The capital of Moldova is Chișinău. The local language is Romanian, based on the Latin alphabet, but Russian is widely used. Moldova is a multi-ethnic republic that has suffered from violent ethnic conflict. In 1990 the self-proclaimed Pridnestrovie Republic in eastern Moldova declared independence and a civil war was fought during the first half of 1992. A ceasefire was declared and Pridnestrovie has maintained de facto independence with its own government and currency but is not recognized by any other country. Economic links have been re-established between these two parts of Moldova despite failure in political negotiations. The major religion in Moldova is Orthodox Christian.
Moldova's population is occupied mainly in food production and processing. Once known as "the garden" of the Soviet Union, Moldova has now lost most of its traditional Russian markets for agricultural products, that, coupled with a general decline in agriculture and the country's economy as a whole, made it the poorest country in Europe (data for 2020).
Continental cold and snowy winters, mild springs and autumns, and warm to hot summers.
Moldova is essentially landlocked with rolling steppes gradually sloping south towards the Black Sea. It is well endowed with various sedimentary rocks and minerals including sand, gravel, gypsum, and limestone. The lowest point is the Dniester River at 2m (6') above mean sea level, while the highest point of Dealul Balanesti is only 430m (1410').
Although independent from the Soviet Union since 27 August 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Dniester (Romanian: Nistru) River supporting the Slavic population, mostly Ukrainians and Russians, who have proclaimed a Pridnestrovian republic.
Nationals of all European Union and CIS member states, plus Albania, Andorra, Australia, the Bahamas, Barbados, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Georgia, Hong Kong, Iceland, Israel, Japan, Liechtenstein, Macau, Macedonia, Malaysia, Monaco, Montenegro, New Zealand, Norway, San Marino, Serbia, Seychelles, Singapore, South Korea, Switzerland, Turkey, the United States, Venezuela and the Vatican, in addition to stateless persons and refugees residing in those countries may enter Moldova visa-free for up to 90 days. Citizens of the European Union, Liechtenstein, Monaco, San Marino, Switzerland and Turkey can enter Moldova using a national ID card in lieu of a passport.
Nationals of other countries must obtain an electronic visa at http://www.evisa.gov.md/VisaFile/Inregistrare, or, for stays longer than 90 days, at the nearest Moldovan embassy. Visas are not issued on arrival.
Foreign nationals who require visas, with the exception of Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Brunei, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mauritius, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Uruguay and Venezuela, will be required to provide an invitation letter in order to obtain a visa.
Further information can be found online.
If you are coming into Moldova via Ukraine, be aware you may be crossing Pridnestrovie which maintains its own checkpoints. Some buses from Odessa go through Tiraspol, while others go around spending more time on the road. There are now few issues for Westerners in crossing Pridnestrovie by bus, although foreign travellers have experienced problems in the past. There is, however, a small chance that foreign tourists may be asked to pay bribes, although the buses which travel between Ukraine, Pridnestrovie and the rest of Moldova usually handle negotiations well, collecting passports and negotiating with Pridnestrovian authorities. Also, there is no Moldovan border check between Pridnestrovie and the rest of Moldova, so you might have some explaining to do when you try to leave Moldova without an entrance stamp. Recently travellers, whom cross in to Moldova via Pridnestrovie are required to obtain a entry stamp within 3 days of arrival, otherwise a fine may be payable. The entry stamp can be collected at Chișinău airport.
Busiest air connections exist to Bucharest, Istanbul, Moscow, Munich, Timisoara, and Vienna. Prices are relatively high. The cheapest tickets can be bought to Bucharest, Istanbul, Kiev and Moscow. Low-cost airline Wizz Air operates flights to Rome, Milan, Venice, Bologna and London Luton. It is also possible to get relatively cheap tickets from Munich with Lufthansa/Air Moldova.
Much cheaper than flying, but about twice the cost of the bus (but arguably more comfortable) the overnight train may be considered a valid option. There are daily trains from Romania and Ukraine. The train from Bucharest is about USD40. At the border crossing the cars (carriages) are lifted individually onto larger gauge wheels to fit Moldovan tracks. Crossing the border from Ukraine is smoother, the track width is the same as Moldovan tracks.
You will have to pay a small (€4 for 7 days) road tax (vignette) at the border.
Headlights are required at all times -- but this isn't consistently enforced.
There are regular buses connecting Chișinău with Bucharest, Kiev and most major Romanian and Ukrainian cities. There are 5 to 6 buses per day to and from Bucharest. Due to a longer stay at the border the trip takes around 10 hours. Be aware that there is a basic toilet at the border, however most coaches neither make any other stops nor have toilet facilities. You will also be able to travel to most European cities by bus with Moldovan bus companies.
Kiev, 2 daily, 250 lei, 12 hours
Moscow, 4 daily, 700 lei, 30 hours
Odessa, 20 daily, 120-150 lei, 5 hours
Sevastopol, daily 430 lei, 18 hours
Brasov, 5 daily 200 lei, 12 hours
Although the country is landlocked, there is a ferry service between Giurgiulesti in Moldova and Istanbul, Turkey, plying the river Danube to reach the Black Sea. They leave Giurgiulesti every Monday and arrive at Istanbul the following Wednesday.
The most reliable and extensive domestic transport is bus - you will get to most parts of the country.
Chisinau is the main transportation hub for the country. The three bus stations serve every city and town in Moldova. The fastest form of transport are small minibuses which seat around 15 people. Larger buses are also used and are marginally safer, because they travel at slower speeds.
In Chișinău there is a state run trolleybus system which includes many new vehicles. There is also a 'bus service which operates with fewer routes. Fare for both is currently 2 lei, a conductor collects fares and issues tickets.
Minibuses (rutierele in Romanian; marshrutki in Russian) are available in most cities. They are privately operated and are called by requesting the vehicle to stop, however can often be very crowded. Drivers should be paid on boarding (currently 3 lei in Chișinău), however some insist on sitting down first and by passing the money to the person in front of them to pass to the driver, so don't be alarmed if random people behind you start handing you money.
On buses, minibuses and trolleybuses be prepared to stand, sometimes crushed up against other people, at busy times.
Trolleybuses stop at every stop. Buses and minibuses will only stop if asked or flagged down.
Trains are cheap but infrequent - often only one a day each way - and serve only a handful of places
If you rent a car make SURE that you get the insurance. Off the main roadways, the surface can be nice one mile and then falling apart the next mile. There also seemed to be a high number of one car accidents. This could be from poor maintenance or the fact that some Moldova people drink in large quantity. Not to say that the drivers are not nice people. But if you are in a small accident (fender bender) expect the driver to say 'scuze' (sorry), no matter who may be at fault, and drive off.
The state language of Moldova is Romanian, which was officially referred to as Moldovan until December 2013. Russian is also widely spoken in the country, both as a first and second language. Ukrainian and Gagauz are recognized minority languages, with official status in areas with high concentration of speaker populations. French, and to a lesser extent English, are popular foreign languages taught at most schools in Moldova.
It is difficult to find someone that can communicate in English/French even within Chisinau. But outside of the capital, in many rural areas, no one will speak English/French nor can even communicate with small words or phrases. So it is very important to have some written phrases, at least in Romanian, to communicate with people. Words or phrases such as; Hotel/Inn, toilet, food, main road, bank machine, price...... Do not rely on the internet to help. Most rural areas have no internet service so it is important to have phrases written down in advance. People are eager to help but may not understand you which causes frustration on both parties.
There are several museums in downtown Chisinau, including the museum of Archeology and Ethnography, the museum of Natural History, and the National Museum of Fine Arts.
Moldova is famous for its wines. With top rate wines at inexpensive prices relative to other countries, it is Moldova’s main tourism draw.
Milestii Mici - With over 200km (125 miles) of underground roadways, Milestii Mici is registered in the Guinness World Records as the biggest wine collection in the world. It may be easer to book a tour through a travel agency as one must provide a car for the tour.  +373 22 382 333.
Cricova - Moldova’s second largest wine cellar has over 120km (75 miles) of underground roadways. Only a 15 minutes drive from Chisinau, it is a favorite of tourists. +373 22-277 378.
Purcari - One of the oldest wineries in Moldova, Purcari wine has been drunk by Russian Emperor Nicolai II, the English King George V and Queen Victoria. It is especially famous for Negru de Purcari. +373 22 29 59 11.
Capriana monastery - One of Moldova’s most prominent monasteries only 40km (25 miles) from Chisinau. Buses run hourly in the morning from Calea Ieşilor in the Sculeni part of Chişinău.
Bender (or Tighina in Romanian) - Another fortification is The Fortress of Bender, however it is being used as a military training ground and is off limits. The best views are from the bridge going towards Tiraspol.
Orheiul Vechi - Moldova's best known sight is a 13th century Cave Monastery located about a half hour drive from Chisinau. Just up the road is a tourist centre with a small museum, restaurant and hotel. Call ahead to make sure it's open at +373 235 34 242. One public bus leaves from the Chisinau central bus station everyday at 10.20am, but the return bus does not come until 4am. In the vicinity are huge cliffs that contain another six complexes of interlocking caves. It is highly advised to not explore them without the help of an experienced guide. The remains of a Turkish bath house is also just off the river.
Saharna monastery - over an hour by minibus north of Chisinau, but worth visiting, especially in hot weather when the cool wooded gorge and waterfall are very pleasant. A nice location, attractive monastery buildings, small caves in a cliff-face where monks once lived, a pool of 'holy water' in the woods, a lovely walk up a narrow wooded valley with a waterfall at the end.
Tipova- There're monasteries in rock and stunning cliffs, you can also see some waterfalls among the rocks. The place is located about 2 hours from Balti.
Moldova’s rolling hills and picturesque landscape, with woodlands, vineyards, villages, and farms, are ideal for biking. Visit monasteries, wineries, and nature reserves.
Additionally, each year in September, Chisinau organizes a Velo Hora – a massive public bike ride. The ride starts at the Great National Assembly Square Streets and then proceeds around the city on closed off streets. The event attracts thousands of people who come out to cycle through the city and enjoy the sights and sounds of Chisinau. For information visit the website – www.velohora.md.
Moldova has several caves that are possible to explore – the “Cave of Surprises” near Criuleni, about 50 km (30 miles) from Chisinau, and the Emil Racovita Cave near Criva village, about 265 km (165 miles) from Chisinau in the Briceni district. Visitors are advised to bring their own gear. Hiking:
Moldova’s rolling hills and picturesque landscape, with woodlands, vineyards, villages, and farms, are great for hiking. Hike to Moldova’s highest point (428 metres, 1404' above sea level). Climb among the “100 Hills”. Visit waterfalls, forests, monasteries, and more.
Horseback riding is possible at the Sparta Equestrian Club in Budesti village just outside of Chisinau. For information visit the website – www.sparta-club.md – or call (+373) (0)79 254 684.
It is also possible at the At-Prolin horse farm in Ceadir-Lunga, Gagauzia. The farm breeds Orlov Trotter horses. Every year on May 6, the farm celebrates the Hederlez holiday honoring Saint George with competitions and games. For information contact Constantin Keles at (+373) (0)68 105 777.
Kayaking is possible on the Nistru River where you can enjoy the sights and sounds of nature on this peacefully flowing river. Natural beaches and islands create opportunities to rest or play along the way. For those who are interested in active time spending more information you can find here: www.facebook.com/outdoormoldova or direct number (+373) (0)797 40 980. Kayak tours are organised almost every week.
Skydiving is possible from the Vadul lui Voda airport or airstrip. Visitors can schedule single or tandem jumps through the Moldovan skydivers’ club for most weekends (weather permitting). For information visit the website – www.skydive.md – or call Anatolie at (+373) (0)69 176 566.
Local wine is of superb quality and cheap in comparison to other countries, but for political reasons, mostly unknown in Western Europe.
Chisinau is a good place for gourmands. There are a lot of good places to eat all over Chisinau.
Cheap, tasty food that is very popular with the locals is served in most places. For better service and more diverse food, there are a lot of small restaurants and cafés. Good restaurants have prices comparable to those elsewhere in Europe. For a quick lunch, fast food and pizza shops are recommended; these can be found at nearly every corner. For groceries, there are small shops all over. Some are even right in front of apartment blocks just a few steps away from the entrances. For harder-to-find items, go to the supermarkets. For fresh fruits and vegetables, markets are a great place to shop. Most of the products are local, but there are a lot of sellers who to sell imported stuff, mostly oranges, bananas and other tropical fruits/vegetables. Meat and meat products are best purchased from supermarkets or shops. The quality is much better than from the market, and the prices aren't much higher.
The drinking age in Moldova is 18.
Moldova has a long local wines tradition. Especially the reds are popular throughout the country. Most Moldovan villagers grow their own grapes and press their own wine, and many standard rural households will press thousands of litres per year.
Accommodations in Chisinau are surprisingly expensive and there is no shortage of €100 a night options. Most hotel prices are listed in euros but some are listed in dollars.
Central Youth Hostel, Retro Moldova Hostel and Funky Mamaliga Hostel. Prices range from $10-20.
Many people in Chisinau rent out apartments. The location and quality can vary. Many are also not very modern. It is advised to use a booking company as it may be hard to find people who speak English. Price $20-50.
Budget options are few and very basic. $30-50. Hotel Chisinau is close to the city centre, has English-speaking receptionists, and nice but basic rooms for 25 Euros upward
For a city of Chisinau's size there are unexpectedly few options in this range. The most known is the Best Western Plus Flowers Hotel. $80-120.
Chisinau has a plethora of hotels to splurge on, the most famous is the Leogrand Hotel and Convention Center. $150-300.
Most larger hotels in larger cities will take a credit card. However outside the larger cities it is cash on the hand. So have enough leu to cover cost of the stay. A few hotels will take Euros but to be safe bring enough of the local currency.
Accommodation outside Chisinau is concentrated around major touristic regions like Orhei Vechi, Saharna and Tipova. Small family-owned inns are locally known as “touristic pensions”. Most are priced lower than hotels and offer accommodation, meals and activities. A few of the better known places are Agropensiunea Butuceni and Vila Roz near Orhei Vechi; Hanul lui Hanganu near Tipova and Saharna. USD30-50
Taxis from the airport may charge more than originally expected. Trolleybus no. 30 goes to the centre of town and costs only 2 lei.
Alcohol consumption can be a problem. Moldova's per capita alcohol consumption rate is among of the world's largest. Running into drunks especially at night is common. Most are friendly; but they often come off as aggressive and will invade your personal space. This can be scary the first couple of times. Politely walking away normally works.
Conservative dress must be worn at religious sites. Shorts are forbidden and women must cover their heads inside the monasteries and churches.
Travellers are required to have their passports on them at all times.
While bribery and police corruption are still problems in Moldova, the situation is improving. It is advised that tourists have the number of their embassy and the contact information of where they are staying.
Be aware of the potential risk of scam, above all if first contacts were made on Internet - for example International Financial Scams and visa/tickets internet dating schemes.
Pridnestrovie has proclaimed itself a republic but lacks diplomatic recognition. Consequently, travellers lack consular support in case of emergency. Corrupt policemen may give you trouble, and may give excuses such as not having a 'visa'.
If you do visit Pridnestrovie, as a foreign citizen, you should register with the Militia upon arrival. It can become difficult trying to leave if you have not done this. Give your name to the representative of your country in Chisinau and tell them what date you travel to and from Pridnestrovie. It is wise to get a local guide to show you around. You'll find the population very friendly and helpful, especially in rural areas where tourists are rare.
The heavy use of agricultural chemicals, including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and groundwater. If you are concerned, water for drinking, cooking and oral hygiene should be taken from a known safe source, as ordinary water treatment, including boiling, does not remove such chemical contamination.
When visiting Moldova, be careful when referring to the locals as Romanians as not all Moldovans identify themselves as such. Study your host first: some Moldovans identify as Moldovan, some as Romanian, and some even as Russian. This also applies to the language issue as well, although the larger part of Moldovans do refer to it as Romanian in everyday speech.
Also be careful when talking about Moldova to the Romanians in Romania. Many Romanians view Moldova as Romanian. See Romania#Respect