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Marmara (region)

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Marmara is a region in northwestern Turkey. It is Turkey's bridge and connection to Europe. Turkey's largest city, Istanbul is the region's unofficial capital.


Ottoman bridge spanning Maritsa River in Edirne
  • Eastern Marmara — where Ottoman Empire started 700 years ago, featuring historical towns with whitewashed architecture amidst woods and lakes
  • Eastern Thrace (European Turkey) — most Balkan part of the country, both geographically and culturally
  • Istanbul Province — world-class metropolis Istanbul and its environs
  • Southern Marmara — from former Ottoman capital Bursa in the east to Aegean coast dotted with Roman temples in the west


  • Balikesir — an inland city with rail links to Izmir
  • Bursa — former Ottoman capital featuring lots of early imperial history, now one of the biggest cities of the country
  • Çanakkale — city on the banks of Dardanelles Strait near the Aegean, hub for visiting Gallipoli, Troy, and Bozcaada
  • Edirne — another former Ottoman capital with lots of history to see, first Turkish city when approaching from west
  • Istanbul — metropolis connecting Europe and Asia, capital of three empires
  • Izmit — industrial city east of Istanbul
  • Iznik (Nicaea) — historical town on the coast of Lake İznik which is the site of the first and seventh ecumenical councils of Christianity
  • Tekirdağ — city on the northern coast of Marmara, famous for its local meatballs and raki, and where Hungarian prince Rakoczi was exiled
  • Yalova — city south of Istanbul across the Gulf of Izmit, surrounded by verdant mountains dotted with thermal springs and waterfalls

Other destinations[edit]

  • Gallipoli — site of WWI memorials and 1915 ANZAC landing
  • Troy — ruins of what was the legendary Trojan War was fought for
  • Mt. Uludağ (~2,550 mt) near Bursa is a national park and the main wintersports resort of Turkey.


  • Bozcaada — small island with pleasant architecture, streetscape, and a citadel
  • Gokceada — deserted Greek villages on a mountainous island
  • Marmara Islands — archipelago in the middle of the Sea of Marmara
    • Avsa — sea&sun island frequented by mid-class families
  • Princes’ Islands — a getaway from crowded Istanbul featuring pine-covered islands with elegant mansions


This region gets its name from the sea it surrounds: the Sea of Marmara, connected to Aegean Sea via Dardanelles, and to Black Sea via Bosporus. The Sea of Marmara is considered as the geographical border between Europe and Asia: northern coasts of it are in Europe, while southern/eastern coasts are in Asia. In addition to the Sea of Marmara, the region has coastlines on Black Sea to northeast and Aegean Sea to southwest.

The northwestern/European part of the region is one of few wide lowlands in the country, with the occasional gently sloping hill, except southwestern and northeastern coasts which are dominated by hilly areas. South and east parts of the region is more mountainous, or hilly at least. While Marmara Region is second smallest Turkish region in size (with only Southeastern Anatolia being smaller), it is actually only a bit smaller than Ireland or Netherlands and Belgium combined.

This region is Turkey’s most populous and most heavily industrialized part, though you can still find primordial forests hardly seen by human eyes here and there.

Travellers often overlook Marmara Region except for Istanbul and a few sites in southwest and southeast of the region, but there is not really a reason why they should—in addition to quite friendly and open locals, fairly good transportation links throughout and temperate climate which make travelling in the region a breeze, you will certainly find something to catch your glimpse in any part of this region, where empires have made their debut and have seen their fall, and where dense urban areas and farmlands interact with untouched wilderness beautifully.


While being not a very large region, Marmara Region has a variety of different climate types that lie close to but are substantially different from each other. Inland areas have temperate continental climate that is similar to that found in inland regions of Balkans, while milder climate of places on the Black Sea coast resembles more of an oceanic climate, typical to other areas of Turkish Black Sea coast. Climate of areas on Marmara and Aegean coasts is similar to the Mediterranean climate, though strong winds carry continental influences easily down to coast, making it much colder than it might be, considering its fairly southern latitude.

In general, no matter where you are heading in the region, consider these facts when planning your trip:

  • It can rain in any season, including summer, but summer showers tend to last no more than 15–20 minutes, no matter how heavy they may be (and they tend to be heavy). Other than sudden cloud formations before showers, it tend to be sunny throughout the summer, though.
  • Haze and (sometimes very heavy) fog is common in autumn, especially in November.
  • Winters are cloudy, mostly rainy (or perhaps, sleety), cold and windy in the region—it's no wonder that ancient Greeks considered Thrace to be the homeland of Boreaus, the god of cold northern winds. While the temperature usually does not drop below -10°C (although there is a record low of -24°C in 1940s infamous for their cold), it feels much colder than it actually is, due to the high-ish relative humidity in the region. It snows every winter, too, and it stays on the ground for at least a few days—more in inland locations than the coast, as expected.


While it is possible to come upon a village founded by immigrants from Balkans in early 1900s where old people speak Pomak dialect of Bulgarian or some other Balkan language in the region, Turkish is by far the most common and the most useful language in the region, as is in most of Turkey.

Get in[edit]

By air[edit]

Atatürk International Airport (IST) in western Istanbul is the main gateway for the city, the region, and the country as well. The other international airport in the region is Sabiha Gökçen (SAW), situated in eastern Istanbul, largely prefered by low-cost airlines. Corlu Airport (TEQ) is used by airlines flying from ex-USSR countries. Other airports in the region are located in Bursa and Çanakkale.

By train[edit]

There are trains to

By bus[edit]

All cities and many towns in Turkey has direct daily bus services to Istanbul. Many cities neighbouring Balkan countries also has bus links to the city. Bursa, by virtue of being a big city, is also served from a large number of cities and towns throughout Turkey.

By car[edit]

Marmara Region is well linked to neighbouring regions and countries by a motorway and highway network.

By boat[edit]

There is a weekly ferry service to Istanbul from Izmir during summer months.

Get around[edit]

By air[edit]

While there are more than one airport in the region, given the region's relative small size and the relative short distance between the airports make transportation by plane practically impossible. The only feasible (and, operating) air service totally within the region is between Istanbul and Çanakkale.

By bus[edit]

There is an extensive bus network between towns and cities of the region, and any town with a considerable population (say, >10,000), has a direct bus service to Istanbul.

By train[edit]

As in the rest of Turkey, the rail network in the region consists of linear lines rather than a spider web-like system. The lines with passenger services are between Istanbul and Edirne (via Corlu and a number of other towns on the way), continuing on to Bulgaria and Greece; Istanbul and Bozüyük (via Izmit, Adapazarı, Osmaneli, Bilecik, and a number of other towns on the way), continuing on to Eskişehir/Ankara in Central Anatolia; and between Bandirma and Balikesir, continuing on to Aegean Region.

By boat[edit]

There is an extensive network of ferry and fast ferry lines connecting northern and southern coast of the Sea of Marmara, cutting travel time dramatically. Most fast ferry lines fan out of Istanbul towards towns and cities on the southern coast, while conventional ferries can be found between almost any town on the northern and southern coasts (such as Tekirdağ-Gemlik line, which traverses almost the whole sea northwest to southeast).

See[edit][add listing]

Being the location which both Byzantine and Ottoman Empires centred around, Marmara Region has quite a lot of imperial monuments from each. While Byzantine monuments are mostly in Istanbul with a number of intact artifacts in historically important, but nowadays provincial towns such as İznik and Vize. Ottoman monuments, on the other hand, while can be found almost anywhere in the region, are best seen in Bursa, Edirne, and Istanbul—the three consecutive capitals of the empire.


Do[edit][add listing]

Eat[edit][add listing]

Drink[edit][add listing]

Stay safe[edit]

Get out[edit]

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