a typical department store.
Galicia is known for "Pulpo" or cooked octopus. In general there are a lot of restaurants selling fish and seafood suitable for all budgets. The local cheeses should also be sampled, as well as delicious cakes like the "Tarta de Santiago" (ground almond cake with pulverized sugar on top). Expect long queues at popular pilgrim eating places.
Also try pimientos de padrón. The saying goes, "Os pementos de Padrón, uns pican e outros non" meaning that in a single serving, some are spicy while others are not.
Try the Albariño wine, a white wine from the south of Galicia. Other popular drinks are:
- Licor café is a popular local liqueur, which tastes strongly of coffee.
- Orujo, also known as Aguardiente or Caña, is also a popular local drink, made with the grapes after juicing them. It's often served in little glasses (chupitos) or just a trickle with the coffee. There are three kinds: Orujo Blanco, just eau-de-vie, Orujo de hierbas, often green, it has different tastes depending on the kind, it's usually served very cold, and Tostado, that it's the result of soaking the grapes with nuts and other fruits.
- Queimada, very traditional drink, it's a mix of aguardiente, sugar and some fruits and coffee beans. It's set on fire before drinking it while someone recites the conxuro (a sort of spell)
- Crema de Orujo Orujo`s cream, very sweet and tasty, 15-20% of alcohool.
For a quiet beer and a couple of tapas on the Old District there are several places where you can sit in terraces when the weather is nice or inside where it's rainy or cold. Some of these places are for example, Tokio or Alameda at Porta Faxeira or the terraces at the Quintana Square. It's specially well-known the Rúa do Franco, one of the main streets, full of places where you can drink and eat something. One really famous is Bar Orense (Rúa do Franco), where you can have cuncas (cups) of wine and licor café for a very low price. If you like coffees, ice-creams and pastries, try Pastelería Mercedes Mora (Rúa do Vilar). On the New District there are bars full of university students, such as Central Perk (Rúa Nova de Abaixo), Luis (Rúa Santiago del Estero) or the multiple terraces at Praza Roxa.
Later in the evening, there are several places to go because Santiago de Compostela is a city with a very interesting nightlife.
If you want some beers or cocktails to begin the night, try Nido del Cuco or Momo, both at Virxe da Cerca. The last one, Momo, during the summer season has a big and nice garden and during the winter it has performances of singer-songwriters. Other interesting places are Casa das Crechas (Vía Sacra, very close to Praza da Quintana), where you can hear some folk music, A Calderería (Rúa da Calderería), spot where many foreigners get together and sometimes there are music performances or Modus Vivendi (Praza Feixoó).
To continue the night, Santiago has many pubs where drink and dance different kinds of music. The following ones are only examples of the great variety you can find in Santiago. On the Old District:
- El Retablo: the music is mainly Spanish and International pop. It's usually full of people, mainly young people. Rúa Nova.
- Avante: really famous little pub where you can dance and listen to ska and traditional nationalist music. Cantón de San Bieito.
- A Reixa: well-known indie bar. Here you can listen mainly to 60's music, with a great poster of Björk decorating the pub. Rúa Tras Salomé.
- Fonte Sequelo: little pub, with music of different styles. Rúa Xelmírez.
- Forum: gay pub, very little and always full of people. Music of different styles. Rúa Travesa.
- Meia: very popular specially between the Erasmus students (it even has discounts for them), the music is international pop. Rúa Algalia de Abaixo.
Going to the New District:
- Blaster: popular pub, with music of very different styles and a really original decoration. Expect lots of people. Rúa República Arxentina.
- Krooner: one of the most original places, depending on the day and the hour, you can listen to indie rock, 60's music or house. It's also an after party from 10.00 to 14.00. Rúa República Arxentina.
- Guayaba: pub with latin music (merengue, salsa...). Rúa Nova de Abaixo.
- La Ruta: popular disco and the oldest one, it has two floors. Up, indie and alternative rock, down, house and electronic music. Gay-friendly place. You must pay 5 € to get into. Rúa Pérez Constanti.
- Liberty: one of the most popular discos to finish the night. Mainstream pop. The admission is not free for men (5 €) and depending on the day either for women. Rúa Alfredo Brañas.
Just outside of Santiago is a small town called "Monte do Gozo". Some Pilgrims stop there before entering the city. It's a huge center and has almost 2000 beds. There is a frequent bus line that will take you to walking distance of the town center.
People with a bigger budget can stay in the luxury "Hotel Dos Reis Católicos", the former medieval pilgrim hostel, situated on the same square, O Obradoiro, as the cathedral. It is owned by the Paradores group, a large hotel-chain which operates hotels exclusively in historic buildings.
There is a 3 stars hotel near the cathedral, called Hesperia Gelmirez with very good rates.
For the budget traveler you can try Hostal R Mexico located at Republica Argentina 33. It's just a few blocks away from the train station.
Another budget option is Hostal Pazo de Agra on Rúa Calderería 37. It is an easy two-minute walk from the cathedral.
- Hotel Santiago de Compostela Nest Style, Rúa do Doutor Teixeiro, 15, ☎ +34 981 563 444 ([email protected], fax: +34 981 589 653), . Hotel Nest Style Santiago. Hotel Santiago de Compostela center. 3 stars hotel. 35€. (42.875159,-8.54504) edit
- NH Obradoiro, Avenida Burgo das Nacions, +34.98.1558070 .
- Meiga Backpackers, Rúa dos Basquiños, nº 67, ☎ 981570846, . Clean backpackers hostel 5 minutes walk from the bus station. Mixed and female only dorms as well as private rooms. There´s a kitchen, common room and a garden. The owners have another pension in a different location in town. 17. edit
70km out of Santiago is the town called Finisterre. Before the Americas were discovered, it was believed that this was the end of the world (finis = end; terra = earth)