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Earth : Europe : Caucasus : Azerbaijan : Nagorno-Karabakh
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Flag of nagornokarabakh.png
Quick Facts
Capital Stepanakert
Government presidential republic; illegally declared independence from Azerbaijan in 1992, but not internationally recognized
Currency Armenian dram (AMD), Nagorno-Karabakh dram
Area 11,458km²
Population 137,700 (2005 estimate)
Language Armenian
Country code +374 47
Internet TLD .nkr, .am
Time Zone UTC+4

Nagorno-Karabakh, also known as the Republic of Artsakh, is an unrecognised republic in the Caucasus. It can only be accessed through Armenia. It is internationally considered to be part of Azerbaijan.


Azerbaijani community of Nagorno-Garabagh region of Azerbaijan Republic was established in accordance with paragraph 9 of the document signed on March 24, 1992 at the first additional meeting to the CSCE Council of Ministers in Helsinki. When CSCE /OSCE Minsk Group was established Armenia and Azerbaijan were authorized as the parties to the conflict and the Azerbaijani and Armenian communities of Nagorno-Garabagh as interested parties in conflict settlement at the negotiations. In this sense, the Azerbaijani community of Nagorno-Garabagh since 1992 took part in the negotiations at different times. In addition, the Azerbaijani community of Nagorno-Garabagh registered with the Ministry of Justice in accordance with the laws of the Republic of Azerbaijan in 2006 in the form of public association. The legal status of the community and organization as a public unity allowed more efficient activities of the community. The next step towards the re-formation Azerbaijani community of Nagorno-Garabagh region of Azerbaijan Republic was Congress of the community held in June 5, 2009 in Baku. 350 people, who represent the community of more than 65 thousand members, were selected to the Congress, as well as more than 200 representatives of foreign embassies operating in Azerbaijan, international and non-governmental organizations took part in as a guest in the work of Congress. The congress adopted additions and changes to the Charter of "Azerbaijani community of Nagorno-Garabagh region" Public Union and the community's 22-member Executive Board, the Chairman of the Board, chairman of the coordination board and control-revision committee has been elected. On June 12, 2009, the first meeting of the Board of Directors of "Azerbaijani community of Nagorno-Garabagh region of Azerbaijan Republic" Public Union held and the division of responsibilities among members of the Board of Directors was done, activities of science, education and culture, inner community issues, international relations, information and public relations, legal, security and human rights units were defined, the structure of the Coordinating Council was approved. Azerbaijani President Ilham Aliyev on has signed a decree on measures to improve the material-technical supply of the activity of "Azerbaijani community of Nagorno-Garabagh region" Public Union on August 31, 2009. The order stated that the role of more than 65 thousand people of the Azerbaijani community of Nagorno-Garabagh region of Azerbaijan Republic had been increased significantly, and it was stated that the community was transformed to stronger public organizations with administrative and organizational point of view. The care and support by the head of state to Nagorno-Garabagh’s Azerbaijani community gave an impetus to the implementation of the tasks of the community and the community meet with the embassies of different countries, operating in our country, with representatives of organizations on a regular basis by expanding its activities in this direction in order to bring the truth about Garabagh to the international community, as well as in the direction of exposure of the aggressor. Thus, on July 2, 2009, the board members of the community met with the acting OSCE Chairman Mrs. Dora Bakoyannis, Greek Minister of Foreign Affairs, and on October 6 with the OSCE Minsk Group co-chairs. At the meetings held community members informed that t the status of Nagorno-Garabagh within the Republic of Azerbaijan can be determined after return of Azerbaijanis to their native lands, as well as after the establishment of equal conditions for both communities. Besides emphasizing that the return of IDP-s to their homes in Nagorno-Garabagh is the main condition for the just solution of the conflict, as well pointed out that this region was always the center of this region and it was also noted that and our people's centuries-old historical and cultural monuments, the culture of Azerbaijan were destroyed at result of the Armenia's aggression against Azerbaijan. On October 12, 2009 at meeting of the Board of the Union while considering the matter of the normalization of relations between Turkey and Armenia and the signing of protocols on the establishment of diplomatic relations it was emphasized that at the current conditions when the occupation of Azerbaijani lands continue the opening of borders between Turkey and Armenia is unacceptable and apply was addressed to people of both fraternal countries, where it was stated that opening of the borders will inspire the aggressor to continue the policy of occupation, and that it would be a great blow to the process of the just settlement of the conflict, would delay the return of Azerbaijanis to Nagorno-Garabagh and surrounding areas. On December 16, 2009, in a letter a letter to U.S. President Barack Obama on behalf of “Azerbaijani community of Nagorno-Garabagh region of Azerbaijan Republic" Public it was pointed out that while the peace talks between the presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia are underway allocation by the U.S. Congress of 8 million dollars of funds for so-called regime in Nagorno Garabagh means a support to ethnic cleansing policy and droving out of Azerbaijanis from Nagorno-Garabagh forcibly from their homeland and support the separatist regime and Armenia. In December 1, 2009 in Berlin at Brandenburg Academy of Sciences the scientific symposium on theme of "Nagorno-Garabag is the cradle of Azerbaijani culture" arranged by Azerbaijani community of Nagorno-Garabagh region of Azerbaijan Republic" Public Union and the German-Azerbaijani Forum. At the first international event held the outside of community it was stated that Armenia-Azerbaijan, Nagorno-Garabagh conflict is a serious obstacle to the development of the region, that it is a threat to sustainable peace and stability, as well as photo exhibition dedicated to cultural and historical heritage of the Nagorno-Garabagh, as well as the aggressive policy of Armenia against Azerbaijan and Garabagh carpets were displayed and once it was proved that this is a native Azerbaijani land and integral part of Azerbaijan.


  • Azokh — one of the most ancient and famous sites of the primitive man in the world
  • Stepanakert — the capital is a very small city and your likely base for exploring the region
  • Shushi — the historic capital of Karabakh and formerly one of the cultural capitals of the Caucasus; has lots to see, although the town is largely in ruins from the war and is a shell of its former self
  • Hadrut — a small southern town with several nearby 13th and 14th century monasteries
  • Martakert — administrative centre of Martakert Province with the Sarsang Reservoir
  • Martuni — a small town near the small historically important Amaras Monastery
  • Berdzor (Lachin) — the first town you pass through upon entering Karabakh

Other destinations[edit]

  • Agdam — a ghost town, formerly inhabuted by Azeri people but destroyed by the Armenia forces during the war. It's possible to drive around, but be careful not to stray from the good roads. Notable sights: the mosque (19th c.), climb one of the minarets for a good view. Along the eastern main road are some nice murals. There is one shop, mainly selling food to soldiers.
  • Vank - small town close to the monastery of Gandzasar, one of Karabakh's top attractions. Also known for a hotel in the shape of a boat with a zoo, and the wall of license plates.
  • Zuar hot springs - off the beaten track, but very populair with locals are these thermal baths in the open air. 20 km of dirt road from the Vardenis-Martakert highway.

Get in[edit]

Travel Warning
Visa Restrictions:

Azerbaijan will block passports containing stamps or visas from Nagorno-Karabakh. Note that if your passport shows any evidence of travel to the Republic of Nagorno Karabakh - which Azerbaijani authorities consider an illegal separatist entity - such as a Karabakh visa and entry stamps and with any other evidence of visiting Nagorno Karabakh, Azerbaijani consulates will deny you a visa. Even if you already have an Azerbaijan visa, you will be turned away and deported, or possibly arrested, and the visa will be revoked, if you attempt to enter the country with a Karabakh visa and entry stamp in your passport. If you do intend to visit Karabakh, the authorities there can issue the visa on a separate piece of paper at your request. Otherwise you will permanently be refused entry to Azerbaijan.

Nagorno-Karabakh regions map.png

The only country you can currently arrive in Karabakh from is Armenia (this is considered illegal entry into Azerbaijani territory by Azerbaijani authorities). The vast majority arrive by automobile via the Berdzor (Lachin) Corridor, though driving through the Karvajar (Kelbajar) pass or helicopter are alternatives.


Nationals of Abkhazia, Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, South Ossetia, Tajikistan, Transnistria, Ukraine and Uzbekistan do not require a visa.

For all other nationals, single 21-day tourist visas, and single and multiple visas valid for up to one, two or three months are available in Yerevan. Visas can be obtained at the PERMANENT REPRESENTATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF ARTSAKH in Yerevan (17 Nairi Zaryan Street). You can take the metro to Barekamutyun Station (the northside terminus), then take a minibus along Zaryan Street to reach there. The office opens from 10:00. You may need a photo and pay 3,000 dram visa fee. The visa can be issued before 16:00 on the same day. A register card will be issued at the same time. Always keep this paper with you, request a stamp on the backside from your hotel (it's better but not necessary), and it will be collected at the border when you leave.

By plane[edit]

Nagorno Karabakh Airport

The sole civilian airport in Stepanakert, Nagorno Karabakh was recently renovated, after it was left damaged & nonfunctional since the Nagorno Karabakh War in 1991. The renovation was mostly complete by 2011 and plans for flights between Armenia's capital Yerevan & Stepanakert on a newly-created state carrier Artsakh Air were announced. However, a war of words between Armenia & Azerbaijan ensued. Since the airport is officially in Azerbaijani territory, under international law the flights would need Azerbaijan's approval (which, of course, they won't allow). Both sides indicated that the dispute should be resolved before flights begin and, as of July 2012, the airport has yet to see a commercial flight land or take off there.

By train[edit]

Currently there is no working train line between Yerevan and Stepanakert.

By car[edit]

If you're lucky, you may be able to convince a taxi driver to drive you to Stepanakert. Otherwise, many taxi drivers in Stepanakert might be willing to drive you back to Yerevan. If you're with a few friends, you can organise travel for around USD80-100. The embassy in Yerevan offers drivers to take you there to some of the biggest attractions and back. This costs around USD100-150 per person. The northern highway through the Sotk pass has now a newpaved road (october 2016) which makes this a good alternative from the southern route. It is good if you want to stop by The Sevan Lake, and there is a very scenic road with high mountains and deep valleys.

By bus[edit]

  • There is one daily bus from Yerevan to Stepanakert, which is relatively cheap, but takes forever (or at least it seems so). There are also many tour companies or agencies, which provide guided tours to Nagorno-Karabakh (Artsakh in Armenian). You can also rent a minivan to drive you and your friends to the capital Stepanakert.
  • 2 or 3 marshrutkas run from Yerevan central bus station to Stepanakert every morning (6-7 hours).
  • 2 marshrutkas from Goris to Stepanakert, leaving from the highway at 10:00 (or 10:30) and 14:30. 2,5 hours, 95km. 2000dram.
  • 1 marshrutka from Vardenis.

Get around[edit]

One way to see much of Karabakh is simply to walk from one end to the other on the Janapar. There is a marked trail which is broken up into day hikes which extend for 2 weeks of hiking. There are side trails and alternative routes as well. Trails take you to ancient monasteries and fortresses, through forests and valleys, to hot springs and villages. Each night you can either stay with a village family or camp out.

All cities are small and fairly safe, so it is best to walk around the few cities in NKR. Not only will you save a little money, but you will get a good sense of the region and its people.

If you plan to travel to Karabakh from Yerevan, there are several car rental agencies that provide cars that also can be driven into NKR - given that you are comfortable with the rather crazy Armenian traffic.

Taxis are available in most cities, with a new North-South road across the NKR making for a smooth and quicker (than you'd expect) ride across the region. These cost about 120 drams/km within a town, or AMD150/km if you take the cab out of town.

Marshrutkas are available, but they may not run as often as in Armenia. There is no train or rail service. A recently restored airport for Stepanakert-Yerevan flights is yet to enter service.

If your Armenian or Russian is good, you may be able to hitch a ride for less than a taxi (although don't pay too much less, as these are certainly not affluent people), and you could very easily be invited for dinner with them (in which you should have some gift, especially wine, coffee, or chocolates, and do NOT offer money) as the people of NKR are doing this out of hospitality.


Armenian is the official language, and Russian is also widely used. Karabakh Armenians speak a dialect of Eastern Armenian that differs slightly from Armenian mainly because of the inclusion of many Russian words. A good number of the Population speaks Azeri but it is never heard and becoming forgotten.

Very few people speak English, so it is wise to travel to Karabakh with a guide or translator from Armenia.

See[edit][add listing]

Gandzasar Monastery
tatik u papik monument near stepanakert
A Memorial in Shushi
  • Gandzasar Monastery
  • Dadivank Monastery
  • Gtichavank Monastery
  • Amaras Monastery
  • Shushi City Walls
  • Askeran Fortress
  • Tzitzernavank Monastery
  • Agdam. Abandoned ghost-city, close to the border with Azerbaijan. free.  edit

Buy[edit][add listing]

There are several Tourist/Souvenir Stores within Stepanakert. A great idea is to buy a Rug made in Karabakh, they are known for their Ancient rugs, it is said that many people in the region and bordering countries learnt rug making from the Ancient Armenian of Karakagh.


Nagorno-Karabakh ATM map The official currency of Nagorno-Karabakh Republic is the "dram" (AMD). The dram is accepted everywhere,and it is the only legal currency for commerce. Dollars, euros and rubles can be exchanged almost anywhere in the country, with other major currencies also easy to exchange. Exchange booths do not charge a commission and rates are almost always quite competitive. ATMs (Bankomats) are widely available in larger towns: Stepanakert, Shusha, Asgeran, Hadrut, Martakert, etc.

Exchange rates[edit]

Armenian dram rates Exchange rates (approximate): €1 = AMD551, USD1 = AMD485, GBP1 = AMD620, RUB1 = AMD7.34

Eat[edit][add listing]

  • Zhingalov Khats — a bread that has greens baked into it, a local specialty.
  • Tutti Chamich — mulberry raisins, available at the market (shuka)

Many Mulberry trees are to be found, but ensure you are eating only ripe fruit (dark red) and not unripe fruit (whitish), as unripe fruit as well as the green portions of the tree contain a white sap which is intoxicating and mildly hallucinogenic.

Drink[edit][add listing]

Tutti Oghi — Mulberry Vodka, which Karabakh is famous for, often reaching 80% alcohol, and with a distinct taste.

Sleep[edit][add listing]

Stepanakert has some up-market hotels charging 20.000-30.000 dram a room (€35-55). Some small guesthouses can be found on Airbnb. does not recognise Artsakh and will not display accomodations.

In the rest of the country, there are not that many hotels. In Drmbon, right next to the intersection of the Martakert- and Stepanakert highway, the local shop/café has one room with 2 beds available for 3000 dram per person.


Limitless volunteer work for the willing. Incredibly low cost of living. The government will gladly give most people land as long as they are willing to farm and tend to it.

Stay safe[edit]

Travel Warning WARNING: Don't venture east of the Mardakert-Martuni highway, where the ceasefire line in the inactive war with Azerbaijan is located.
Otherwise, it is very safe to travel around and interact with people. When you first arrive in Karabakh, you must go to what is called the "MID", the Stepanakert foreign affairs office, to get your travel papers. This will prevent any confusion if one gets pulled over or stopped by local authorities.

If you are planning to hike, be in rural areas, or stay on the outskirts of cities note that the area is inhabited by bears and wolves. While they will not attack if unprovoked, practice bear safety and walk away slowly if unexpectedly approached. If you are planning to hike, the Janapar trail has been broken into day-long hikes and it is best to take advantage of the homestays offered rather than to camp alongside the trails. If you do camp, make sure to keep your food high in a tree and a few dozen meters (a hundred feet or so) from your tent and do not simply sleep on the ground or in a sleeping bag...sleep inside a tent.

While the region is fairly safe in terms of crime, you must not lose your passport. There are no foreign embassies in the NKR, and you may have a hard time entering Armenia without a passport or visa. The US embassy in Baku says that "because of the existing state of hostilities, consular services are not available to Americans in Nagorno-Karabakh." It would be safe to assume that this applies to all other nationalities and their embassies in Baku.

While entering NKR through the Northern route (through the Sotk pass), one traveller was intimidated by unmarked men, pretending to be para-military, who explicitly told him that sleeping there in a tent was not welcome. They were making phonecalls somewhere, explaining over it who the traveller was, and failing to explain who they were themselves. This happened near the tank monument close to Knaravan village. He was told NOT to stray off the main road.

Stay healthy[edit]

Drink bottled water if you are not accustomed to the local water. However if you are hiking, drinking water in mountain streams and ponds in reasonably safe, as long as you are sure it is not downstream from a large town (in which case it is likely contaminated with chemicals, street runoff, and/or waste.

Remember that this is a rural region, and in the event of a medical emergency the hospitals in NKR are no more than a modest clinic. The nearest major hospital is in Yerevan, a long distance in the event of a heart attack or complications with any medical problems you may have. It is best to have with you a small first aid kit with bandaids, bandages, anti-biotic cream, ibuprofen, and any other medicine you may need.


The people of NKR are very friendly and inviting, and if your Armenian or Russian is good enough, you will easily meet people who will invite you to their house for dinner (and some will even harass you until you accept). Unlike many parts of the world, you should not worry about your safety, no matter how much they harass you, and accept their invitation. Even though these people do not have much and, like many persons in developing countries, view westerners as rich, they will vehemently refuse any type of money given to them (although you may find luck saying it is "for the children"). However, do not show up empty-handed! You will be expected to bring some sort of gift, with food (wine, chocolates, coffee, etc) being best. You should also bring something to show/give them from your home country (postcard, book, photos, etc) to have a conversation or at least get their interest. You never know, they may likely have family in another place and what you thought was just dinner could turn into inviting you to other family's businesses (discounts), homes (to stay the night), or another meal.

The wiki on the Janapar trail recommends no trace camping and if you bathe, make sure no locals are around (it may be offensive). Just as stated above, you will receive offers of food and rest. Have gifts for such people, but do not offer money.

Avoid discussing Azerbaijan, because due to the frozen but still ongoing very bitter conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh, it is an extremely sensitive subject.


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