Petrified Forest National Park
Petrified Forest National Park  is a United States National Park that is in eastern Arizona, in the Southwest region of the United States. The park takes its name from the remnants of ancient trees which have been transformed into brilliantly colored minerals through a series of geological processes.
Petrified Forest was set aside as a national monument in 1906 to preserve and protect the petrified wood for its scientific value. The monument became a national park in 1962, and legislation passed in 2004 more than doubled the park's area from 93,533 acres to 218,533 acres.
Petrified Forest National Park features one of the world's largest and most colorful concentrations of petrified wood, the multi-hued badlands of the Chinle Formation known as the Painted Desert, historic structures, archeological sites, and displays of 225 million year old fossils. The park is now recognized as protecting the best representation of the Late Triassic Period in the world, and on average paleontologists discover about two new animal species each year.
The park features one of the world's largest and most colorful concentrations of petrified wood, the multi-hued badlands of the Chinle Formation known as the Painted Desert, and displays of 225 million year old fossils.
Flora and fauna
The park includes a grassland ecosystem and the badlands of the Painted Desert. The terrain changes quickly as you travel through the park, from the vistas of the Painted Desert, into the grassland of a large plateau, through grand geologic formations, and arrays of richly colored petrified wood.
Animal life at Petrified Forest includes amphibians, birds, insects, spiders, mammals, and reptiles. Birds, lizards and some rodents are seen most frequently, though seasons and weather play a large role in determining what animals are active. Nocturnal animals include kangaroo rats, woodrats (also called packrats) and most other small desert rodents, skunks, foxes, bobcats, bats and owls. Animals that can be seen during the day include pronghorn, mule deer, coyotes, porcupines, desert cottontails, black-tailed jackrabbits, squirrels, hawks, snakes, lizards, golden eagles, and many songbirds.
The park has summer daytime average temperatures in the 90s F and summer overnight temperatures in the 60s F. Winters are mild, frequently freezing overnight but warming by mid-afternoon to an average of 40 F. Park closures for weather are possible but not frequent.
An automobile is the only feasible way of getting to the park, located off of Interstate 40 in northeastern Arizona, 106 miles east of Flagstaff and 178 miles west of Albuquerque. Westbound Interstate 40 travelers should take exit 311, drive through the park and connect with Highway 180 at the south end. Highway 180 north returns to Interstate 40 via Holbrook. Eastbound Interstate 40 travelers should exit at Holbrook and travel on Highway 180 south to the park's south entrance. Drive north through the park to return to Interstate 40.
Entrance fees are $15 for individuals on foot or bike, $20 for motorcycles, and $25 for private vehicles. The Petrified Forest Annual Pass is available for $45 and allows free park entry for one year. Alternatively, the America the Beautiful National Parks Pass is $80 and allows free entry to all national park areas for one year.
Petrified Forest National Park is open to the public every day of the year except for Christmas Day (December 25). Park access is prohibited at night without a permit. Park hours depend on staffing and may change through out the year.
Unlike most western states, Arizona does not observe Daylight Savings Time, remaining on Mountain Standard Time year-round. However, many visitors arriving from the Navajo Reservation (which does observe DST) travel with their clocks set an hour off. Check the time to make sure you don't accidentally get locked in at night.
A car is the easiest way of getting around in the park, with the 28 mile (45 km) park road allowing visitors to travel through the park from end to end without backtracking. Eastbound travelers should enter at the south off Highway 180, and exit at the north onto Interstate 40. Westbound travelers should enter at the north at Exit 311 off Interstate 40, and exit at the south onto Highway 180.
Bicycles are permitted only on the established paved roadway and cannot be used on paved or dirt trails or off road at any time. In addition, if planning to see the park from a bicycle be aware of the potential for extreme heat, thunderstorms, or high winds and plan accordingly.
There are stores just outside the park which sell petrified wood souvenirs. These specimens were (or were supposed to have been) collected outside the park boundaries. This is why rangers will ask about possession of petrified wood when you enter the park. Additional souvenirs may be purchased at the gift shops located near the Painted Desert Visitor Center or the Rainbow Forest Museum. Both of these areas also offer bookstores selling books of local interest.
There is a snack shop located near the Rainbow Forest Museum. The Painted Desert Visitor Center area offers a restaurant and travel store selling snacks. Additional restaurants and grocery stores can be found 30 miles west in the town of Holbrook.
The consumption of alcohol or the presence of open alcoholic containers is prohibited, except in picnic areas or concession food service facilities. Water and other beverages can be obtained either near the Rainbow Forest Museum or the Painted Desert Visitor Center.
There are no organized campgrounds within the park. Some of the souvenir shops located just outside of the park's southern entrance will allow camping or overnight parking on their properties as long as you purchase at least one item from them.
For those who wish to stay overnight in the park's wilderness area, a free permit must be obtained at least one hour before the park closes. Permits are issued from either the Painted Desert Visitor Center or Rainbow Forest Museum. Hikers must park their cars in the Painted Desert Inn parking area and use the access trail on the northwest side of the building. Backpackers must hike to a designated zone north of Lithodendron Wash before setting up camp. No campsites are maintained in the Wilderness Area, and you must carry all of your water in with you.
The primary dangers in the park are from the weather. Summer storms can bring lightning, high winds and flash floods, while the heat can cause dehydration and heat stroke. Avoid open areas during storms, and drink plenty of water (at least one gallon per day). Always be prepared for rapidly changing weather conditions; from July through August expect afternoon monsoon thunderstorms, while from October through April expect cold temperatures and possibly snow. High winds are also common, and can bring blowing sand that makes hiking unpleasant if not dangerous.