||WARNING: Some governments advise against all travel to North Korea due to the uncertain security situation caused by North Korea’s nuclear weapons development program and related tension. There are no resident Canadian or American diplomatic offices in the DPRK. The ability of officials to provide consular assistance is extremely limited. Sweden, through its Embassy in Pyongyang, is the "Protecting Power" for Canadian, American and Australian nationals if any emergency consular assistance is required, but such assistance will likely be very limited, due to the unpredictability of the actions of the government of the DPRK. Those planning to engage in activities that the North Korean government forbids must be prepared to face imprisonment, torture, and death (8 September 2019).
|| Government travel advisories: Australia • Canada • Ireland • New Zealand • United Kingdom • United States
P'yŏngyang (평양 Pyeongyang), with about 2,750,000 inhabitants, is the capital city of North Korea, also known as the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK). It is situated on the Taedong River in the southwest of the country.
Downtown Pyongyang with the Ryugyong Hotel
After being destroyed during the Korean War, Pyongyang was entirely rebuilt with the intention of being a capital that would boost morale in the post-war years. The city today features wide, tree-lined boulevards and public buildings with terraced landscaping, mosaics and decorated ceilings.
Its Russian-style architecture makes it reminiscent of a Siberian city during winter snowfall, although edifices of traditional Korean design somewhat soften this perception. In summer, it is famous for its rivers, willow trees, flowers and parkland. In the spring cherry blossoms can be seen all around the city.
The streets are laid out in a north-south, east-west grid, giving the city an orderly appearance. North Korean designers applied the Swedish experience of self-sufficient urban neighbourhoods throughout the entire country, and Pyongyang is no exception. Its inhabitants are mostly divided into administrative units of 5,000 to 6,000 people. These units all have similar sets of amenities including food stores, barber shops, tailors, bathhouses, clinics, post office and library.
Poor as though Pyongyang will appear, with vast amounts of barren land and endless tower blocks for housing, and an overall dull outer life with none of the vibrant vagrants and illegal hustle that makes places like New York and London great, it should be noted that only the privileged North Koreans are able to live in Pyongyang. You might see just two or three slow-moving cars the whole day given the national poverty. The one and only time the city appears half-lively is around lunchtime and at this time, most are moving around on pushbikes. With that in mind, one can only imagine how poor, dull and dystopian life must be in North Korea outside of Pyongyang. Poverty in those parts got so bad people even resorted to cannibalism at different times to avoid starvation. Despite this, Pyongyang's oppressed people continue to believe that the good life and beautiful architecture as shown in South Korea is a big myth. It is only when defectors contact loved ones from South Korea that they can inform the "northerner" that the high quality of living and superiority of capitalism (market economy) over communism is a reality.
North Korea has no laws against LGBTIQ+ individuals.
Korean culture (both North and South) are rooted in Buddhist and Confucian tradition and so sexually suggestive public displays of affection are frowned upon, but sexuality is recognises as a matter of private life.
Same sex couples are able to live together without issue in North Korea, however there is no legal recognition of same sex marriage.
Nearly all visitors arrive either by plane or train from Beijing. You'll need a visa before you travel and will need a minimum of 2 weeks to process it.
Sunan International Airport (IATA: FNJ) is 24km north of Pyongyang and, as of 2018, has scheduled services to Beijing, Shanghai, Shenyang, Vladivostok, Chongjin, Sondok, Samjiyon, and Wonsan.
The Air China Beijing flights depart/arrive on Monday and Friday afternoons, with an additional service on Wednesday afternoons in summer (from April 1st). Note that Pyongyang airport does not have Instrument Landing System (ILS), so if the weather is bad, flights are sometimes cancelled, or even turned back. Air Koryo usually never has problems landing in their home base, so if you need to be sure to arrive, better take Air Koryo. However, take into account that Air China is far more modern and safe when compared to Air Koryo (which is banned within the EU due to its planes failing multiple safety checks).
If you are in a position to be able to, the tickets to Beijing are almost half price from Pyongyang. They are on sale in the Youth Hotel, in the Air China office, which is situated about 10km north-east of the city. Furthermore, they give a 30kg baggage allowance for free.
Trains from China arrive at Pyongyang's main central train station. Foreigners can join in with the locals and use the main exit. Your guide(s) will be waiting for you outside of the building (Oct. 2013). If you have transported anything via freight on the train, you'll have to go back the next day to pick it up. The customs office is around the back of the building, and is shut 12:00-14:00. At other times, it's not very busy at all. There are no charges for collecting customs-cleared goods, and the bureaucracy is fairly simple, especially after the chaos at Beijing railway station.
Visitors to North Korea will need to be accompanied by an accredited guide or guides, who will arrange where you can visit and how you will get there. However, personal visitors of foreign residents in Pyongyang are free to go around by themselves, unless explicitly told not to by Korean authorities.
Residents are usually free to wander around. However, they cannot use buses. The subway system can be used, despite rumours to the contrary. There are two routes, and all the stations are open to foreigners. Despite being old, the trains run quite efficiently, and are phenomenally cheap (5 won a ride, any distance- there are roughly 5000 won to a euro on the black market). The biggest drawback to this form of transport is that the subway is only on the west side of the river, while Munsu dong, where all foreign residents live, is on the east side.
Taxis can be taken, but Koreans usually are very nervous about accepting foreigners. One exception might be the Koryo hotel, situated near the railway station. Expect the driver to check with the hotel that he is allowed to take you first. Around €5 will cover a medium distance one way ride.
- 20-metre high bronze statue of Kim Il-Sung and Kim Jong-Il at Mansudae. During the Centennial Celebration of Kim Il-Sung's birthday, a statue of Kim Jong-Il was added. This colossal display will most likely be the first thing you visit. Surreal as it may seem, be aware that the locals expect visitors to this place to take it all very seriously and show respect to the monument. Your tour group will most likely have to lay flowers on the statue pedestal which are also available on-site for €3-10. Formal dress is expected, though not strictly required.
- Pyongyang Metro. This is the deepest metro system in the world at over 110 metres. There are large socialist realist murals in the platforms of the stations, with each station designed to embody a different ideal. Most tourists only see Puhung and Yonggwang stations on the Chollima Line.
- Juche Tower. A 170-metre tall monument is dedicated to the Juche philosophy of Kim Il Sung. Don't miss the trip to the top, which costs €5 and offers a great view of the city (though, if you're staying at the Yanggakdo, the view from a top floor is similar and free!).
- Children's Palace. Nearly every city has its own Children's Palace, with Pyongyang having the largest. After classes in the morning, selected (gifted) students spend the afternoon at the palatial Children's Palace to practice their art or other special skills. Children choose their area of specialization in cooperation with teachers once they're old enough to attend (around 11) and continue with that one skill every day until they graduate school or they complete the area of study (e.g. driving). Areas include: ballet, rhythmic dance, gymnastics, computer programming, singing, musical instruments, chess, volleyball, basketball, embroidery, and calligraphy.
- Ryugyong Hotel. This 105-story building dominates the Pyongyang skyline with its 330 meters of height. Construction started in 1987, but when the money ran out in 1992 it came to a halt. Construction by Egypt's Orascom Group resumed again in April 2008. An Orascom company official said the goal of the project was to at least give the structure's façade a facelift and make it more attractive. It is thought that the building will be opening for business in 2013, but only 150 hotel rooms on the upper floors will be open, the other floors will eventually be offices and shops. As of August 2019, it had still not opened.
- USS Pueblo, the captured American vessel.
- Stamp shop next to the Koryo Hotel on Changwang St sells a huge variety of DPRK postage stamps, with designs ranging from Olympic sports to Korean food to DPRK history. This is the best place to buy souvenirs, as stamps are easy to transport and it's easy to find a set of stamps for almost anyone. You can also buy postcards and postcard stamps (200 won) here.
- Arirang Mass Games, the Mass Gymnastics and Artistic Performance. This is performed in the fall of some years. With over 100,000 performers this is, by the numbers, the greatest show on Earth.
- Arch of Triumph The arch was designed to commemorate Korean resistance to Japan between 1925 and 1945 and eventual liberation from Japanese rule. The arch is modeled on the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. However at 60 m high and 50-m wide it is the biggest victory arch in the world.
- Korean War Museum also known as the Victorious Fatherland Liberation Museum The basement of the museum has a number of captured U.S. planes, tanks, and weaponry.
- Kaeson Funfair. Located near the Arch of Triumph, this small amusement park has a handful of new rides. You and your guides can't just wander around as you'll need a guide from the park to take you to each ride but you will be put at the head of the line for each one. The guide will keep track of the rides you go on and then you pay according to how many rides you went on, at the end of your visit. edit
- Chollima Statue. This is a statue of a man riding a winged horse, representing the innovations of Korea. It is at the top of Mansu Hill.
- Grand Monument. This is a huge bronze statue of Kim Il Sung, who is still officially president of the DPRK, despite having been dead for more than 25 years.
- Kimilsungia-Kimjungilia Flower Exhibition Center. This houses two floors worth of rare flowers named after Kim Jong Il and Kim Il Sung.
- North Korean Film Studio. Here you can see where North Korean film is made, and see film sets based on Japan, Russia, China and South Korea.
Guided tours of sites in and around Pyongyang are the only way to do things. You are not allowed to wander on your own.
One caveat is regarding personal visitors to foreign residents of Pyongyang. They are usually free to wander around, although the Koreans prefer to 'help' in these situations.
Above all, exercise extreme caution about photography. Monuments and palaces are fine, but Koreans hate having their photographs taken, unless you get permission first. If you come across a street market, it is likely that everyone will run away (including the sellers), as their existence is a tacit admission of the failure of their economic system. This is not, however, always the case. The Koreans will, however, get very nervous, so a lot of smiling is a good idea. You should absolutely NOT take obvious photos in these situations. You are likely to be arrested, and possibly deported. An innocent photo of a market to Westerners is a very serious situation to them at a political level. Not only does it show the shortcomings of the regime, but a picture of abundance in a market will, they worry, lead to the withdrawal of international food aid.
There are many places to go shooting, usually with air guns. The Koreans love to see foreigners try their hand at this, as sometimes (unbeknown to the foreigner) they are shooting at images of Americans.
More cruelly, you can target live chickens instead for a couple of euros; if you kill the chicken you get to keep it.
Foreigners are allowed to use the main public swimming pool on Saturday mornings, as they are the ice skating rink in winter. Be aware, that if you have an accident, the Koreans will not help you, probably through fear of dealing with a foreigner. It has been known for foreigners to break their legs ice skating, and waiting for hours on the ice while other expatriates try to help (if they are even around)!
Shopping options are limited. A few department stores exist but have very few things of interest. Locals only shop from specialty stores selling groceries and other basic items. Arts and crafts and souvenirs can be purchased in places such as tourist sites and hotels. Some extremely sought-after North Korean souvenirs are metal lapel badges depicting the faces of one or both of the two Kims. North Koreans are required to own these badges; as such they are categorised more as national necessities, and therefore not readily available to westerners, whom the locals often seem to think would never want such a thing. It is easier to find these North Korean items on eBay. There have been reports of these badges being seized by customs at departure.
There are several government-run markets, selling a wide range of foods, as well as consumer goods such as shoes and DIY materials. The prices are extremely low by western standards, and the sellers are extremely honest- red-coated officials watch their every move, especially when selling to a foreigner. These markets are identifiable by their blue, semispherical roofs. However, apart from Tonghil market, foreigners are treated with, at best, mild suspicion. Indeed, do not be surprised if you are gently, but firmly, escorted from the building. There is no harm in this, providing you comply.
Tonghil market is perhaps the most interesting, as there are many relatively wealthy Koreans shopping there. Koreans are issued State provisions, which vary according to their job/status. Anything else they are free to buy- either at official won exchange rates (about 1/30th of the black market price), again, depending on their status, or at the free market price, which usually means they can afford almost nothing. The average wage is around £1.5/€2/$2.5 a month, which results in most people's total dependance upon the State.
You need won to shop at these markets, and do not take photos. In Tonghil, be aware that some theft does occur although it is minimal.
There are hardly any restaurants where the average North Koreans go. Eating out is a pleasure reserved for foreigners and special people. You will normally eat dinner at your hotel. With the current slow but steady erosion of the government control, there actually a lot of various private and semi-private (ostensibly belonging to some state organization or cooperative, but in fact just using them as a front) eateries, but these are mostly just a simple diners aimed squarely at the working-class Koreans and have a rather spartan fare -- boiled corn, kimchi, some fish or squid, and white rice for those who want to splurge (white rice being a rare holiday dish for the most Koreans). Also, while they are tacitly tolerated by the authorities, having a foreigner visiting them would be a colossal embarrassment for the regime and can bring a lot of problems for everyone involved.
Often, when you see Koreans in a group in a restaurant, it is because their work unit, or the Party, has sent them and is paying. These groups are easily identifiable as such: Koreans hardly ever eat meat, so, if they go out on one of these trips, they have a meat-fest and get as drunk as possible on soju, rice alcohol. The smaller groups who regularly go out to restaurants eat and drink in a much more moderate way.
- No.1 Boat Restaurant, Kim Il Sung Square, is the only boat restaurant in Pyongyang accessible to tourists. You eat on the outdoor deck.
- Chongryu, on the bank of the Pothong River, is a restaurant designed in the shape of a river cruise boat. It was renovated in 2007 and is a good choice for those fond of traditional Korean food as over 120 Korean dishes are available.
- Dangogi Gukjib, Tongil St, is the most famous place for those wishing to try the Korean specialty of eating dog, however beware the conditions the animals are kept in and the method of killing them is exceptionally cruel.
- National Restaurant has a variety of Korean dishes and often also has live shows.
- Okryu, on the bank of the Taedong River, was founded in 1960 and is a popular restaurant for those wishing to try Korean cuisine. It is famous for its Pyongyang-style cold noodles.
- Pyolmuri, Changkwang St, . North Korea's first Italian restaurant, offering pasta and pizza. Mains €1.50-2.50.
- Pyongyang Duck Barbecue is a good choice if you like barbecued duck.
- Pyongyang Ostrich Farm specializes in ostrich meat.
- Ryugyong Restaurant, An Sang Taek St, specializes in beef dishes. It is recommended for meat-lovers.
- Samtaesung Hamburger Restaurant, The only hamburger restaurant in Pyongyang, and serves hamburgers, fries, and soft drinks.
- Pyongyang TV Tower Restaurant can be accessed if you are visiting the Pyongyang TV Tower, and is often thought to be among the better restaurants in North Korea.
||WARNING: As North Korea is one of the poorest countries in the world, drinking water is untreated and there are reports of foreigners being hospitalized in the DPRK after drinking the water, so sticking to bottled water is highly recommended. Medical facilities are clean, but very outdated and often suffer a lack of doctors who are actually healthy. If you fall ill you might be better off going to China for medical treatment. Contact your embassy or consulate in North Korea (if your country has one) for assistance. US citizens may contact the Swedish Embassy in Pyongyang for advice if needed.
There are very few bars and clubs, though North Korean beer is available at hotels. Some may also offer Chinese and other foreign beers, such as Heineken. The local draught beer is excellent, costing from €0.50 to €1.40, but the bottled beer can give bad hangovers.
There are three main places, apart from restaurants and hotels, where foreign residents go to socialise; the old Diplomatic club, near the Juche tower by the river, the Friendship, inside the Munsu dong foreigners' compound, and the Random Access Club (RAC), run by the UN, also inside the foreigners' compound.
Provided that transport (difficult) and permission (less difficult) is obtainable, all of these can be visited. The RAC Friday nights are legendary (not in an "Ibiza" way, though), although what passed for nightlife has dwindled as foreign aid organisations have left the country during 2009.
This will be arranged by your tour company.
- Heabangsan Hotel*, Sungri St, Central district, +850 2 37037. A five-storey building which is the cheapest option in Pyongyang. It has 83 rooms, but you cannot be certain that you as a foreigner will be allowed to stay here.
- Morangbong Hotel, Morangbong Hill, it has 12 rooms and is Pyongyang's smallest hotel. It is the only hotel in Pyongyang with Al Fresco dining.
- Pyongyang Hotel, Sungri St, Central district (near Pyongyang Grand Theatre), +850 2 38161. Class 2 hotel with 170 rooms, open since 1961.
- Taedonggang Hotel, Sungri St, Central district (beside Taedonggang river), +850 2 38346. 2nd class hotel that has been around since 1956.
- Koryo Hotel, Changkwang St, +850 2 381 4397. The most luxurious hotel in the city together with Yanggakdo Hotel. Has 45 floors and over 500 rooms. Centrally located in downtown Pyongyang near the train station, makes you less isolated than the Yanggakdo. Singles €175, doubles €290.
- Potongang Hotel, +850 2 381 2229. First-class hotel situated next to the Potong River about 4km from the city centre. It has 216 rooms equipped with air conditioning, refrigerator, telephone and satellite TV. The facilities include restaurants, bar, souvenir shop and a beauty salon.
- Ryanggang Hotel, Chongchun St, (at the junction of the Taedonggang and Potonggang rivers), Mangyongdae district, +850 2 73825. Opened in 1989, this first-class hotel has 317 rooms and a rotating restaurant on the roof.
- Sosan Hotel, Kwangbok St, +850 2 71191. Another first-class option, recently renovated. Features a pool, bars, internet access and cable TV.
- Yanggakdo Hotel, +850 2 381 2134. Opened 1995. This is where most tourists in Pyongyang end up staying. It is situated on Yanggakdo Island, in the middle of the Taedong River. It is 47 storeys tall, has several restaurants (including a revolving restaurant on the top), and a kitsch casino in the basement where you can watch Chinese gamblers go wild. Also has a bowling alley, billiards room, swimming pool, karaoke bar, shoe repair shop and (genuine) massage service. The staff are Chinese. Prices range from €70 for a third-class room on one of the lower floors (note that foreigners can only stay on the 20th floor and above; lower floors are for North Koreans only), to €420 for a deluxe room high up. Meals are included.
||WARNING: Under no circumstance are you to show any form of disrespect, be in speech or gestures, to Kim Il-sung, Kim Jong-Il, Kim Jong-Un, the Juche ideology, the Songun policy, the ruling Worker's Party of Korea, the North Korean government in general, or the citizens of North Korea. Simply avoid these topics if you can do so. Keep in mind that anyone can be an undercover government agent, so respond accordingly when this subject is at hand, always keep in mind you might be tested and pushed into admitting your real feelings on these subjects, whatever they may be. You and your guide are likely to face serious trouble. "In trouble" does not mean a slap on the wrist. North Korea is known for extremely harsh punishments which range (for the guides) from lengthy forced labor sentences up to 20 years in a Forced Labor Camp, while you are likely to be sentenced to a stay in a local prison or labor camp, deported, and banned from re-entering. Assume that you will be under surveillance at all times during your trip, and your hotel room you stay in will be bugged.
North Korean citizens are the most heavily-monitored and policed people in the world. You are unlikely to have any trouble with them. However, be warned that you may be severely heckled by the police/secret services. Under no circumstance are you to show any form of disrespect to the Great Leader Kim Il-sung, Dear Leader Kim Jong-il, or Kim Jong-un. Doing so could result in imprisonment and deportation at the least.
- Red Cross General Hospital of Korea. phone: +850 2 28291. East-Pyongyang.
- Pyongyang First Aid Hospital. phone: +850 2 22758.
- Pyongyang Foreigners’ Hospital. phone: +850 2 22160.
- Kim Man Yu Hospital. phone: +850 2 28136. East-Pyongyang.
- Pyongyang Maternity Hospital. East-Pyongyang. (Showcase, opened in 1980 with 1500 beds.)
Practically all foreign embassies in Pyongyang are inside the Munsu-dong. EU citizens whose country does not have an embassy and who need consular assistance can go to any EU embassy as they must offer them diplomatic and consular protection on the same conditions as their own nationals under art. 23 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. Conversely, EU citizens whose country does have an embassy (Germany, Sweden, UK) are only entitled to diplomatic and consular protection from their own country's embassy.
- Brazil, 3 Munsudong, no. 41, phone: +850 2 3817955, fax: +850 2 381-7699.
- Bulgaria, Munsudong, Taedonggang District, phone: +850 2 3817343, fax: +850 2 381-7342, 
- Burkina Faso, phone: +850 2 7617754, fax: +850 2 381-7542, 
- Cambodia, Munsudong, Taedonggang District, phone: +850-2-23817283, fax: +850 2 238-17283, 
- China,, Kinmaul-dong, Moranbong District, phone: +850 2 381 3116, fax: +850 2 381 3425, 
- Cuba, P.O. Box 5, Munsudong, Taedonggang District, phone: +850-2-3817370, fax: +850 2 381 7703, 
- Czech Republic, , Taedonggang Guyok 38, Taehakgori, Puksudong, Pyongyang, phone: +850 2 381 7021, fax: +850 2 381 7022, . M-F 09:00-16:00.
- Egypt, Munsudong, Taedonggang District, Pyongyang, phone: +850 2 381 7416
- Germany,  Munsu-dong Diplomatic Compound, Taedonggang District,+850 2 381 7385.
- India, 6, Munsudong, Taedonggang District, phone: +850-2-3817215 , +850-2-3817274, fax: +850-2-3817619, email: 
- Indonesia, Munsudong, Taedonggang District, P.O. Box 178 Pyongyang, phone: +8502-3817425, fax: +8502 381 7620, email: 
- Laos, Munhungdong, Taedonggang District, Pyongyang, phone: +850-2-3817363, fax: +853-2-3817722
- Malaysia, , Munhungdong, Taedonggang District, phone: +850-2-3817125, fax: +850-2-3817845, +60-3-83193270, email: [email protected]. M-F 9AM-5PM, closed Sa Su, D.P.R.K. Public Holidays and Malaysian Public Holidays.
- Pakistan, Building No. 23, Block 66, Munsudong Taedongang District, phone: +850-2-3817479, fax: +850-2-3817622
- Palestine, Munsudong, Taedonggang District, P.O. Box 24 Pyongyang, phone: +850-2-3817256, fax: +850-2-3817259, email: [mailto: [email protected]]
- Poland, , Munsudong, Taedonggang District, phone: +850-2-3817325, +850-2-3817328, +850-2-3817331 fax: +850-2-3817634 fax/phone: +850-2-3817637, email: 
- Romania, Munhungdong, phone: +850-2-3817336, email: 
- Russia, Chungang-gu, Singang-Dong, phone: +850-2-3813101, +850-2-3813102 fax: +850-2-3813427, email: 
- Syria, Munsudong, Taedoggang District, Pyongyang, phone: +850-2-3849323, +850-2-3817472, +850-2-3817473
- Swiss Cooperation Office, , Munhundong, Taedonggang District, Yubo St No. 3, +850 2 381 76 45, email: [email protected]
- * UK, Munsudong Diplomatic Compound, +850 2 381 7980 (International dialling) (0)2 382 7980 (Local dialling) There's a Duty Officer rota for out of hours emergencies; to contact, use international dialling +850 2 381 7985 M-F 00:00-08:30 GMT (local time: M-F 09:00-17:30. email: [email protected].
- Vietnam, 7 Munsudong, Taedonggang District, Pyongyang, phone: +850 2 381 73 53, email: [email protected]
- Yemen, P.O. Box 53, Pyongyang, phone: +850-2-3817353, fax: +850-2-3817632
* The British Embassy incorporates a minor Canadian and Australia diplomatic presence; this offers reasonable consular services to Australian and Canadian citizens
** The United States does not currently maintain diplomatic relations with the D.P.R.K. but US citizens can receive limited consular help from the Swedish Embassy (usually emergencies only).
- Mangyongdae, the alleged birthplace of Kim Il Sung, is 12 kilometres from central Pyongyang and a good day trip. A collection of huts claimed to be the Leader's first home is the main attraction, and they look surprisingly new for being 100 years old. The suburb also features a revolutionary museum, a funfair and a revolutionary school for the kids of the elite.
- The Revolutionary Martyrs' Cemetery, around 15km north east of the city, is a good day out. You walk up 300 steps, through gardens with hidden speakers playing mournful music, to fairly identikit bronze busts set on marble plinths. Seriousness, of course, is mandatory. Taking photos is fine, and on a clear day there are magnificent views over the city. At the foot of the hill there is a zoo and a park. One can visit both, at a small charge, although they are sometimes shut. As you approach, on the right is the subway terminus, for those brave enough/able to use it. It takes around 40 minutes to get back into town on the subway. In the zoo itself are a lot of tigers, dogs and chickens. The two Korean breeds of dogs (the lighter coloured is the northern, the darker the southern one) are separated from one another by a steel fence, and spend most of their lives barking at each other.
- Panmunjom, the surreal truce village on the DMZ and demarcation line of North and South Korea, is an unforgettable historical site easily visited on a day trip from Pyongyang.
|This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!