Despite its former reputation as being violent and dangerous the political situation has stabilised quite a bit. Although a few extremist paramilitary organizations are still active, this part of Ireland is much safer to visit than formerly.
Northern Ireland was created in 1921 when the British government split Ireland into two autonomous territories. It comprises six of the nine counties of Ulster (one of the four ancient Irish provinces), with the remaining three (Monaghan, Cavan and Donegal) staying in what is now the modern day Republic of Ireland. For this reason Ulster is a popular colloquial alternative name for Northern Ireland, even if it is not in the strictest sense historically accurate.
Place names and national identity
Owing to the political situation in the region, the actual nomenclature used for the region itself, and certain towns and cities is something of a sensitive issue. As a general rule, those who sympathise with the Unionist/Loyalist cause (i.e. those who wish Northern Ireland to remain part of the United Kingdom), tend to steer away away from calling the country "Ireland", or describing themselves as "Irish" - preferring the terms "Ulster" or "Northern Ireland", or "Northern Irish" or "British", to differentiate themselves from the Republic, which is commonly referred to simply as "The South".
For the Republican/Nationalist side (i.e those who wish Northern Ireland to secede from the United Kingdom and reunite with the Republic to form a single independent Ireland), the opposite is true - in formal conversation they will refer to the country as the "North of Ireland" or simply "Ireland", since the ancient province of Ulster actually includes three counties (Monaghan, Donegal and Cavan) which are still part of the Republic of Ireland.
The best example of this ambiguity however, is the city of Londonderry, which is still recognised by its pre-Union name of Derry among the Republican/Nationalist community - the most visible evidence of this being the road signs that point to the city from the Republic which still say "Derry", contrasting with those that say "Londonderry" in Northern Ireland. Some road maps tried to resolve this by referring it as "Londonderry/Derry", which gave rise to the nickname "Stroke City" among locals. ("Stroke" is one word for what, in American English, is usually called a "slash": / ) However a compromise was reached in the 1990s, whereby the city's local council was renamed "City of Derry Corporation", whilst it was still called "Londonderry" officially at national level.
Northern Ireland is home to numerous cities and towns. Below is a list of nine of the most notable. Other urban areas are listed on their specific county article.
The weather in Northern Ireland is notoriously unpredictable, and it is not uncommon to experience a full range of meteorological conditions in a single hour. As with the rest of the island of Ireland and Great Britain, the province is particularly susceptible to rain. Similarly to England, the weather is a common topic of conversation.
The population of Northern Ireland is largely made up of two groups. Although there had always been population movements between the west of Scotland and the north-east of Ireland, during the 16th and 17th centuries there was an organised settlement of people from Scotland and England known as the Ulster Plantation. Most came to work on new plantations which had been established in the area. The 'indigenous' Irish population was predominantly Roman Catholic (at a time when this was the only Western Christian religion), whilst Scottish settlers after the Reformation were predominantly Protestant.
The religious difference turned into a political split; most Protestants are Unionists or (more extreme) Loyalists, supporting continued union with Great Britain, while most Catholics are Nationalists or (more extreme) Republicans. Nationalists and Republicans both want a united Ireland, however Nationalists (politically affiliated with SDLP political party) use exclusively peaceful political means; whereas the Republican movement (politically affiliated with the Sinn Féin political party) sought violence as a means to a united Ireland. Although segregation always existed, the situation reached boiling point in 1969 when the campaign for Civil Rights turned violent when protesters were attacked by Loyalist supporters, who viewed their campaign as a front for IRA (Irish Republican Army) paramilitary activity. This was the start of the period known euphemistically as "The Troubles." In order to quell the increasing sectarian violence, particularly in Belfast and Derry, the British government deployed the Army in support of the beleaguered police (RUC). The Army were initially welcomed by the nationalist community as peace-keepers, however this was to change. In 1972, the Army fired live rounds (rather than the usual plastic baton rounds) at Nationalist protesters in Derry during a Civil Rights demonstration. This day became known as "Bloody Sunday", and remains contentious to this day.
The violence continued for nearly 30 years, with the major towns and cities of Northern Ireland subject to repeated bombings and shootings. Scores of people lost their lives, including over three hundred police officers, seven hundred soldiers and nearly two thousand civilians, with the violence occasionally spreading into both the Republic and into mainland Britain - during the Troubles there were several high profile bombings in London, and most notably in 1985 an assassination attempt on the then British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher in the English city of Brighton. The conflict essentially solidified the ethno-political divide, with increasing segregation between Catholics and Protestants. Much of this remains to this day.
In 1998, after years of sporadic negotiations between the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland and the paramilitary groups and local political parties, The Agreement was signed, signaling the end of violence in the province. This is often referred to as the Belfast Agreement or the Good Friday Agreement after the place or day on which it was signed. Although there was an almost immediate drop in the level of terrorist acts and rioting, it took several years for stability to settle on the region and for agreement to be reached concerning the devolved government. Despite the fact that the Agreement paved the way to a more viable political solution to the Troubles, a campaign of violence by dissident Republican paramilitaries (starting with the Omagh bomb in 1998) has continued.
Most people visiting have heard of the varying allegiances of Northern Ireland's people. However, to a traveller the people of Northern Ireland are friendly and warm towards visitors. You get the feeling that the people know the allegiances of each other, but to a traveller it can be hard to ascertain (at least until after the second pint of Guinness). Local people are inherently aware of the divide and may be unwilling to enter certain areas due to their own background. It is highly uncommon for someone of a Unionist background to walk along the Nationalist Falls Road, for example. Also, most towns and villages across Northern Ireland (Belfast being a notable exception) are considered to be either majority Catholic or Protestant. The continued segregation in some sections of society means that it is not uncommon for a town or village to have a population in excess of 95% coming from the same background.
Citizens can self-identify as being specifically British or Irish, Northern Irish or a mixture of both (or all three). People born in Northern Ireland to British or Irish parents are entitled to British or Irish passports (or they can have both and many do). Similar divides exist in referring to places, for example, to Nationalists, Londonderry is Derry, while to Unionists it is Londonderry.
Northern Ireland does not have any official language, although English is universally understood. You may also encounter Irish and Ulster Scots. While used in various government and public organisations, Irish and Ulster Scots are rarely seen written and even less spoken. Nearly all education in the country is in English; therefore, there is no need to learn Irish, partly due to the fact that most non-Catholic schools do not teach it. Most Northern Irish people have little knowledge of Irish or Ulster Scots.
Although Northern Ireland is a small country, accents and dialects differ considerably throughout the country and even foreigners fluent in English may find it hard to understand people with certain accents. However most Northern Irish people will slow down and speak more clearly if they think you are having a hard time understanding them.
In schools, English is taught as both a literature subject and a language subject. In most Catholic schools and some grammar schools it is normal for students to be taught Irish (although not widely used) and, therefore, certain schools have bilingual signs, etc. French, Spanish and German (sometimes Latin) are taught at secondary school level. Unfortunately for native English speakers there is often no desire for them to learn other languages therefore a lot of Northern Irish people won't be able to speak to you in your native language but will try and make their English more understandable for a foreigner.
Immigration and visa requirements
Northern Ireland is a constituent part of the United Kingdom, meaning it has exactly the same entry requirements as England, Scotland and Wales. Citizens of the UK and Crown Dependencies can travel to Northern Ireland without a passport and have the automatic right to reside and work. Once you are admitted into the UK from any other port-of-entry in England, Scotland and Wales, you can freely enter Northern Ireland within your time limit without going through passport control again.
For more information of UK Immigration and visa requirements, see the UK's Home Office website .
Northern Ireland has three commercial airports, with Belfast being the main gateway. A third airport operates in Derry.
George Best Belfast City Airport
 (airport code BHD): just 3 km (2 miles) from Belfast city centre, with magnificent views of the city of Belfast or Belfast Lough offered to passengers on approach and departure. The airport principally serves routes to domestic UK and Ireland. British Airways offers interline connections to its flights and those of the One World Alliance. Airlines using the airport include:
The terminal is served every twenty to thirty minutes from 06:00 - 22:00 by the 600 Airport bus  (£1.30 single, £2.20 return). Depending on traffic, the journey to Belfast's Laganside and Europa Buscentres should take no more than fifteen minutes. Ask at the airport information desk for a free shuttle ride to the near-by Sydenham railway station for trains towards Bangor, Belfast and Portadown. Considering the airport's proximity to the city, taxis cost less than £10 to most parts of the city and are an economical choice for small groups.
The Airporter is an hourly shuttle from Belfast's two airports to Londonderry/Derry. The journey to Belfast City Airport takes roughly a two hours.
Belfast International Airport
(airport code BFS). Locally known as Aldergrove (after the Royal Air Force base that has been there up until recently since before the commercial airport was constructed), the International Airport is further away from Belfast than the City Airport (but is close to the town of Antrim) and offers significantly more international .
The terminal is served every thirty minutes from 05:35 - 23:20 by the 300 Airport bus  (£7 single, £10 return) to Belfast Laganside and Europa Bus centre. Depending on traffic, the journey to Belfast's Laganside and Europa Buscentres takes about forty-five minutes. Taxis should cost no more than £25 - £30 to Belfast City Centre.
You can also do it a much cheaper way by taking the 109A (hourly service Monday to Saturday) ULSTERBUS service to Antrim from the stand outside the airport to Antrim Bus/Train Station (which costs £2.60 one way by bus) then once you get off the bus in Antrim, go up the steps into the adjoining Train station and buy a Ticket to Belfast Great Victoria street station. The train stops in Mossley west /Belfast Central/ Botanic /City Hospital then Great Victoria Street which is combined in one building with the Europa Bus centre.
Great Victoria street is on the same name street in Belfast and is much more "Central" than Central Station and is around the corner from city hall which is 10 mins away by foot. Check www.translink.co.uk for timetables for both Bus and rail Journeys by typing in 109A into search or click on Timetables for Ulsterbus and NI railways you will need the Londonderry/Derry-Coleraine -Ballymena-Antrim-Belfast Timetable trains are every Hour to Belfast so you might have to wait awhile at the station.
You can also use the train station at Antrim to travel to Derry/Londonderry and Ballymena/Cullybackey/Ballymoney/Coleraine/Castlerock and Bellarena and also Derry/Londonderry also you can change trains in Coleraine for Portrush as well as Coleraine University and Dhu Varren stations, always check the digital display on train will say either "Derry/Londonderry" or "Portrush" on it as its final destination trains are hourly please find link to train to timetables below
Derry/Londonderry-------> Belfast Great Victoria Street, see here.
The Airporter is an hourly shuttle from Belfast's two airports to Londonderry/Derry. The journey to Belfast International takes ninety minutes.
It is a good idea to arrive at the airport early as there are often long delays in check in and also in security which have sometimes caused people to miss their flights
City of Derry Airport
Ulsterbus operates various scheduled services to and from the airport to the main Foyle Street bus depot in the City. Services also operate to and from Limavady. For details of Ulsterbus bus services visit www.translink.co.uk. The typical fare to the city centre is £2.70 and the journey takes approximately 20-30 minutes.
Taxis are available from the airport, with the typical fares to the city centre around £12, with the journey taking roughly 15 minutes.
Despite decades of underinvestment and service cutbacks, Northern Ireland Railways  (a division of Translink, Northern Ireland's public transport operator) manages to maintain a small but increasingly reliable passenger rail network around the province, with four 'domestic' lines radiating out from Belfast.
Service is most frequent and reliable on the Portadown - Belfast - Bangor corridor, on which new trains offer frequent and fast suburban service. The line to Londonderry/Derry is exceptionally beautiful as it passes along the north coast after Coleraine, however travellers should note that the railway line is slower (two hours or more) than the equivalent Ulsterbus Goldline express coach (one hour and forty minutes). Contact NIR for information on tourist passes for exploring Northern Ireland by bus and train: with integrated bus and train stations in most major towns, the North is easily explored without a car.
The cross-border service to Dublin (with connections to other destinations in the Republic of Ireland) is offered by the Enterprise, a modern, comfortable and relatively fast train jointly operated by Northern Ireland Railways and Iarnród Éireann (who operate trains in the Republic of Ireland). The journey to Dublin takes around two hours, and there are eight trains a day, offering two classes of service.
Train Travel on a Sunday anywhere on the Northern Ireland railways network only is £9.00 on sundays This enables you to go anywhere in Northern Ireland with the same ticket and jump on and off the trains at your leisure, though all be it on a Sunday the service is reduced, so always check the Sunday timetable.
Trains in Northern Ireland now have free Wi-Fi on them, as well as the "Enterprise".
Roads link Northern Ireland with the Republic of Ireland. However, pay particular attention to road signs when driving in border areas. In some places the border, being based on county boundaries, runs along the middle of the road while in others it is possible to cross into the South and then back into the North again within several hundred metres. Fortunately, both jurisdictions drive on the left, though road signs and speed limits in the Republic are in km/h while road signs in the North are all mph.
There are currently no fixed border checks and there is complete freedom of movement between the North and Republic without a passport. Despite this however, non-UK, Irish or EU citizens must have proper travel documents (and a valid visa, if necessary) if they intend to continue further south of the border and vice versa. It is not uncommon for the Irish police (An Garda Siochána) to check passports at the border occasionally.
Ferries cross the Irish Sea from Great Britain to Larne or Belfast in Northern Ireland. All the operators listed below offer special promotions throughout the year, and some also offer through ticketing with rail and bus services at each end.
Seat61.com offers informed and independent advice on how to book combined train and ferry tickets from any railway station in Great Britain to Northern Ireland.
It is also possible to get ferries to Dublin and drive to Northern Ireland.
By sightseeing tour from Dublin
Several Dublin based tour operators such as Kennedy & Carr Travel  offer 2, 3 and 5 day tours from Dublin city to Northern Ireland, mostly including the main areas of interest along the way such as Belfast City, the Glens of Antrim (and spectacular Antrim coast in general), the (Unesco) Giant’s Causeway, the “Carrick-a-Rede” Rope Bridge and “Stroke City” (Derry / Londonderry). Typically tours depart once or twice a week, year round. Budget, mid-range and deluxe options exist, with tickets generally costing between EUR 180 at the budget end to EUR 360 at the higher end for three days. For many travellers such tours can provide the independence they want with the structure and local insight that makes for a relaxing tour (especially as the majority of overseas visitors to Northern Ireland enter the island of Ireland through Dublin Airport). Such operators also offer private hire services upon request.
If you are able to rent a car then driving around Northern Ireland is a very pleasant experience. Most drivers follow the rules of the road (except for speeding) and are quite polite towards other drivers. In some areas it is a pleasant gesture to wave at a passing car even if you do not know the person. Many of the roads on the North Coast are quite twisty but offer some beautiful scenery and there are many places to stop along the way and take in the natural beauty.
Northern Ireland's motorway system connects Belfast to Dungannon, Ballymena and Newtownabbey. All large towns and cities are well connected by road. The speed limits are:
Motorways and Dual Carriageways - 70 miles per hour (c. 112 km/h)
Other roads (outside urban areas) - 60 miles per hour (c. 96 km/h)
Urban areas (towns and cities) - 30 miles per hour (c. 48 km/h) and occasionally 40mph if signposted.
It is worth noting that many drivers constantly speed, usually 10 to 20 miles per hour above the speed limit. It is common for someone to be driving at 60 or 70 miles per hour and be overtaken by many other cars. It is no surprise then that speed traps and cameras are often quite sparse (except for in Belfast and near the border) and many drivers take this to their advantage. There have been many advertising campaigns over the years to combat the problem of speeding and drink driving ran by the Department of Environment which often include graphical adverts of the consequences of speeding and drink driving. A notorious accident blackspot in Northern Ireland is the circuit of main roads around Coleraine, Portstewart and Portrush which host the annual NorthWest 200 motorcycle road race - and as a result aggressive motorcycle riding is commonplace and the roads are heavily patrolled at most times of the year as a result.
Most main A roads are of a very good standard with many having overtaking lanes at certain points to allow you to pass slower traffic. B roads are often small country roads that are very narrow and have little (if any) road markings. Drivers must be careful on B roads when passing other traffic and may have to slow down and pull in when meeting larger traffic.
There is a comparatively high incidence of road accidents in Northern Ireland, and the province employs slightly different driving laws to the rest of the UK. One notable difference is that newly qualified drivers can be identified by 'R' plates which are displayed on the car for the first twelve months after their licence is issued. These plates are mandatory. Drivers displaying these plates are limited to 45 miles per hour (c. 72 kilometres per hour) on ALL roads, including dual carriageways and motorways. As with 'L' plates in the rest of the UK, drivers displaying 'R' plates are often the target of road rage and are not awarded a great deal of patience. Many Northern Irish people feel that R drivers are a hazard on the road when travelling at 45mph as it means other drivers are more likely to overtake in risky situations.
It is worth mentioning that Police security checkpoints are becoming very common once again. When approaching a checkpoint, dip your headlights and stop if indicated to do so. The police may want to check your licence and look in your boot (trunk). Don't worry, its all perfectly routine!
Northern Ireland is not as well served by car rental companies as is the Republic. Some Irish car rental companies offer a drop off option in Belfast while others have locations in Belfast City. Check with your car rental company if you are covered to go south of the border - it isn't always included automatically.
Car hire & motorhome hire is available from Compare and Choose  who also provide a vast amount of resources on travel.
Campervan & motorhome hire is also available from Bunk Campers  as an alternative to car hire.
By bus and train
See also Rail travel in Ireland
Translink operate the Northern Ireland public transport system.
English is spoken everywhere, although the distinctive Ulster accent can be more difficult to understand than other Irish dialects. Ulster Scots and Irish are used in some small communities. Do be aware though that the Northern Irish tend to speak quite rapidly compared to most English speakers, and have a huge arsenal of local words that are frequently dropped into conversation by speakers of all ages and groups. Expect to become acquainted with words such as 'aye' (yes), 'wee' (little), 'hallion' (person who behaves in a deliberately careless manner), 'we'un (literally 'wee one', meaning child), 'dander' (casual walk) and 'crack' (spelled in Irish Gaelic as "craic", meaning a good time/fun/a laugh, with no connotations of any controlled substances whatsoever).
Giant's Causeway- World Heritage Site and National Nature Reserve. The Giants Causeway is essentially an area of coastline and cliffs with very unusual and distinctive volcanic stone formations. The name comes from the local Legend of Fionn McCool, as it was said that the rocks were once part of a bridge (or causeway) which ended in similar rocks directly across the sea, in Scotland, but the connecting rocks were torn down by Benandonner when Fionn's wife tricked him into believing that Fionn was huge. It is an interesting site to see but come prepared for a long and intense walk. (Best to wear waterproof clothing and strong sneakers). Giant's Causeway is split up into six sections in walking order : 1. The Camel 2. The Granny 3. The Wishing Chair 4. The Chimney Tops 5. The Giant's Boot and 6. The Organ. All six parts of Giant's Causeway are different in shape and form and truly are a sight to be seen.Carrick-a-Rede Rope Bridge- The name literally means the rock in the road. Carrick-A-Rede
As with the rest of the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland uses the Pound Sterling (GBP, £).
The province's four main banks (Bank of Ireland, Northern Bank/Danske Bank, Ulster Bank and First Trust Bank) issue their own sterling banknotes which circulate alongside Bank of England and Scottish notes in Northern Ireland. Many shops do not accept £50 notes, due to the perceived fear of counterfeits.
Northern Irish banknotes are valid as legal currency in the rest of the United Kingdom, but are not legal tender, so while they can be used in shops and other businesses, people are free to reject them as payment. If you experience problems, then simply exchange them for Bank of England notes at any bank for no charge.
Northern Irish banknotes are very difficult to exchange outside the UK, where foreign banks are generally unfamiliar with the notes, so they should be either spent or exchanged for Bank of England notes before leaving the UK.
Euros are accepted at some High Street stores, as well as almost all shops in border towns such as Newry and Derry, but this should not be relied upon and the exchange rates are usually poor, so you're advised to change your money into sterling. Remember that Euros are NOT legal tender in Northern Ireland.
If you're travelling onward to the Republic of Ireland, remember that you'll need Euros.
A popular dish is the assortment of fried food, called the "Ulster Fry". It consists of eggs, bacon, sausages, potato bread and soda bread. Some versions include tomatoes, mushrooms or baked beans. Fry's are generally prepared as the name suggests: everything is fried in a pan. Traditionally lard was used, but recently due to health concerns, it has been replaced with oils such as canola and olive. Historically, it was popular with the working class.
Another popular dish is 'bangers and mash'. It is sausages and 'champ'(see below)The name comes from the fact that during World War II rationing sausages had a lot of water in them and so they exploded when they were fried.
Some shops on the north coast close to Ballycastle, sell a local delicacy called dulse. This is a certain type of seaweed, usually collected, washed and Sun-dried from the middle of Summer through to the middle of Autumn. Additionally, in August, the lamas fair is held in Ballycastle, and a traditional sweet, called "yellow man" is sold in huge quantities. As you can tell from the name, it's yellow in colour, it's also very sweet, and can get quite sticky. If you can, try to sample some yellow man, just make sure you have use of a toothbrush shortly after eating it... it'll rot your teeth!
The cuisine in Northern Ireland is similar to that in the United Kingdom as a whole, with dishes such as Fish and Chips a popular fast food choice. Local dishes such as various types of stew and potato-based foods are also very popular. 'Champ' is a local speciality consisting of creamed potatoes with spring onions ('scallions') mixed in.
It should be noted that, with the advent of the peace process and (until recently) the improvements in economic conditions for many people in Northern Ireland, there has been a great increase in the number of very good restaurants, especially in the larger towns such as Belfast and Derry. Indeed it would be difficult for a visitor to either of those cities not to find a fine-dining establishment to suit their tastes (and wallet).
There is a strong emphasis on local produce. Locally produced meats, cheeses and drinks can be found in any supermarket. For the real Northern Irish experience, sample Tayto brand cheese and onion flavoured crisps - these are nothing short of being a local icon and are available everywhere.
The legal drinking age in Northern Ireland is 18. People at and above the age of 16 will be served beer and wine with meals as long as there is a consenting adult present. In general, restaurateurs are strict about this rule, while the operators of small local pubs and bars tend to be more relaxed. Depending on their licence, bars and nightclubs stop serving alcohol at either 11PM or 1AM (midnight on Sundays, including Bank Holiday weekends), although the premises may remain open with a "dry" bar after this time. Some bars have (illegal, but widely overlooked) "lock-ins" where the doors are locked at closing time, but people can stay and drink for longer. This only takes place at the discretion of the bar owner, and such events operate on an invitation-only basis.
Northern Ireland has changed greatly in the years since the peace agreement was signed in 1998, though its troubles have not entirely ceased. There remains a high incidence of terrorist incidents in Northern Ireland, with the UK Home Office defining the current threat level as 'severe' terrorism threat levels. Tourists, however, are not the target of such terrorist incidents and therefore are highly unlikely to be affected. Visitors should be aware that there is a significant risk of disruption caused by incidents of civil unrest during the contentious 'marching season' which takes place each year over the summer months. The US State Department advises visitors to Northern Ireland to remain 'alert' during their visit and to keep themselves aware of political developments including Brexit. .
This being said, it should be remembered that most visits to Northern Ireland are trouble free and visitors are unlikely to frequent the areas that are usually affected by violence. Northern Ireland has a significantly lower crime rate than the rest of the United Kingdom, with tourists being less likely to encounter criminality in Belfast than any other UK capital.
In fact, Northern Ireland has one of the lowest crime rates among industrialized countries. According to statistics from the U.N. International Crime Victimisation Survey (ICVS 2004), Northern Ireland has one of the lowest crime rates in Europe (lower than the United States and the rest of the United Kingdom), and even during the Troubles, the murder rate was still lower than in most large American cities (though this does not take into account the vastly lower population figures). In fact, the results of the latest ICVS show that Japan is the only industrialized place safer than Northern Ireland. Almost all visitors experience a trouble-free stay.
The Police Service of Northern Ireland  (formerly the Royal Ulster Constabulary or RUC) is the police force in Northern Ireland. Unlike the Garda Síochána in the Republic, the PSNI are routinely armed with handguns and/or long arms. The police still use heavily-armoured Land Rover vehicles; do not be concerned by this, as it doesn't mean that trouble is about to break out. There is a visible police presence in Belfast and Derry, and the police are approachable and helpful. Almost all police stations in Northern Ireland are reinforced with fencing or high, blast-proof walls. It is important to remember that there is still a necessity for this type of protection and that it is a visible reminder of the province's past.
As with most places, avoid being alone at night in urban areas. In addition, avoid wearing clothes that could identify you (correctly or not) as being from one community or the other (for example Celtic or Rangers football kits). Do not express a political viewpoint (pro-Nationalist or pro-Unionist) unless you are absolutely sure you are in company that will not become hostile towards you for doing so. Even then, you should be sure that you know what you're talking about. It would even be better if you acted that either you don't know about the conflict or don't care. Avoid political gatherings where possible. Many pubs have a largely cultural and political atmosphere (such as on the Falls Road, the mostly Nationalist main road in West Belfast, and the Newtownards Roads in predominantly Unionist East Belfast), but expressing an opinion among good company, especially if you share the same view, will usually not lead to any negative consequences. People are generally more lenient on tourists if they happen to say something controversial, and most will not expect you to know much about the situation.
Traffic through many towns and cities in Northern Ireland tends to become difficult at times for at least a few days surrounding the 12th July due to the Orange Parades and some shops may close for the day or for a few hours. The parades have been known to get a bit rowdy in certain areas but have vastly improved in recent years. Additionally, the last Saturday in August is known as "Black Saturday" which is the end of the marching season. Trouble can break out without warning, though locals or Police officers will be more than happy to advise visitors on where to avoid. The Twelfth Festival in Belfast is currently being re-branded as a tourist friendly family experience and efforts are being made to enforce no-alcohol rules aimed at reducing trouble.
Pickpockets and violent crime are rare so you can generally walk around the main streets of Belfast or any other city or town without fear during the day.
When taking tours to nature spots, do be careful as well especially in the Carrick-a-Rede where the cliffs are very deep and come without fences to protect people from falling. Be careful too at the Giant's Causeway as the rocks may be slippery at times.
If you are dialling from one landline telephone in Northern Ireland to another, you do not need to add any area code. If dialling from the rest of the UK use the code (028). If dialling from elsewhere you can dial a Northern Ireland number by using the UK country code 44, followed by the Northern Ireland area code 28. If dialling from the Republic of Ireland, you can use the code (048), or you can dial internationally using the UK country code.
International phone cards are widely available in large towns and cities within Northern Ireland, and phone boxes accept payment in GBP£ and Euro.
Buying a cheap pay as you go phone is also an option which can be purchased from any of the five main phone networks, O2-UK, Orange, Vodafone, T-Mobile and Three. O2 will have the best nationwide coverage and is the most popular network choice for many people. It's worth noting that any phone that is bought in Northern Ireland uses the United Kingdoms cell network and therefore when entering the Republic of Ireland you will be subjected to the usual EU roaming charges. It's quite common for phones in Northern Ireland to switch over to Irish networks when near border areas such as in the North West near Donegal etc. This is also true the other way around, as you can travel some distance into the Republic of Ireland while still maintaining a UK phone signal. The networks available in the Republic of Ireland are O2-IE, Meteor,Three and Vodafone IE so ensure not to get confused between the UK and Irish versions of O2,Three and Vodafone (the names of the networks that operate in both countries clearly display in your handset what country they are based at). To avoid roaming charges at the border, set the network selection to manual and select your home network.
Free WiFi is available at various hotels and restaurants across the country. WiFi may also be available in various locations from unsecured networks from local businesses or pubs/clubs etc. Internet cafes are less common in Northern Ireland but there are computers for use at the libraries which you may use after registering with the library service. Broadband speeds in Northern Ireland vary from fast to non existent. In towns and cities expect the Internet to be quite speedy but the further you get out from the towns the slower the Internet may become.
The region's troubled past has created a uniquely complex situation within Northern Ireland's society. Integration (or even interaction) between the two main religious groups varies hugely depending on where you are (for example, in affluent South Belfast or Bangor, those from Catholic and Protestant backgrounds live side by side, as they have for generations, whereas in West Belfast, the two communities are separated by a wall).
If you are not British or Irish, the main thing to avoid is pontificating about the situation or taking one particular side over the other. Local people do not appreciate it and you will surely offend someone. Comments from outsiders will likely be seen as arrogant and ill-informed. This applies particularly to Americans (or others) who claim Irish ancestry and may therefore feel they have more of a right to comment on the situation (the majority of people in Northern Ireland would beg to differ). A good rule of thumb is simply to keep your opinions to yourself and avoid conversations that might be overheard.
Generally speaking, people from Northern Ireland are welcoming, friendly and well-humoured people, and they will often be curious to get to know you and ask you why you're visiting. However that does not mean that, on occasion, there are no taboos. Avoid bringing up issues like the IRA, UVF, UDA, INLA etc., or political parties, as it will not be appreciated. Other than that, there are no real dangers to causing tension among the Northern Irish people. As with virtually all cultures, don't do anything you wouldn't do at home.
Unlike in parts of Europe, there is no social taboo associated with appearing drunk in bars or public places. Though it is advisable to avoid political conversations in general, this is particularly true when alcohol is involved. People from all backgrounds congregate in Belfast city centre to enjoy its nightlife; avoiding political discussions is an unwritten rule.
Also, Northern Irish people have a habit of gently refusing gifts or gestures you may offer them, do not be offended, because they really mean that they like the gesture, also you are expected to do the same, so as not to appear slightly greedy, it is a confusing system but is not likely to get you in trouble.
Tours of Belfast often include a visit to the Peace Lines, the steel barriers that separate housing estates along sectarian lines. These are particularly visible in West Belfast. It is common for private or taxi tours to stop here and some tourists take the opportunity to write messages on the wall. It is important to remember that there is a real reason why these barriers have not been removed, and that they provide security for those living on either side of them. Messages questioning the need for these security measures, or those encouraging the residents to 'embrace peace' etc, are not appreciated by members of the community who live with the barriers on a day-to-day basis and such behaviour is generally regarded as arrogant and patronising.
The terms which refer to the two communities in Northern Ireland have changed. During the Troubles, the terms 'Republican' and 'Loyalist' were commonplace. These are seen as slightly 'extreme', probably due to the fact that they were terms used by the paramilitaries. It is more common to use the terms 'Nationalist' and 'Unionist' today; these terms are more politically neutral. 'Loyalist' and 'Republican' still refer to particular political viewpoints. Using 'Catholic' and 'Protestant' is also generally acceptable, though disliked among some who are secular. While Nationalists will generally consider themselves Irish and Unionists will consider themselves British (or alternatively, 'Ulstermen'), this is a matter self-definition and not terminology used for distinguishing communities.
It's generally advisable not to wear a football shirt of any Northern Irish club team, or of either Glasgow Old Firm side, as many have sectarian connotations.
Rugby, by contrast, is much more cross-community; support for both the all-island Irish national team and the Ulster provincial team is widespread among both communities, and wearing either's shirt will not be a problem.
A number of politically-charged names for Northern Ireland are used by some residents, the most contentious being "The Six Counties" (used by Nationalists) and "Ulster" (used by Unionists to refer only to NI). Visitors are not expected to know, or use, these or any other politically-sensitive terms, which will only be encountered if you choose to engage in political discussions.
Should it be necessary to refer to Northern Ireland as either a geographical or political entity, the term "Northern Ireland" (at least, when used by people from outside Ireland) is accepted by the vast majority of people.
If you need to refer to Ireland as a geographical whole, a reference to "the island of Ireland" has no political connotations, and will always be understood.
Referring to the Republic of Ireland as "the South" or "the Republic" will be accepted by more or less everyone. You may occasionally hear nationalists refer to it as "The Free State" or "The Twenty-Six Counties". "Southern Ireland" is rarely if ever used.
If you need to use a particular noun for Northern Ireland, 'region' is a reasonably safe bet if you don't know the political views of the person you're talking to. 'Province' or 'Country' may also be used by unionists.
Visitors might be more aware of the fact that the second city of Northern Ireland has two English-language names, "Londonderry" (official) and "Derry" (unofficial but widely used). Nationalists, and everyone in the Republic, will invariably use the name "Derry", whereas Unionists strongly prefer "Londonderry". It is wise not to question anyone's use of either name over the other, and if you are asked "Did you mean Derry" or "Did you mean Londonderry?" you should politely say yes.
It may all seem confusing, but Northern Irish people won't expect you to know or care about every detail of the situation and, as mentioned above, will openly welcome you to their country. Young people tend to be more open-minded about it all and are less politically motivated than their parents or grandparents.