West (peninsular) Malaysia shares a border with Thailand, is connected by a causeway and a bridge (the 'second link') to the island state of Singapore, and has coastlines on the South China Sea and the Straits of Malacca.
Malaysia is a mix of the modern world and a developing nation. With its investment in the high technology industries and moderate oil wealth, it has become one of the richer nations in Southeast Asia. Malaysia, for most visitors, presents a happy mix: there is high-tech infrastructure and things generally work well and more or less on schedule, but prices remain more reasonable than, say, Singapore.
Before the rise of the European colonial powers, the Malay peninsula and the Malay archipelago were home to empires such as the Srivijaya, the Majapahit (both ruled from Indonesia, but also controlling parts of Malaysia) and the Melaka Sultanate. The Srivijaya and Majapahit empires saw the spread of Hinduism to the region, and to this day, many Hindu legends and traditions survive in traditional Malay culture.
This was to change in the 16th century when the Portuguese established the first European colony in Southeast Asia by defeating the Melaka Sultanate. The Portuguese subsequently then lost Malacca to the Dutch. The British also established their first colony on the Malay peninsula in Penang in 1786, when it was ceded by the Sultan of Kedah. Finally, the area was divided into Dutch and British spheres of influence with the signing of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty in 1824. With this treaty, the Dutch agreed to cede Malacca to the British and in return, the British ceded all their colonies on Sumatra to the Dutch. The line which divided the Malay world into Dutch and British areas roughly corresponds to what is now the border between Malaysia and Indonesia.
Before World War II, the Malay Peninsula was governed by the British as the Federated Malay States (Selangor, Perak, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang), which were governed as a single entity, the Unfederated Malay States (Johor, Kedah, Perlis, Terengganu and Kelantan), which were each governed as separate protectorates, and the Straits Settlements (including Malacca, Penang and Singapore), which were crown colonies. Northern Borneo consisted of the British colony of North Borneo, the Kingdom of Sarawak, which was ruled by a British family known as the "White Rajas", and the British protectorate of Brunei.
World War II was disastrous for the British Malayan Command. The Japanese swept down both coasts of the Malay Peninsula and despite fierce fighting, much of the British military was tied down fighting the Germans in Europe. Those that remained in Malaya simply could not cope with the Japanese onslaught. The British military equipment left to defend Malaya were outdated and no match for the modern ones used by the Japanese, while the only two battleships based in the region, the HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Repulse, were sunk by Japanese bombers off the East Coast of Malaya. By 31 January 1942, the British had been pushed all the way back to Singapore, which then fell to the Japanese on 15 February 1942. The situation was no different on Borneo, which fell to the Japanese on 1 April 1942 after months of fierce fighting. The Japanese occupation was brutal, and many, particularly the ethnic Chinese, suffered and perished during the occupation. Among the most notorious atrocities committed by the Japanese was the Sandakan Death Marches, with only six out of several thousand prisoners surviving the war.
After World War II, the Federated Malay States, the unfederated Malay States and the Straits Settlements of Malacca and Penang were federated to form a single British colony known as the Malayan Union, with Singapore splitting off to form a separate colony. In the Malayan Union, the sultans of the various states ceded all their powers except those in religious affairs to the British crown. However, widespread opposition to the Malayan Union led the British to reconsider their position, and in 1948, the Malayan Union was replaced by the Federation of Malaya, in which the executive positions of the sultans were restored. In Borneo, the White Rajas ceded Sarawak to the British crown in 1946, making it a crown colony of the United Kingdom.
Malaya gained independence from the British in 1957. The Union Jack was lowered and the first Malayan flag was raised in the Merdeka (independence) Square on midnight 31st August 1957.
Six years later, Malaysia was formed on 16 September 1963 through a merging of Malaya and Singapore, as well as the East Malaysian states of Sabah (known then as North Borneo) and Sarawak on the northern coast of Borneo, with Brunei deciding not to join. The first several years of the country's history were marred by the Indonesian confrontation (konfrontasi) as well as claims to Sabah from the Philippines. Singapore was expelled from the federation on 9 August 1965 after several bloody racial riots, as its majority Chinese population and the influence of the People's Action Party led by Lee Kuan Yew (later the long-ruling Prime Minister of Singapore) were seen as a threat to Malay dominance, and it became a separate country.
Malaysia is a constitutional monarchy, nominally headed by the Paramount Ruler (Yang di-Pertuan Agong), who is "elected" by the rulers (7 sultans, the Yang Di-Pertuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan and the Raja of Perlis) for a five-year term from among the rulers of the 9 royal states of Malaysia, though in practice the election usually follows a prescribed order based on the seniority of the rulers at the time of independence. This gives Malaysia a unique political system of rotational monarchy, in which each of the state rulers would take turns to be the king of Malaysia. The current king, from Kedah, was sworn in on 13 Dec 2011.
Malaysia's government is largely based on the British Westminster system, consisting of a bicameral national parliament, with each of the states also having their own unicameral Dewan Undangan Negeri (State Legislative Assembly). The lower house, known as the Dewan Rakyat (Hall of the People) is elected directly by the people. The upper house, known as the Dewan Negara (National Hall), consists of 26 members elected by the state governments, with each state having 2 representatives, while the remaining members are appointed by the king. The head of government is the Prime Minister, who is the party leader of the winning party in the lower house. The United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) party and its National Front (Barisan Nasional) coalition ruled Malaysia until 2018.
In practice, the king is only the nominal Head of State, while the Prime Minister is the one who wields the most authority in government.
Peninsular Malaysia (Bahasa Malaysia: Semenanjung Malaysia) occupies all of the Malay Peninsula between Thailand and Singapore, and is also known as West Malaysia (Malaysia Barat) or the slightly archaic Malaya (Tanah Melayu). It is home to the bulk of Malaysia's population, its capital and largest city Kuala Lumpur, and is generally more economically developed. Within Peninsular Malaysia, the West Coast is more developed and urbanised and separated from the more rural East Coast by a mountain range - the Titiwangsa.
Some 800 km to the east is East Malaysia (Malaysia Timur), which occupies the northern third of the island of Borneo, shared with Indonesia and Brunei. Partly covered in impenetrable jungle where headhunters roam (on GSM networks if nothing else), East Malaysia is rich in natural resources but very much Malaysia's hinterland for industry, and focused more on mass than individual tourism. Both East and West Malaysia have been subjected to vast logging activities in the last decades, however, and much of its rainforests have been transformed into palm oil plantations, especially in the flatter areas. Areas with pristine rainforest do remain, though, especially inland where the terrain is more mountainous.
The terrain consists of coastal plains rising to hills and mountains. Peninsular Malaysia consists of plains on both the East and West coasts, separated from each other by a mountain range known as the Barisan Titiwangsa which runs from North to South.
Malaysia is a multicultural society. While Malays make up a 52% majority, there are also 27% Chinese, 9% Indian and a miscellaneous grouping of 13.5% "others", such as the Portuguese clan in Melaka and 12% of indigenous peoples (Orang Asli). There is hence also a profusion of faiths and religions, with Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Taoism, Hinduism, Sikhism and even shamanism on the map.
One of the significant characteristics of Malaysian culture is its celebration of various festivals and events. The year is filled with colourful, exhilarating and exciting activities. Some are religious and solemn but others are vibrant, joyous events. One interesting feature of the main festivals in Malaysia is the 'open house' custom. This is when Malaysians celebrating the festival invite friends and family to come by their homes for some traditional delicacies and fellowship.
Multicultural Malaysia celebrates a vast range of festivals, but the ones to look out for nationwide are Islamic holidays, most notably the fasting month of Ramadan. During its 29 or 30 days, Muslims refrain from eating, drinking and smoking from dawn to sunset. Not all Muslims follow the tradition, or sustain the full period or Ramadan fasting, but most do make a very serious effort. Pregnant, breast feeding or menstruating women are not expected to fast, nor are the elderly, the infirm, or travellers. Unless incapable those who do not fast during Ramadan are expected to catch up the missed days at a later time. People get up early before sunrise for a meal (sahur), and take off early to get back home in time to break fast (buka puasa) at sunset. At the end of the month is the festival of Eid ul-Fitr, known locally as Hari Raya Puasa or Aidilfitri, when many locals take one to two weeks off to 'balik kampung' or return to their home towns to meet family and friends. Accordingly, this is the one of the many times in a year when major cities like Kuala Lumpur has virtually no traffic congestions. Travelling around Malaysia is usually avoided by the locals. Another important festival is the Muslim festival of Eid ul-Adha, known locally as Hari Raya Haji or Aidiladha. It is during this festival that Muslims perform the Hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca. In local mosques, cows and lambs are donated by the faithful and sacrificed, after which the meat is distributed to all. Family reunions are also celebrated during other main festivals in the country. Locals usually put on traditional costumes and finery as these festivals are an integral feature of Malaysia society. Information about Complete Sightseeing Plan of Malaysia and Singapore .
During the month of Ramadan, non-muslims are expected to be courteous of those fasting. Non-Muslims, as well as Muslims travelling (musafir), are exempt from fasting but it is polite to refrain from eating or drinking in public. Public school systems also adhere to this occasion thus assisting non-muslims to refrain from eating in front of those who are practicing. Many restaurants close during the day and those that stay open maintain a low profile. Business travellers will notice that things move rather more slowly than usual. The upside for foreign travellers are the Ramadhan bazaars in every city and town, bustling with activity and bursting at the seams with great food. Hotels and restaurants also pull out all stops to put on massive spreads of food for fast-breaking feasts. During the month of Ramadan, fast-breaking meals are usually considered as grand feasts.
Other major holidays include Chinese New Year (around January/February), Deepavali or Diwali, the Hindu festival of lights (around October/November), the Buddhist holiday of Wesak (around May/June), and Christmas (25 December).
During Chinese New Year, Penang and Ipoh become the major cities as many local Chinese working and living in KL originated from there. However this situation is changing gradually, as more and more people are making Kuala Lumpur their home town. While visiting during such festivals, travellers will be able to experience many wonderful celebrations, but the downside is many ethnic shops/eateries will be closed. The best option is to visit during the period just after the first two days of the major festival (Hari Raya/Chinese New Year), when shops will open, and the festive mood has still not died down.
Another major celebration is Deepavali, celebrated by the Malaysian Hindus. Deepavali is the festival of light orignitaing from classical India and one of the main cultural celebration amongst Hindus. In Malaysia, locals practice this tradition by wearing new clothes and receiving token gifts of money. This practice has been adapted by all Malaysians without regards of the religion. The red packets or ang pow during Chinese New Year, green packets or 'duit raya' for Hari Raya Aidilfitri and multi-coloured packets during Deepavali.
Some uniquely Malaysian festivals of note include the Harvest Festival at the end of May each year and the 'Pesta Gawai' in early June, both thanksgiving celebrations held in East Malaysia.
Thaipusam is a Hindu festival that falls in January or February and is one of the must-see events. The largest procession in the country takes place at Batu Caves, north of Kuala Lumpur. Male devotees carry decorated altars or kavadi up a flight of 272 steps towards the temple, all this while also having religious spears and hooks pierced through external surfaces of their bodies. The ability is attributed to divine intervention and religious fervor. Female devotees join the procession carrying pots of milk on their head instead.
The climate in Malaysia is tropical. The north-east monsoon (October to February) deluges Borneo and the east coast in rain and often causes flooding, while the west coast (particularly Langkawi and Penang) escape unscathed. The milder south-west monsoon (April to October) reverses the pattern. The southern parts of peninsular Malaysia, including perennially soggy Kuala Lumpur, are exposed to both but even during the rainy season, the showers tend to be intense but brief.
Malaysia is close to the equator, therefore warm weather is guaranteed. Temperatures generally range from 32°C/89.6 ºF at noon to about 26°C/78.8 ºF at midnight. But like most Southeast Asian countries, Malaysia's sun-shining days are interrupted by Monsoon season from November and February every year, and night temperatures can hit a low of about 23°C/73.4 ºF on rainy days.
Temperatures tend to be cooler in the highlands, with the likes of Genting Highlands,Cameron Highlands and Fraser's Hill having temperatures ranging from about 17°C/62.6 ºF at night to about 25°C/77 ºF in the day. Mount Kinabalu is known to have temperatures falling below 10°C/50 ºF.
Some 800 km to the east is East Malaysia (Malaysia Timur), which occupies the northern third of the island of Borneo, shared with Indonesia and tiny Brunei. Partly covered in impenetrable jungle where headhunters roam (on GSM networks if nothing else), East Malaysia is rich in natural resources but very much Malaysia's hinterland for industry, and focused more on mass than individual tourism.
Most nationalities can enter Malaysia without a visa, and they would be issued a 14, 30 or 90 day entry permit stamp on their passport. This would indicate the length of stay granted. Details can be found at http://www.kln.gov.my/web/guest/requirement-for-foreigner.
Admission refused to nationals of Israel. However, if holding a letter of approval from the Malaysian Ministry of Home Affairs, admission is allowed.
The following is a list of foreign nationals who can enter Malaysia without a visa:-
(A) Countries/territories that do not require a visa for stay up to 90 days:- Albania, Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bahrain, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Oman, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay and Yemen.
(B) Countries/territories that do not require a visa for stay up to 30 days:- Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Barbados, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Chad, Chile, Comoros, Congo (Democratic Republic of), Costa Rica, Dominica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong SAR, Indonesia, Iraq, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, Laos, Lesotho, Macao SAR, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Maldives, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Namibia, Nauru, Nicaragua, North Korea, Palestine, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Philippines, Russia, Samoa, Sao Tome & Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, St Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Togo, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, Vanuatu, Uzbekistan, Vatican City, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
(C) Countries/territories that do not require a visa for stay up to 14 days or others (if indicated):- Ivory Coast, Libya, Macao SAR (Travel Permit/Portugal CI), Sierra Leone, Somalia
In addition, no visa is required for U.S.A. citizens visiting Malaysia for social, business or academic purposes (except for employment).
No visa is required for a stay of less than one month for nationals of all ASEAN countries except Myanmar. For a stay exceeding one month a visa will be required, except for nationals of Brunei and Singapore.
Visas are required and permission must be granted from Ministry Of Home Affairs for citizens of Israel. For nationals of Republic of Serbia and Republic of Montenegro, visas are required without permission granted from Ministry Of Home Affairs. Nationals of countries other than those stated above (with the exception of Israel) are allowed to enter Malaysia without a visa for a visit not exceeding one month.
For people with Dual Citizenship (two passports), Malaysian immigration is pretty strict about this. It is advised that you exit your last port and enter into Malaysia with the same passport.
Note that Sarawak has separate immigration laws and you will get a new visa on arrival there. For those who require a visa to visit Malaysia, you'll need a separate one for Sarawak, so be sure to state this when applying at the Malaysian embassy/consulate.
If you require a visa to enter Malaysia, you might be able to apply for one at a British embassy, high commission or consulate in the country where you legally reside if there is no Malaysian diplomatic post. For example, the British embassies in Belgrade,Bogota, La Paz, Pristina, Santo Domingo, Sofia and Tripoli accept Malaysian visa applications (this list is not exhaustive). British diplomatic posts charge £50 to process a Malaysian visa application and an extra £70 if the authorities in Malaysia require the visa application to be referred to them. The authorities in Malaysia can also decide to charge an additional fee if they correspond with you directly.
Overstaying :- Overstaying in Malaysia is possible with $10 or 30RM fine per day. It is fairly simple to avoid overstaying by doing a visa run to a neighboring country overland or via a cheap flight.
National carrier Malaysia Airlines (MAS) has extensive worldwide network coverage and regularly ranks high in airline quality assessments, while no-frills low-cost carrier AirAsia and its sister company, AirAsia X, now cover an ever-expanding set of destinations including Australia, China, Cambodia, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Laos, Macau, New Zealand, the Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Myanmar and Vietnam.
Most international flights land at Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA)  (IATA: KUL | ICAO: WMKK). Low cost airlines such as Malindo Air and AirAsia flights land at Kuala Lumpur International Airport 2 (KLIA2)  (IATA: KUL 2 | ICAO: WMKK), a 5km road transfer away from the main KLIA terminal. KLIA's predecessor, the Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport (IATA: SZB | ICAO: WMSA) in Subang near Kuala Lumpur handles chartered and turboprop aircraft for regional operators Firefly  and Berjaya  , ? +60 3 7846 8228 (ticketing only);, ? +60 3 2145 2828. See the Kuala Lumpur Get in section for detailed airport information.
Other airports which have significant numbers of flights to regional destinations are Kota Kinabalu (Sabah), Kuching (Sarawak), Penang, Langkawi and Johor Bahru. Many major Malaysian cities have service to Singapore via AirAsia or Firefly. Berjaya Air also operates routes from Singapore to the popular dive spots of Tioman and Redang.
The national railway operator in Peninsular Malaysia is the Keretapi Tanah Melayu (KTM, also known as Malayan Railways), which offers international train services to Thailand (together with the State Railway of Thailand) and Singapore. KTM tickets up to 30 days in advance can be bought online at the KTM e-ticketing website.
Long-distances buses/coaches into Malaysia run from Brunei, Indonesian Borneo, Singapore and Thailand. Please see the relevant city pages for more details.
Land crossings are possible from southern Thailand and Singapore into Peninsular Malaysia, as well as from Brunei and Kalimantan (the Indonesian side of Borneo) into Sarawak. An International Drivers Permit (IDP) is required. See the respective city or state pages for more detailed information.
Ferries connect various points in Peninsular Malaysia with Sumatra in Indonesia and southern Thailand, Sarawak with Brunei, and Sabah with East Kalimantan in Indonesia and Mindanao in the Philippines. Luxury cruises also run from Singapore and sometimes Phuket (Thailand) to Malaysia.
You can walk in/out of Thailand at Wang Kelian and Padang Besar (both in Perlis), Bukit Kayu Hitam (Kedah), Pengkalan Hulu (Perak) and Rantau Panjang (Kelantan). However, crossing the Causeway or the Second Link on foot from Singapore is not allowed.
Largely thanks to budget carrier AirAsia , Malaysia is crisscrossed by a web of affordable flights with advertised "promotional" prices starting at RM9 for flights booked well in advance. Flying is the only practical option for traveling between peninsular Malaysia and Borneo, as well as reaching some of the more remote outposts of Borneo. State carrier Malaysia Airlines  also has competitive fares which now offers equal or even lower priced tickets if booked in advance through the internet, with sustaining class of hospitality. And their offshoot Firefly  has a handy network radiating out of Penang previously, has also began operating from the Subang (Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah) airport.
Berjaya Air  also flies small Dash-7 turboprops from Kuala Lumpur and Singapore to its own airports on the resort islands of Pangkor, Redang and Tioman. Prices are steep (from RM214 plus fees one way), but this is by far the fastest and more comfortable way of reaching any of these.
In Sabah and Sarawak, MASWings , operates turboprop services linking interior communities, including those in the Kelabit Highlands, with coastal cities. MASWings took over the rural air services network from FlyAsian Express on October 1, 2007, which in turn took the service over from Malaysia Airlines 14 months before that.
Long-distance trains in Malaysia can rarely match road transport in terms of speed, but state operator Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad (KTMB)  provides relatively inexpensive and generally reliable services around Peninsular Malaysia (but not Sabah/Sarawak in Borneo). The main western line connects Butterworth (near Penang), Ipoh, Kuala Lumpur, Johor Bahru and Woodlands (Singapore), while the eastern line runs through Gua Musang and the Taman Negara National Park to Kota Bharu, near the Thai border and the Perhentian Islands.
The pride of KTMB's fleet is the ETS (Electric Train Service), modern air-conditioned electric trains running at 140-160 km/h. The initial run was between Kuala Lumpur to Ipoh with a travel time of just over 2 hours. With the completion of the railway electrification and double-tracking from Padang Besar to Gemas, the ETS has been extended to the rest of the electrified line, offering fast connection between destinations with travel time comparable to or even faster than a bus.
However, the introduction of the ETS spelled the end of diesel train services including sleeper services on the electrified line. The southern unelectrified line between Gemas and Johor Bahru is still served by diesel trains with only 2nd class seats. A change of trains between the ETS and diesel trains is required to continue north or south of Gemas.
The Jungle Railway is the apt description for the single-track eastern line between Tumpat (close to the Thai border) and Gemas, including stops at Gua Musang, Kuala Lipis, Jerantut (for Taman Negara National Park) and Wakaf Bahru (for Kota Bharu and the Perhentian Islands). The original "Jungle Train" is the slow daytime service which stops at every station (every 15-20 min or so). It's 3rd class only, meaning no air-con and no reservations, and some stops may be lengthy as it's a single line and all other trains have priority - hence the "Jungle Train" waits in side loops along the way so that oncoming or overtaking trains can pass. Tourists may use this service to travel to Some find it to be a fascinating and stunningly scenic ride; others feel there's not much to see when you're in the jungle. The eastern line night train between JB Sentral and Tumpat (for which reservations are possible and recommended) also have 2nd class berths and seats, and some have 1st class sleepers too.
Tickets can be booked and even printed online at KTMB's site. Enquiries and reservations can be made by phone at KTMB's call centres, +60 3 2267 1200 (Malaysia) or +65 6366 6832 (Singapore).
Malaysia has an excellent highway network, culminating in the North-South Expressway along the West Coast from Singapore all the way to the Thai border. Gasoline or locally known as Petrol is slightly cheaper than market prices at RM2.20 per liter for the entire country. Tolls are payable on expressways, but these are priced at varying degrees, ranging from expensive to reasonable: driving the length of the country (734 km) from the Thai border to Singapore costs RM 108 (~US$25). While you can drive from Singapore to Thailand within a day on the West Coast, the highway system is considerably less developed on the East Coast, with no expressways, and even less so in Sabah and Sarawak in which the Pan Borneo Highway is still in construction, so be sure to factor in additional travel time if travelling in those areas. Toll prices for highways and causeways inside major cities, especially Kuala Lumpur, is priced exorbitantly ranging from RM4.00 to RM7.00 for each exit.
For those thinking of using GPS (Garmin, Papago, Galactio and Mio-Polnav), the Malaysia maps can be downloaded for free from http://www.malfreemaps.com/index.php Garmin user lucky enough to have another choice from http://www.malsingmaps.com/portal/. Both party maps is contributed by the amazing non-profit group of people who share a common passion to make a gps maps of Malaysia.
While driving quality and habits in Malaysia are better than most of the rest of Southeast Asia, it is not necessarily great, especially if for travellers coming from a Western country. Traffic in Malaysia drives on the left, a legacy left by the British. It should be advised, beware of reckless motorcyclists, especially during the night, and especially if you are a pedestrian: locals typically disregard a red light for left turns, putting pedastrians at risk. As a motorist, at traffic lights, they will accumulate in front of you - let them drive away first to avoid accidents.
Care is needed when driving in larger cities, such as Kuala Lumpur and Penang. Problems include apparently suicidal motorcyclists, congested traffic lanes throughout the day, and bewildering roads especially in the older parts of the city where planning was virtually nonexistent by the then British colonial occupier. Out of town however, cars and motorcycles are the best and sometimes the only way to explore the country. Some of the more rural areas have motorcycles and scooters to rent for as little as RM25/day, a great way to explore the local area or larger islands like Langkawi. As expected, most rental agencies will require a valid drivers licence to be presented upon rental. Fuel levels are often compared before and after rental, as well as for damage, so ensure everything is documented, and request a refund of any excess fuel if possible. The bigger car rental companies like Hertz and Avis may also require you to have a valid credit card where a deposit will be authorised but not deducted from (unless there is damage to the car).
Taxis are available in all cities and larger towns, although in smaller places you may have to call one (ask any shopkeeper or consult the yellow-pages). You will generally need to negotiate the fare in advance, although prepaid coupon taxis are usually available at airports. RM5 should suffice for a short cross-town trip, while RM100 is enough to hire a taxi for a full day.
It is recommended for travelers to use the ride-sharing apps such as Grab since they are cheaper than the regular taxi most of the time. Their vehicles are clean and more comfortable than normal taxis, and their drivers friendly and professional. Charges are standard and you will not risk getting cheated by taxi drivers. Such apps are often the preferred option for locals, revolutionising the industry. In response, the government officially legalised them in June 2017, so they are regulated and co-exist alongside taxis. If you choose to use taxis, take note of the advise below to avoid getting cheated.
In Kuala Lumpur, the budget taxis are usually coloured Red and White (City taxi - these taxis are not allowed to travel out of the city e.g. to another state) or Yellow. Taxis are usually small saloons such as Proton Wira and run on NGV (Natural Gas). The Blue taxis are larger saloons or MPVs (Multi Purpose Vehicles) and more luxurious. These cost typically 25-30% more than the budget taxis and are normally available at taxi stands all over Kuala Lumpur including the major malls and hotels. The Red-White taxis can be hailed off the roads and are metered. Ensure that the taxi driver is a Malaysian (all drivers must have a taxi permit and license with their photo on it) before you board, as unscrupulous taxi owners have been known to rent their taxi out to unlicensed stand-ins. Like in most other countries, a foreigner on a work visa are only allowed to work in the job/industry specified in the visa. All taxi drivers must be Malaysian or a PR holder as the Malaysian government does not issue work visa to foreigners to drive taxis.
Additionally, beware of unlicensed taxis (known as Ulat Teksi 'taxi worms') at the airports. They can literally take you for a ride. There will be touts at the airports offering travellers their taxi service, even pretending to be legitimate. As unbelievable as it may sound, some have been known to rob first time visitors hundreds of ringgit for a single trip into the city, charging 100 times more than the correct fare. At the airports always get your taxi from the authorised operators' booths set up in the airport itself. Never take taxis from anyone that solicits directly. They will always claim to be legitimate but are rarely licensed and may be unsafe. The taxi operator booths can provide you with receipts. Another tip is to book your taxis in advance. All good hotels' concierge will be able to assist you with this. If travelling in an unlicensed taxi you may not be covered by your travel insurance should that taxi be involved in a mishap.
Taxi Meter Rate (as of 2018):
Red Taxi (Budget Taxi) : Min RM3.00 + RM1.00 every 1 KM
Blue Taxi (Exclusive Taxi) : Min RM6.00 + RM2.00 every 1 KM
Gold Taxi (Teks1M): Min RM4.00 + 30 sen per 100m
Even when getting taxi from the Airport, make sure you ask for Budget Taxi (Red Taxi), else you end up in Blue Taxi and pay double. In Kuala Lumpur, the 8am to 10am, 12pm to 2pm and 4pm to 8pm are the busy time in the city. Insist on using the meter and if the driver refuses, just find another taxi or take the train.
If travelling on holidays or even over the weekend, it is advisable to reserve your seats in advance. Note that air conditioning on some buses can be extremely cold so don't forget to bring a good sweater, pants and socks, especially for overnight journeys on luxury buses!
The sole official language of Malaysia is Malay (officially Bahasa Malaysia, sometimes also known as Bahasa Melayu). The Indonesian language, spoken accross the border in Indonesia, is similar to Malay, and both languages are largely mutually intelligible. Some parts of Malaysia near the Thai border, most notably Kelantan, have dialects of Malay which are nearly incomprehensible to speakers of standard Malay, though most people in these areas will be able to converse in standard Malay if needed.
English is compulsory in all schools and widely spoken in the larger cities, as well as around the main tourist attractions, although in rural areas a little Malay will come in handy. There is also a colloquial form of English spoken among Malaysians in urban areas, not inappropriately known as Manglish, which involves code switching between English, Malay and/or other languages, and takes a bit of getting used to if you intend to join in the conversation on local topics. Malaysians will almost always try to speak 'standardized English' when approached by Western travellers. In general, police stations and government offices will have English-speaking staff on duty.
Arabic is taught to those who attend Islamic religious schools, and many clerics as well as other very observant Muslims will have a functional command of Arabic. However, it is not widely spoken, though the Malay language does have a large number of loan words from Arabic. You also might notice some examples of Malay written with Arabic letters. This is called Jawi, and it is still used for religious publications and inscriptions, especially in states like Kelantan, although the Latin alphabet is much more commonly used throughout the country.
The Chinese community in Malaysia speaks a wide variety of Chinese languages including Cantonese, Mandarin, Teo-chew, Hakka, Hainanese, Hok-chew and Hokkien. Mandarin is taught in most Chinese schools while Cantonese is commonly heard in the mass media due to the popularity of TVB serials from Hong Kong among the Chinese community, so many are conversant in both, in addition to their native language. The most commonly spoken Indian language is Tamil; others include Malayalam, Punjabi and Telugu.
In the northern states of Peninsular Malaysia bordering Thailand, there are various ethnic Thai communities, known locally as the Orang Siam, who speak various dialects of Thai. Malacca in the south is also home to a Portuguese community which speaks a Portuguese based creole. The remote forest areas of Peninsular Malaysia are also home to various tribal people known as the Orang Asli, who speak various indigenous languages such as Semelai, Temuan and many others. In East Malaysia several indigenous languages are also spoken, especially Iban and Kadazan.
Films and television programmes are usually shown in their original language with Malay subtitles. Some children's programmes are dubbed into Malay.
There are various beautiful national parks in Malaysia. There are many different types of expeditions available, ranging from those where you hardly lose sight of the hotel to those where you are fully immersed in the jungle with only the guide and yourself if you are willing to pay the money! Tours vary from about 4 days to 2 weeks or more. Do note that in Eastern Malaysia hiking without guides is often not possible (even for easy trails), with the notable exception on Bako national park.
The top places to see animals in the wild in Malaysia are more remote and more difficult to get to. These include Danum Valley (one of the oldest rainforests in the world where you can see Orangutans, pygmy elephants and leopard cats in the wild), Kinabatangan River (where you can see pygmy elephants, proboscis monkeys and orangutans) and Telupid Forest Reserve (also known as Deramakot Forest Reserve) where you can see the rare clouded leopard in the wild (there are only 700 left in Sabah). The more popular parks which are more accessible do offer publicly accessible wooden boardwalks and concrete walkways though parts of the park, allowing visitors to get a taste of the jungle beyond. It is very unlikely in these more accesible national parks that you get to see a tiger or an elephant as it is really likely only if you are going to be staying for longer than a few days, i.e., for a couple of weeks at least. One of the most common forms of wildlife that you will encounter in the jungle, however, are definitely leeches! In the rainforest it is very, very humid but actually it is not incredibly hot. This is because of the large amount of shade afforded by the canopy created by the interlocking trees. Shop around for deals of getting into the jungle and make your decision based on what type of person you are. If you are going to enjoy a lot of hiking without seeing any other people for days or even weeks then you can have that choice, alternatively you can have a much more 'packaged' tour in which you will probably stay in a very built up tourist town which has probably just grown out of the demand for people wanting to stay in the jungle (these packaged tours can be difficult to avoid in Eastern Malaysia, as tourism in Sarawak and especially Sabah is predominantly focused on large groups).
Malaysia is also well-known for some pristine beaches with great diving opportunities, such as Sipadan off the coast of Sabah and the Perhentian Islands, which are off the coast of northern Terengganu. Coastlines in the less industrialized parts of the country, in general, are well worth driving through for their natural beauty and relaxing seaside kampung (villages), though beware not to swim at any beach which is not protected by capes, lest you be swept away by a powerful undertow.
If zoological exhibits are more your thing or you are visiting with children, there are several well-maintained zoos all over Malaysia that are worth a visit or two, most notably Taiping Zoo, Kuala Lumpur 's Zoo Negara and Malacca's Zoo.
If you are most interested in taking the pulse of a city, Kuala Lumpur's crazy quilt ultra-modern skyline, including the famous Petronas Twin Towers, is worth visiting. Ipoh may be of more interest if you prefer a somewhat slower paced city that features elegant colonial-era buildings from about 100 years ago, and Malacca is for those who want to trace the colonial and imperial history of Malaysia several hundred years further back. Penang is known for its great food and relatively long-standing and institutionalized Chinese and Indian communities, who share the city with Malay and Thai communities. For a completely different experience, consider going to Kota Bharu to discover a unique conservative Islamic regional culture influenced by Thailand, only a few kilometres away, or visit the diverse cities of East Malaysia, like Kuching and Kota Kinabalu.
Malaysia has excellent scuba diving. The most popular spots are the islands off the East Coast of peninsular Malaysia (Perhentian, Redang, Tioman and many more), although the dive season is limited to April to September. However, the most famous dive site — often ranked among the best in the world — is Sipadan, off the easternmost tip of Malaysian Borneo. At Sipadan you can see sharks, parrothead fish and a turtle tomb. There are many other less well known sites, like Layang Layang.
Malaysia has some of the oldest rainforests in the world, the tallest mountain in Southeast Asia and generally lots of great hiking trails.
Kota Kinabalu - Even if you don't climb Mt Kinabalu (which requires 2-3 days and booking of permits in advance), you can trek around the Kinabalu National Park, which is a UNESCO Heritage Site.
Gunung Mulu National Park - Also a UNESCO Heritage Site, this hike up to Gunung Api is a harder climb than Kota Kinabalu but has a wonderful view of the Pinnacles at the top, which are tall, jagged limestone formations. This park is also home to the world's largest cave chamber by surface area, as well as one of the largest cave passages on Earth.
Danum Valley - this is a 130- million-year-old rainforest where you can see orangutans and other rare Borneo fauna and wildlife in the wild. Although this is older than the Amazon rainforest (which is only 60 million years old), this is much less well known than its South American counterpart.
Maliau Basin Conservation Area - also known as Sabah's lost world, this is a pristine basin and one of the few remaining relatively untouched wilderness areas in the world. This is under consideration as a world heritage site.
You can find tame Grade I to incredibly difficult and dangerous Grade V rapids in Malaysia's many national parks:
Malaysia has an abundant supply of world class golf courses such as the Mines Resort and Golf Club and Kuala Lumpur Golf & Country Club, both which hosted the annual PGA sanctioned CIMB Classic. Other notable courses include Saujana Golf & Country Club, Clearwater Sanctuary, The Legends and many more.
Malaysians love their extreme sports, and this can be reflected by the rather large community of Paintball players. There are both woodsball and speedball fields throughout the country. The Paintball World Cup Asia has been held at Langkawi for the past few years, attracting top team and players from around the world. Speedball tournaments are held throughout the year, such as the Malaysian Paintball Official Circuit(MPOC). Occasionally, the woodsball and milsim paintball communities would organize big games open to all, such as the Tanamera big games, Canyon Apocalypse or the M-SOG military simulation oriented events. Pellet rates are relatively higher as compared to the U.S. The average price for a box(2000 pellets) of field grade is around RM240. The all inclusive rental packages are priced at around the average of RM110 per head. Notable paintball parks are as follows:
Note however that, foreign players are prohibited from transporting their own markers into the country, unless officially cleared by the government.
Cycling is a favourite pass time among most Malaysians. There are dedicated bicycle and motorcycle lanes available on some highways and expressways, the most notable one being the bike lane of the KESAS highway serving Kuala Lumpur and Selangor. Seasoned road cyclists would flock the lane almost every night throughout the year, rain or shine. Bike lanes within the larger city limits are slowly cropping out, such as those in Kuala Lumpur and Penang. However, the general attitude towards cyclists on the road is still rather primitive, so cyclists are to be mindful of their surroundings. There are tons of cycling events organized throughout the year ranging from the competitive Tour De Langkawi to the massive outings such as the OCBC Cycle KL, and down the more laid back officially sanctioned KL Car Free Morning events.
Another famous cycling spot would be the bike friendly administrative capital of Putrajaya, specially during the night. Government buildings, complexes and bridges would be lit up with colourful shades of light.
Moving away from the public roads, are the immaculate mountain bike trails and routes such as but not limited to:
The Malaysian currency is the ringgit, informally known as the dollar (the "$" symbol can be seen on older notes) and abbreviated RM or MYR, is divided into 100 sen. There are coins of 5, 10, 20, and 50 sen as well as bills of RM1, 2 (rare), 5, 10,20, 50 and 100. 5 sen coins are mainly given as change in large establishments and supermarkets, peddlers and street vendors might be reluctant to accept them. Note that the Singapore and Brunei dollars are also known as ringgit in Malay, so when near border areas you might want to check to be sure which currency they are quoting the price in.
Ringgits are freely convertible. Foreign currencies are not generally accepted, although you might get away with exchanging some Euros or US dollars even in more remote areas, but do expect a lot of stares and some persuasion. The major exception is Singapore dollars, which are accepted by KTMB and toll roads, but at a highly unfavorable 1:1 exchange rate (an anomaly dating back to the 1970s when the ringgit was interchangeable with the Singapore dollar).
Banks and airports are not the best places to exchange money if it is not urgent. Licensed money changers in major shopping malls often have the best rates - be sure to say the amount you wish to exchange and ask for the 'best quote' as rates displayed on the board are often negotiable, especially for larger amounts.
ATMs are available in most cities and generally accepts Visa or Mastercard. Make sure to check the logo on the ATM machine that matches to your card (such as Cirrus, Maestro, MEPS, etc.). Most major establishments in big cities accepts credit cards. In rural areas, mainly cash are accepted. Just ask before doing any purchase. Some, but not all shops and attractions accept card payment, although be aware that if your card is not 'chip & pin' it may not be accepted. Skimming can be a problem in dodgier outlets.Overall it is advisable to have enough cash on you to make it through the day. Do stock up on cash if heading out into the smaller islands or the jungle.
Banks in Malaysia do handle international transactions. These ranges from a nominal fee if you are an account holder to a slightly more expensive amount if you are only walking in to use a certain service. International banks such as CITIBANK & HSBC have their presence in Malaysia, with the latter having branches throughout the country. Local banking giants are MAYBANK & CIMB, & they are a very good alternative to the earlier mentioned banks, especially in terms of pricing, local knowledge & presence as well as international services available e.g. money transfers. For any enquiries and transactions, get a number, sit down and wait for your turn to be served. (There is no need to queue while you wait in air-conditioned comfort!)
Banks are open Monday to Thursday from 9:30AM to 4PM Friday from 9:30AM to 12:30PM and resume 2:45PM to 4PM and selected banks are open on Saturday from 9:30AM -11:30AM except on the first and third Saturdays of each month. In the states of Kedah, Kelantan, Terengganu and Johore they are open Sunday to Thursday from 9.30AM to 4PM and Thursday from 9:30AM-11:30AM .
US Debit cards: Due high levels of fraud, many Malaysia ATMs do not allow you to withdraw using a US debit card. Numerous travellers have noted this on travel forums. This is unique to Malaysia and is not applicable to Thailand, Singapore, or Indonesia. If you call your bank or even Visa/Mastercard, they are often not aware because the transaction is declined by the Malaysia bank. Make sure to bring cash or other form of money in case your debit card is rejected.
Most visitors will find Malaysia quite cheap, although it is noticeably more expensive than neighbouring Thailand,Indonesia and Philippines. You can live in hostel dorms and feast on hawker food for less than RM50 per day, but you'll wish to double this for comfort, particularly if travelling in more expensive East Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur is also generally more expensive than the rest of the country. At the other end of the spectrum, luxury hotels and air fares are comparatively affordable, with even the fanciest 5-star hotels costing less than RM400/night.
Tipping is not customary in Malaysia. Generally, Locals do not tip. However, hotel porters and taxi drivers will appreciate a small tip if you have been provided with exemplary service. Most expensive restaurants, bars and hotels may indicate prices in the form of RM19++, meaning that goods and services tax (GST) (6%) and service charge (10%) will be added to the bill. Hotel tax of 5% may also be added to this.
Kuala Lumpur is a shopping mecca for clothes, electronics, watches, computer goods and much more, with very competitive prices by any standard. Local Malaysian brands include Royal Selangor and BritishIndia. Traditional Malaysian fabrics (batik) are a popular souvenir. The cheapest place to easily buy ethnic souvenirs (especially wood-based) is in Kuching, East Malaysia, and the most expensive place is in the major, posh Kuala Lumpur shopping centres.
In general shops are open from 10.30AM-9.30PM (or 10PM) in the large cities. They open and close for business earlier in the smaller towns and rural areas.
If you buy too much while shopping in Malaysia (which is quite easy to do), surface postage rates are very reasonable. Excess luggage at the airport is still high but not as high as in many other countries. Check first with your airline.
The crossroads of Malay, Chinese and Indian cuisine, Malaysia is an excellent place to makan (eat in Malay). Look out for regional specialities and Nyonya (Peranakan) cuisine, the fusion between Malay and Chinese cooking. There is even unique Eurasian cooking to be found in the Portuguese Settlement in Malacca, the heartland of the Eurasian community of Portuguese descent.
Malaysians are very proud of their cooking and most towns or even villages have their own delicious specialities such as Penang char kway teow, Kajang satay, Ipoh bean sprout chicken, Sarawak laksa, Kelantanese nasi dagang, Sabahan hinava, and many, many more. Most of them rely on word of mouth for advertising and are frequently located in the most inconvenient, out-of-the-way places so you might want to try asking the locals for their personal recommendations.
If you intend to travel around Malaysia trying out the local food, don't be fooled by the names. Sometimes two entirely different dishes from different parts of the country can be known by the same name. An example will be laksa, which refers to completely different noodle dishes in Penang and Sarawak.
Generally, you can eat pretty much anywhere in Malaysia. Food outlets are comparatively clean - the only thing you should avoid is ice for your drinks, when you frequent the street stalls since the blocks of ice used there might not be up to your hygienic standards. In actual restaurants this is not a problem. Also you might want to avoid ordering water from stalls or the mamak restaurants as they are usually unboiled tap water.
Cheaper places often do not display prices; most will charge tourists honestly but check prices before ordering to make sure.
Eating habits run the gamut, but most foods are eaten by fork and spoon: push and cut with the fork in the left hand, and eat with the spoon in the right.
As eating is a favourite 'pastime' of Malaysians, the majority are adept at using the chopsticks regardless of background. Noodles and Chinese dishes typically come with these, while Malay and Indian food can be eaten by hand, but nobody will blink an eye if you ask for a fork and spoon instead. If eating by hand, always use your right hand to pick your food as Malays and Indians traditionally use their left hand for dirty things like washing up after using the restroom. When eating with chopsticks at Chinese restaurants, take note of the usual ettiquette and most importantly, do not stick your chopsticks vertically into a bowl of rice. This is reminiscent of incense sticks burning at the temple and has connotations of wishing death on those around you. If eating in a group, serving dishes are always shared, but you'll get your own bowl of rice and soup.
Subtlety is not a priority in Malaysian Malay cooking, as it is characterised by a liberal use of spices (the most important are star anise, cinnamon/cassia, cardamom and cloves - dubbed rempah empat beradik or the four spice siblings), pungent edible rhizomes (mainly galangal, ginger and turmeric), coconut milk (santan in Bahasa Malaysia), and occasionally fresh herbs (lemongrass, fresh coriander, pandan leaves and various kinds of wild herbs or ulam). Most Malaysian Malay dishes are curries, stews or dips of one kind or another, but all full of flavour.
Malaysian Malay desserts, especially the sweet pastries and jellies, are mostly based on coconut and palm sugar (gula melaka, named after Melaka). Kuih (or kueh) refer to a plethora of steamed cake-like sweetmeats, mostly made with coconut milk, grated coconut flesh, glutinous rice or tapioca. Labour-intensive to make, they are often very colourful (made so with either natural or synthetic food colourings), and cut into fanciful shapes. Try the onde-onde, small round balls made from glutinous rice flour that has been coloured and flavoured with pandan leaves, filled with palm sugar and rolled in grated coconut. A delight to eat as it pops in your mouth with a sweet sensation of oozing palm syrup.
Chinese food as eaten in Malaysia commonly originates from southern China, particularly Fujian and Guangdong. While authentic fare that is relatively unchanged from its Mainland Chinese origins is certainly available, especially in fancier restaurants, the daily fare served on the streets has absorbed a number of tropical touches, most notably the fairly heavy use of chilli and belachan (shrimp paste) as condiments. Noodles can also be served not just in soup (? tang), but also "dry" (? kan), meaning that your noodles will be served tossed with chilli and spices in one bowl, and the soup will come in a separate bowl.
The smallest of Malaysia's 'Big 3', the Indians have had a disporportionately large impact on the culinary scene, with the mamak (Indian Muslim, see below) stall having acquired in every Malaysian city and town, and nasi kandar restaurants offering a wide variety of these to ladle onto your rice. Authentic Indian food in Malaysia includes typical South Indian specialties such as dosai, idli, sambhar, uttapam; as well as some north Indian meals like naan bread, korma, and tandoori chicken. In addition, however, a number of Indian dishes have been "Malaysianized" and adopted by the entire population, including:
East Malaysia, especially Sarawak, also offers a wide range of local dishes, but these are very rarely seen in peninsular Malaysia. See Sarawak#Eat for details.
Where to eat
The cheapest places to eat are hawker stalls and coffeeshops, known as kedai kopi in Bahasa Malaysia or kopitiam in Chinese. These shops sell, besides coffee, many other types of food and drinks. Particularly popular and tasty are mamak stalls, run by Indian Muslims and serving up localized Indian fare like roti canai. Most hawker stalls stay open till late and some even operate on shifts so you can find the same stall offering different food at different points throughout the day, and some mamak stalls are open 24/7. You can also do take away from any stall, just ask for bungkus (Bahasa Malaysia) or ta pao (Chinese). A hawker meal will rarely cost you over RM5. Hygiene standards in Malaysia, while not up to that of neighbouring Singapore, are still much better than China or the majority of South East Asian countries. Just be observant, and generally speaking, if a stall is patronised by locals, it should be safe to eat there. If in doubt, opt for food that is cooked to order, not food that has been left on a tray.
One step up on the scale is the kedai makanan or the more Western-style restoran. A type to look out for is the nasi kandar restaurant (also known as nasi campur or nasi padang), with a vast range of curries and toppings to ladle on top of your rice.
Seafood restaurants (makanan laut) are comparatively pricy but still excellent value by most standards; do check prices before ordering though. Local prawns are gigantic, Chinese-style steamed fish is a treat and crab served with sticky chilli sauce or salted egg yolk is particularly popular.
Last but not least, some less adventurous options. Food courts in shopping malls are a good way to sample local delicacies in air-conditioned comfort, paying only a small premium over hawker prices. And yes, you can also find McDonalds, KFC, Pizza Hut and the usual suspects plus imitators throughout Malaysia.
Being a Muslim-majority country, finding halal food in Malaysia is easy, but most Chinese stalls and restaurants are not halal. Ask if in doubt. Meals at Malay restaurants and Western fast food restaurants like McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Pizza Hut are halal. Restaurants at major hotels are not certified 'Halal' as they serve alcohol as well, but they generally dont serve pork. Local Muslims will eat at Western, Chinese and Indian eateries if there is a halal sign on the walls. Most of the restaurants tend to display their halal certification or halal sign on their places.Halal certification was awarded and enforced by government agency usually JAKIM.
Vegetarianism is well-understood by the Chinese and Indian communities (not so by the Muslim Malays and other indigenous minorities) and many restaurants or hawker stalls will be able to come up with something on request (DO state "no meat, no fish, no seafood - ASK for vegetables and/or eggs ONLY"), but don't rely entirely on menu descriptions: innocuous-seeming dishes like "fried vegetables" etc will often contain pork bits, shrimp paste (belacan, commonly used in Malay and spicy Chinese dishes), fish sauce, etc. Indian restaurants usually have very good vegetarian selections - the roti (Indian flat bread - any kind; including roti canai, roti naan, capati, tosai) are good choices, and DO insist on being given dhal (lentil-based curry dip) lest you'll be given a fish curry dip. Purely vegetarian Chinese restaurants (often serving remarkable "mock meat" products made from tofu, gluten etc) are quite easy to find in big urban areas with a large ethnic Chinese population. Getting vegetarian food in rural areas, especially those near fishing villages or in Muslim/Malay-dominated regions, may be more difficult, but learning some basic Bahasa Malaysia vocabulary will go a long way to help you get your message across — see the Bahasa Malaysia phrasebook. Upmarket Western restaurants, such as those serving Italian cuisine will normally have some good vegetarian options.
Veganism is rarely understood in this part of the world and is largely mistaken as a synonym for vegetarianism, yet the safest bet for a vegan is to patronize a Chinese Buddhist vegetarian restaurant (most Chinese vegetarian restaurants are essentially vegan and operated on Buddhist principles of non-killing and compassion, and thus they abstain from using dairy products, eggs, and the 5 fetid vegetables [onions, garlic, leeks, etc.] discouraged in Mahayana Buddhism). And if you're still feeling uneasy or unsure, do not hesitate to ask.
Budget hotels and youth hostels are available in most cities and around most tourist destinations. As with most budget accommodations, some are more reliable than others. Be cautious when selecting budget accommodation to avoid places that house illegal vice activities.
Larger cities will have YMCAs that are safe bets. Another noticeable budget hotel chain is Tune Hotels,  an affiliate of the budget airline, Airasia. They are expanding and have hotels at numerous locations throughout the country
Mid range hotels are readily available just about anywhere. Prices of 3-4 star hotels are upwards from RM100 and are generally reliable in terms of quality.
5 star hotels, service apartments and resorts are located in larger cities like Kuala Lumpur, Penang, Johor Bahru, Kota Kinabalu and Kuching. Also, almost all islands have upscale resorts and spas for the wealthy traveller. Malaysia is renowned for having among the cheapest 5-star hotels in the world.
Malaysians like both coffee (kopi) and tea (teh), especially the national drink teh tarik ("pulled tea"), named after the theatrical 'pulling' motion used to pour it. By default, both will be served hot, sweet and with a dose of condensed milk; request teh o to skip the milk, teh ais for iced milky tea, or teh o ais for iced milkless tea. Drinking with no sugar at all is considered odd, but asking for kurang manis (less sugar) will ease the pain. However, if you really want no sugar at all, you can try asking for "teh kosong."
Another peculiar local favourite is the kopi tongkat ali ginseng, a mixture of coffee, a local aphrodisiacal root, and ginseng served with condensed milk that's touted as an alternative to viagra and red bull combined and is usually advertised with a picture of a bed broken in half.
Other popular nonalcoholic options include the chocolate drink Milo, lime juice (limau), and sirap bandung (a rose-flavoured milky drink). Freshly made fruit juices are also widely available, as well as a wide range of canned drinks (some familiar, some less so).
Topically and, perhaps, politically incorrect, is a local drink comprised of white soya milk and black grass jelly (cincau) called a Michael Jackson and can be ordered at most hawker centre and local roadside cafes ("mamak")
Although Malaysia has a Muslim majority, alcohol is available freely in restaurants, pubs, night clubs, convenient stores, supermarkets and even hawker stalls for the consumption of its non Muslim citizens & visitors. Tax-free islands such as (Labuan, Langkawi, Tioman) and duty free shops (for example in Johor Bahru), prices are comparatively cheap compared to other states.
In East Malaysia, particularly Sarawak, tuak is a common affair for any celebration or festivals such as Gawai Dayak and Christmas Day. Tuak is made from fermented rice which sometimes sugar, honey or other various condiments are added. It is normally served lukewarm without ice. Visitors can choose from 'strong' flavour of tuak (which is normally being fermented for years), or 'mild' flavour (which sometimes just being prepared a week or even a day before). In Sabah, cheap liquors are very widely available at most supermarkets and mini markets in the state. Other alcoholic drinks such as beer and whisky are also widely available. On the other hand, Tuak in Kelantan is also can be considered as a liquor since that it contains trace amount of fermented nipah or sap juice. The alcohol content in Kelantan tuak can easily reach 50% after 3 days from the time it was extracted.
Tapai, consists of cassava that is fermented and eaten as a food (though the liquid in the bottom can also be drunk).
Malaysia's universities are generally well-regarded and draw exchange students from near and far.
In addition to this, several foreign universities have established campuses in Malaysia, providing the opportunity for foreign education in a Malaysian atmosphere. Among them are Monash University, Swinburne University of Technology and Nottingham University.
Obtaining a working visa takes some effort. The easiest way to work in Malaysia is probably to work for an overseas company and get posted to Malaysia. The Malaysian Immigration Department website  has basic advice. In order to obtain a work permit, you need to have an offer from your future employer who will have to do the paperwork for you. It's very expensive and comes with many restrictions if a company wants to hire a foreigner and as such next to impossible. As stated above, a feasible way is to get transfered. Finding a job is otherwise unlikely unless you are getting married to a local and even then it remains difficult.
Another possibility to work in Malaysia is as a volunteer, even though it is unpaid. Whether you want to express your love for animals or support the local community, you will get plenty of opportunities to do good in this country. To get an overview over all the volunteering possibilities in Malaysia, it's best to visit a comparison platform.
Women need to be a little more vigilant, especially if carrying a handbag or wearing jewelry, as snatch thefts are fairly common in large urban areas. Local women in major cities do not usually walk alone late at night unless absolutely necessary. Unfortunately kidnapping of young women and children does occasionally happen, but can usually be avoided by practicing reasonable caution.
Beware of Scratch and Win Scams
Scratch and Win Scams are rampant in all over Malaysia. Victims are given reward tickets to scratch/tear/peel off on spot to see if they win prizes. In these cases, victims would be informed that they had won prizes in foreign lottery or lucky draws.
The scammers would ask victims to make advance payment if they wanted to claim their prizes. They would even offer victims car rides to withdraw the large sums of money, reported a local news source. After which, victims would realise that the prizes never existed or were of lower value than previously promised.
Reports on pickpockets and snatch-and-run thieves have been sometimes heard in large cities like Kuala Lumpur, Georgetown and Johor Bahru. As a general precaution, never carry your bags on the side facing the road & always walk facing the oncoming traffic. Additionally, walk a few feet deeper away from the roads. Women travellers should take extra precautions at night.
Credit card fraud is a growing problem. Use cards only in reputable shops.
Never bring any recreational drugs into Malaysia, even as a transit passenger. Possession of even minimal amounts can lead to a mandatory death sentence.
Drunk driving is a serious offense and breathalyzer tests by the police are common. You should not offer bribes at all - if found guilty you can be sentenced up to 20 years in jail! Anyone who tries to bribe public officials may be arrested on the spot and placed in a lock-up overnight to be charged for the offence in the morning. If this happens on a Friday or on eve of public holidays, you will find yourself spending a few nights in the lock-up as the courts are only open Monday to Friday. Do not let this dissuade you from requesting help - generally Malaysian police are helpful to tourists. You should just accept whatever traffic summons you are being issued.
When on foot, be careful when crossing the street, as vehicles will often ignore pedestrian (zebra) crossings. Also, be wary of motorcycles who usually weave in and out of traffic, do not assume you can cross without looking left and right if the cars are at a standstill. Road bullying during accidents is still common so if you are involved in an accident be very careful when negotiating or dial 999 for help.
Some taxis will refuse to use the meter, even though the official rate has changed recently and most taxis now have a sticker on the rear door that informs tourists that haggling is prohibited. Be aware that taxi drivers, sensing that you are a tourist, may drive around and take a very long route to reach your destination.
If using a taxi late at night, it is best to use the dial-a-taxi service as there have been incidents where taxis flagged down during those hours being fake/unregistered.
Public demonstrations are uncommon in Malaysia due to police crackdowns, but a number of anti-government demonstrations have been held recently. Should one occur it may be dealt with in a heavy-handed manner, so avoid them at all costs.
Alternatively, you can download apps such as GRAB or UBER and use it in major cities and pay using credit card or cash. It is very convinient and easy to book and you will know the price in advance. It is way cheaper and more comfortable than taxis. GRAB is more popular than UBER in Malaysia and south-east asian region. It is also available for airport transfers and cheaper than taxis.
Tap water is drinkable straight off the tap as it is treated (depending on location), but even locals boil or filter it first just to be on the safe side. When travelling it is best to stick to bottled water, which is very affordable.
Ice in drinks might be made from tap water but nowadays, most restaurants and even roadside stalls use the cylindrical variety with a hollow tube down the middle that are mass-produced at ice factories and are safer to consume.
Heat exhaustion is rare, but do consume lots of fluids, use a hat and sunscreen and shower often!
Peninsular Malaysia is largely malaria-free, but there is a significant risk in Borneo especially in inland and rural areas. Dengue fever occurs throughout Malaysia in both urban and rural areas, and can be avoided only by preventing mosquito bites. The mosquito that transmits dengue feeds throughout the daytime, and is most active at dawn and dusk. If you experience a sudden fever with aches and lethargy, seek medical attention immediately. Aspirin and ibuprofen should not be used until dengue fever has been ruled out. Mosquito repellents (ubat nyamuk) are widely available. Be careful with mosquito coils, which can easily start fires: set them on a plate or other non-flammable surface and extinguish them before going to sleep.
Haze from burning vegetation in neighbouring Indonesia may come and go without warning from the months of May to August so travellers with respiratory ailments should come prepared.
Most public washrooms make a small charge (generally between RM0.20-RM5.00, usually depending on the standard of the facilities) so keep some loose change to hand. If the condition of the sitting toilets is questionable, use the squatting toilets instead - both are usually available, and some believe that the latter are more hygienic and (if you can get used to them) are just as easy to use as sitting toilets.
Malaysia is largely free from earthquakes as there are no nearby faultlines, though tremors can occasionally be felt when a major quake occurs in neighbouring Indonesia. Typhoons also generally do not occur. However, the Nov-Jan monsoon season often results in flooding due to torrential rains, and landslides are known to occur, most notably on the East Coast. Tsunamis are a rare occurence, though Penang and a few islands on the north of the West Coast were hit by the infamous tsunami in 2004.
Government health care facilities are cheap but good, but many visitors prefer to seek out private medical care. Private medical costs can be high and having travel insurance is a very good idea.
You can find specialist private doctors and clinics via MYDOC.my , it is a local and modern location based health care resources providing patients/consumers with the information that are required for them to make informed decisions on choosing their medical/healthcare service provider. Such information may include the doctor’s experience, ex-patients’ satisfaction, quality of the clinic and/or its facilities etc. But if you are in an emergency, please call 999, the national emergency contact number.
When entering a home or a place of worship, always take off your shoes. Also, never eat with your left hand, or give a gift with your left hand; and never point with your forefinger (you may use a closed fist with the thumb instead), point with your feet or touch a person's head.
Public showing of affection in larger cities is tolerated but might invite unnecessary attention from the public. In more rural areas it is frowned upon and is to be avoided.
Swastikas are an ancient symbol commonly seen in Hindu and Buddhist temples. They are typically a reverse image of those used by Nazis and do not express similar sentiments or anti-Semitism, so Western visitors should not feel offended when seeing it in the homes of their hosts.
Homosexuality is illegal and penalties are severe. Penalties can range from fines to whipping and 20 years imprisonment.
Despite this, Malaysia welcomes a large number of people from the gay community per year into the country. If you refrain from public displays of affection, immodest dressing (or atypical dressing aka men wearing dresses) and public advocacy of LGBT issues then you will find little trouble from any authority.
Malaysia is one of the first countries in the world to offer 4G connectivity. Free Wi-Fi is easily available in almost all restaurants, fast-food outlets, shopping malls, City-wide wireless connections and in some hawker stalls. Prepaid Internet cards are also available to access wireless broadband, in some cafes.
Customers usually pay RM1.00 to RM5.00 per hour for Internet services in a cybercafe (depending on which city you're in). Internet connections offered in restaurants and cafes are usually free and more and more food outlets are offering this. These include all Starbucks and Coffeebean, and some McDonald's and Subway, and an increasing number of smaller places.
Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) also provides free Wi-Fi throughout the airport.
The country code for Malaysia is 60.
To call a Malaysian number:
Malaysia also has four mobile telephone service providers, Maxis , DiGi , Celcom , and U Mobile  which utilise codes 012, 013, 014, 016, 017, 018, 019. Network connection in Malaysia is excellent. Mobile number portability has been implemented in Malaysia, meaning a code like 012 that traditionally belonged to Maxis, can now be a DiGi subscriber. Mobile networks utilize the GSM 900 and 1800 systems. 3G (WCDMA), EDGE & HSPDA networks available in larger towns. International roaming onto these networks is possible if your operator allows it
Malaysian SIM cards will usually come with free ringback tones for one month. Explain to your callers that you have it, otherwise they will assume that they have dialed the wrong number.
To call a Malaysian mobile number:
To call from Malaysia to another country:
Many international courier services like Fedex, DHL and UPS are available in towns and cities but the main postal service provider is Pos Malaysia  which reliably provides postal services to most countries in the world.
Postage rates in Malaysia are cheap. Much much cheaper than Thailand ,Singapore or Vietnam, and surface post is available as well. In addition the mail is reliable and trustworthy. When posting, do not seal the box. This is to allow for inspection in case illegal items are posted this way.
A local alternative to the international courier companies mentioned above is the Pos Laju, which provides just as reliable a service but at a fraction of the costs!
Non-urgent letters and postcards can be dropped in postboxes inside post offices or red postboxes found outside post offices and along main roads. If there are two slots in a postbox use the one that says "lain lain" for international post.
Post offices are open from 8AM to 5PM daily except Sundays and public holidays, although a few in Klang Valley stay open till 10PM. In the states of Kedah, Kelantan and Terengganu they are closed on Fridays and public holidays.
There are eight main radio stations in Malaysia:
Most radio stations in Kuala Lumpur broadcasts 24 hours a day. There are many local radio stations (both private and government) in the countryside. Most local radio stations do not broadcast 24 hours a day. The local radio stations in cities broadcast until midnight, and in towns until 8 or 9 pm. Radio jamming is common in Malaysia, and radio stations do not have the RDS, so you have to carefully listen to the ID to identify whether it's the one you want to listen or not.
There are seven television channels in Malaysia: