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Iraqi Kurdistan

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The Kurdistan Region of Iraq is an autonomous region within the Federal Republic of Iraq. The Kurdistan region is distinctive with its prevailing stability and security, and with the tolerance and co-existence of it's people including all its different ethnic components who are renowned for their friendliness, love and respect for their guests, especially for foreign visitors.


The Kurdistan region is a multi ethnic and multi religious region in northern Iraq whose majority are Kurds.


The major cities ruled by the KRG are:


Having been spared the war of 2003, Kurdistan Region is a very different place from middle and southern Iraq. With a minimal level of terrorist activity and massive economic development, Iraqi Kurdistan is fast becoming a "gateway to Iraq" with high levels of foreign investment and development of infrastructure and tourism.

Be careful when discussing nationalist issues which many Kurds feel strongly about. Also read up on the Al-Anfal campaign and chemical attack on the Kurds by Saddam Hussein to exterminate droves of Kurds in the late 1980s - although this was over thirty years ago, the event coloured the last few decades of Kurdish history. There are several powerful reminders of it, such as the Amna Suraka prison in Suleymaniyah.

And be careful about calling a Kurd Iraqi because they don't count themselves Iraqi, even though they are Iraqi citizens by records, they say Kurds are from Kurdistan -the land of the Kurds- and not Iraq, and recently the president of Iraqi Kurdistan was claiming to announce the Kurdish State, which is a serious debate in the region.

In Iraq, Kurds and Arabs are very different. They have a different language, different culture, different life style. Kurdish society consists of variety of religions and beliefs, including Muslims, Christians, Jews, Yazidis, Kakayis, Zoroasterians, Yarsanis, Hawaris, Ahli haqs ...etc. All living together in peace.

In general, Iraqi Kurdish people are very friendly, you can make friends with anybody and start talking to anyone on the street, so be open to new experiences.


Iraqi Kurdistan refers to the 3 Kurdish northern Iraqi Provinces, which are autonomous of the central Iraqi government and ruled by the Kurdistan Regional Government. These provinces achieved de facto independence after an uprising in 1991 and their autonomy has now been enshrined into the Iraqi federal constitution. The 3 Kurdish Provinces are, Duhok, Erbil, and Sulaymaniya. Although the city Kirkuk is largely inhabited by Kurds, but it is not under the rule of the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG). Kirkuk and some other parts such as Diyala and Mosul are disputed. The Kurds claim that these places are originally Kurdish but were subjected to harsh Arabization by the ousted Ba'ath party which ruled Iraq for 30 years. They want these cities to return to Kurdish autonomy. Apart from the 3 Kurdish provinces, it is not safe to travel to the disputed places. While it is very safe to travel to Duhok and Sulaymaniya, it is not safe to travel to Kirkuk,Erbil and Diyala.

To learn more about the place, culture, information on places and directions, take alook at these websites:

  • The formal Kurdistan Government website: [1]
  • Official site of General Board of Tourism provide information about sites, accommodations, events...[2]

Get in[edit]

Citizens of the US, the UK, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Turkey and all EU member states are automatically given a free 30 day entry stamp on arrival. Just step right off the plane, get your passport stamped and as long as there's nothing sketchy in your bag like military stuff, you will not be quizzed at all about what you intend to do in Iraq or anything. If they do find any sketchy military stuff in your bag (they x-ray your bag after you get off the plane) they'll confiscate it and give you a ticket which you can use to get it back when you leave.

Most other nationalities must obtain a "Iraq - Kurdistan Region" visa in advance. However, you will have to report to the Residency Office within 10 days of your arrival if you want to stay longer than 10 days. This involves many forms to fill out, around $30 USD in fees as well as a compulsory blood test to check for Hep C and HIV (although this does not seem to be the case anymore). Be prepared to wait for around 2-3 hours throughout this whole process. Please be cautious about your visa stamp, however - if you arrived by bus, make sure your visa stamp does NOT feature a car (otherwise, they will not let you leave the country (without hassle) unless you are in a car). This is a rare mistake but just stay aware!

Border control is unfortunately fairly strict (for people who are not citizens of the US, the UK, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Turkey or the EU.) If you have a contact in Kurdistan, come armed with their name and address. If you don't, make sure you have a very good idea of what exactly you will be doing and where you will be staying.

You don't need to worry about any of these precautions if you are a citizen of the aforementioned states.

The KRG (Kurdistan Regional Government) has produced a fact sheet (PDF) on travel to the Kurdistan region of Iraq. [3]

By plane[edit]

Iraqi Kurdistan is served by two international airports:

  • Erbil international Airport (EBL) [4]
  • Silamani International Airport (ISU/ORSU) [5]

There are daily flights to Europe and Turkey as well as other Middle Eastern cities, such as Beirut, Dubai and Amman, especially from Erbil International Airport.

By bus[edit]

You can take buses from Istanbul to Silopi, the closest town on the Turkish side, and then take a shared taxi across the border to Zakho, the closest town to the border on the Iraqi side. The taxi driver should charge around $50 - $60 to take you across the border. If coming from Syria, don't attempt to cross straight from Syria to Iraq - extremely bad idea. Instead, get to Al-Qamishli in Syria, walk across the border to Nusaybin, and ask around for a bus to Silopi. To get to Al-Qamishli from Damascus is about 9 hours, and to get from Nusaybin to Silopi is about 4 hours.

Recently more companies are running buses linking Erbil with Diarbakir (about 9-15 hours depending on border traffic) and even Istanbul. The easiest option is to fly (or take a bus) to Diyarbakir - every morning at least 3 Busses leave from the Otogar to Duhok (50-60TL, 7hrs), Erbil (70-80TL, 12hrs) and Suleymani

The border formalities may take as little as 45 minutes or as long as 7 hours. No papers nor photocopies are needed, and the procedure is not that complex as written in resources dating as recently as a year ago - all you need is your passport. The inbound is actually quite comfortable; For example you get a cup of tea and lounge on a couch watching TV until they finish processing your passport.

Buses from in Iraq-bound direction are cheaper than the Turkey-bound buses, maybe this is caused by longer queues on the border. Have prepared 30 USD (towards Erbil) or 40 USD (towards Dyiarbakir) and negotiate.

From Iran, regular buses connect Tehran to Sulaymaniyah. Buses cost approximately 70,000 toman (700,000R Iranian Rials) and are VIP. Most leave at night and will arrive at the border around midday. Be prepared to wait in the bus for some time before disembarking. The border crossing (especially on the Iranian side) can be quite a hassle for non-locals. You will need to buy some kind of exit permit for a fee (about the equivalent of US$10): try to find someone able to translate for you since all signs are in Farsi and it's hard to find any clue of what is being expected from you. In case you're picked out for questioning and/or searching of bags, make sure there's someone you can trust to translate for you as well. Questions, including political ones about opinions, can be asked by the officials. NEVER answer anything even close to being negative, just appease them and be friendly and patient. Being a 'stupid tourist' works better than engaging in political discussions. The Kurdistan side of the border seems quite orderly, though be sure to follow all orders and instructions by any official closely. From Sulaymaniyah it is possible to catch a taxi to Arbil, they'll be waiting when the bus arrives (depending the bus company you have taken from Iran).

Get around[edit]

By Taxi or Bus[edit]

To travel between cities, take a shared taxi from the garages at each city. Taxis are relatively cheap - sometimes as much as 15000 to 30000 IQD - which is ~ 13 to 26 USD, they are really the only fast way around. Shared taxis may go through Mosul or Kirkuk (or near these cities).

Inside the bigger cities, there are bus services, which may require you to find a guide sheet - free usually, but note that in some places they will sell them for a few couple of dollars - in any major supermarket or shopping malls, in order to learn the bus routes as street designs in Kurdistan since they are quite different from the rest of the world.

All streets are designed in circles, from the centre, it will start from the 20 meter street, 30M St. 40M St. 60M St. 100M St. etc... and the bus lines are named after the street names, and they arrive every 10 minutes, but only while the sun still shines, meaning no buses during night time (after sunset), and also, there are bus services between circle streets, where each bus is named by its final destination (100 to 20, as an example, will be named bus 20).

Taxis are everywhere. Everywhere. The taxis are beige and/or red and/or white coloured sedan cars, mostly are brand new Toyota Corollas and Nissan Sunny and Skodas (national favorites). Since there is no metro nor railway system in place (yet, see below), taxis are a nice alternative, they could take you anywhere for a 4 to 10 USD price in a big city like Erbil which is relatively cheap.

Make sure you speak to the taxi driver before you ride; tell him your destination, and ask what the fare will be, and since they do not have meters to price you, they will just charge you for the distance. For example, if you take a taxi from one end of the city to the other end, they may charge you 10 to 12 dollars. But if you go from a neighbourhood to another, they charge you from 4 dollars. The majority of taxi drivers are quite fair and reasonable. If you tell them the distance, they will tell you the correct price. They don't take tips, because the tips are included in the price, and each taxi driver own their car, so they own their business.

By plane[edit]

Air travel between Silamaniya and Hawler is available and cheap (around 100 USD for a round trip), although this is only a 2 hour trip by road.

By train[edit]

The railway is not yet operational, although there are plans to refurbish this line which was once the final leg of the "orient express" railway.


Kurdish is the official language and most widely spoken. You will be able to find people to understand basic Arabic and basic English. Also, higher learning institutes produce teenagers eager to practice their foreign language skills in many towns and a large number of expat Kurds have returned home, bringing with them languages as diverse as Swedish and Japanese.


The currency in Kurdistan Region-Iraq is Iraqi Dinars however it is often possible to pay in US Dollars (however one should expect a worse exchange rate). There are ATMs however there are none in the city centre itself - it is easier to find ATMs in the Christian Ainkawa neighborhood, a short taxi ride outside of Erbil. They can be found in some of the bigger hotels, as well as the Family Mall and Majidi Mall. Occasionally, the ATMs' server will go down and it will not be possible to withdraw money. Combined with their scarcity, it is advisable to retrieve all the money needed in one go, the possibility of ending without any cash (and no store accepts cards) is pretty high and pretty stressful. Don't forget to check if the bank in your country will accept requests from Iraqi Kurdistan (many European cards will be refused in local ATMs!). It is also easy to ask shopkeepers and retailers to change your currency and mostly kurdish people familiar with USD and almost every one knows about the upto date exchange rate. You can regard USD as second Kurdish currency. In Sulaimaniyah city you can find currency exchange shops in Mwlawee St. and Dollars Bazar in Khanaqa area. So don't worry if you have only USD in Iraqi Kurdistan you can exchange it easily.

Money (euros, dollars) can be exchanged against Dinars for reasonable to good rates with merchants around the citadel in Arbil: look for people sitting down, selling sim cards; often there's a bunch of money visible in their showcase. Rates and prices will be shown on a calculator before the actual transaction.

Get around[edit]

See[edit][add listing]

Kurdistan Region is, at certain times of the year, a land of rugged beauty, characterized by mountains, ravines, waterfalls and natural water springs. It has long been famed in Middle Eastern literature as a paradise on earth, owing to its plentiful scenes of natural beauty which are in such contrast to the somewhat arid scenes so prominent in surrounding areas. However, don't expect particularly beautiful landscapes in the dry summer, except for those sites located in distant mountainous areas.

  • 'Hawler Citadel' is in the centre of the Kurdistan Capital, Hawler (also known as Erbil). At 6,500 years old at least, this ancient mound is one of the world's contenders for the most ancient continuously inhabited city. Nowadays, the citadel continues to be the main attraction, along with some slightly confusing souks beneath. The city is expanding in all directions, with the recent development of a huge shopping mall.
  • The site of the famous battle between Alexander the Great and King Darius, is just under 90 mins drive from Erbil city and close to Jerwana (Sennacherib's aqueduct to Nineveh) and Mar Matti, a 4th century Syriac Orthodox monastery
  • Parastaga Zardasht: A recently discovered ancient Zoroastrian/Mithradate temple in Duhok province.
  • Chemi Rezan: The famous caves in which the earliest human ceremonial burial site was discovered by German archeologists. The area is now carefully protected, however access is still possible.
  • Sulaimanya is center of education and culture in Kurdistan
  • Haj Omaran:The gorgeous ski resort in the north of Hawler province with its distinctive moderate temperature and lovely scenery.
  • Gali Ali Bag: The highest waterfall in the middle east.
  • Bexal: Another beautiful waterfall.
  • Jinokan: Yet another waterfall.
  • (Delal bridge)in Zakho: The oldest example of a open arch bridge in the middle east, dating back to Abbasid times.
  • Dokan lake: A large lake lying at an altitude of 900m.
  • Lalish — "Holy city" of Yazidis
  • Numerous religous sites: Especially of the Judeo-christian faiths, such as the tomb of the prophet Daniel in Kirkuk province, the 9th century St. Thomas monastery and Jewlakan, Jewish quarter of Silamani, with its numerous newly renovated synagogues.
  • Gondik — ancient cave paintings
  • Amedi — a 4,000 year old town perched on the peak of a mountain, rumored home of the Biblical Magi, and confirmed home to Assyrian ruins

Do[edit][add listing]

Hiking- remember not to go to Iranian border mountains as they kidnapped three US hikers in 2009- Iraqi Kurdistan is a mountainous region and there are very high mountains.

Weddings: If you make friends with Kurds they will invite you to the weddings. Kurdish weddings are big and a lot of people attend. They are going to eat and dance; it is pretty much fun. Some people offer alcohol too in the parties.

Fridays and Saturdays: Most of people during Fridays and Saturdays go out to mountains and outside of the city. They take food with them and spend time outdoors. If you have friends, they will invite you to go with them.

Hospitality: Kurdistan culture is famous for hospitality and generosity. You can knock at anyone's door and they will welcome you in. That is not common anywhere else. Kurdistan people are very friendly people, and if they know you, they will invite you more often to have lunch and dinner with them.

Sports: Soccer is big. You see football fields everywhere. Bowling, golf, tennis, table tennis, volleyball, too. You can find any sports club and join most are for a charge. It is possible to see the local soccer team, Erbil Sports Club, play matches in the Iraqi Premier League and the AFC Cup. These games are usually on a Thursday or Friday. Tickets are under 1 USD and the games are played at the Franso Hariri Stadium, a short walk from the city centre.

Gym: look up or ask what is nearest gym around you.

Bars and Restaurants: there are a lot of types of Eastern and Western bars and restaurants especially in Erbil City.

Enjoying the beauty of the nature: going out on tour trips to mountains and historical sites.

Much more to do. Just make friends. It is easy.

Eat[edit][add listing]

Meat! As with many other middle eastern people. The people of Kurdistan are voracious carnivores. Local foods include: Kebab, dolma (stuffed grape vines), yaprax (assorted stuffed vegetables ranging from onions to courgettes, shila u brinc (the Iraqi national dish, composing chicken, rice alongside a soup, which is made from many vegetables such as okra "bamiya", and the infamous gipa (much like haggis).

However, it's not exactly going to be haute cuisine. Be prepared to have a fairly grubby food experience. The shawarma shops are surprisingly tasty, with slices of meat served in very nice samoon breads - but they aren't exactly A* cuisine. You can also almost always get a falafel sandwich in the same type of place. Such a sandwich costs 1,000 dinars or less (less than a dollar)) Apart from that, there are a lot of kebab or roast chicken restaurants where you will get some bread, some rice, some soup and some meat. In a sit down restaurant like this, you pay about 3,000 dinars for your meal. It's about 1,000 dinars for each item. If you are a vegetarian or especially a vegan, you will have a hard time : most falafel places store the falafel together with the meat and they may be soaked in grease, such as the bread used to wrap them, soup often contains animal products (milk, butter, meat), hummus may contain yoghurt, etc. Naan are safe ; there are plenty of stalls where to by fresh fruits and vegetables.

Also you can find western style food in big malls in major cities, they have Chesters, Fatburger, Burger Queens, Pizza huts, King Burgers, New York fries, etc...

Drink[edit][add listing]

Bottled water is widely available. you can buy small ones (250 IQD-25 cents). They'll be sold in any small shop or markets on the street you can find small markets on every corner, Make sure they are sealed when you buy them. Don't drink the tap water.

The majority of Kurdish People are Sunni Muslims, so alcohol is not sold or served just anywhere. However, you can go to the classic bars; there are a lot of them in the cities like; Teachers bars, Engineers bars, Doctors bars, Workers etc.. or you can go to a modern ones most bars or clubs are located in the Christian boroughs of the cities, and most new restaurants serving alcohol alongside the food menu, or you can go to any drinking lounge in hotels, also there are a lot of liquor stores, visitors are advised to try the Kurdish "Arak" (there are loads of Araks throughout the Middle Eastern countries - Lebanon, Syria etc. and Iraq has its own version), a concoction of fermented dates and aniseed which can, as local tradition has it, "make the driest eye cry". European beers, lagers and ales are also obtainable as are locally produced wines, which makes up for what the local alcohol lack in sophistication.

In the Erbil suburb of Ainkawa (A Christian village originally accessible by a short taxi ride from downtown Irbil), the traveler will find a fairly wide selection of alcohol and the prices are quite reasonable.

Also there is a lot of Cafe shops and restaurants just find a guidance booklet.

The German Bar - Located in Ainkawa in a residential area,its a favorite for expats. Outdoor bar and stage. Gunther puts on a big bonfire for Easter, Xmas, 4th of July, Canada Day etc... The food is really good. In the warmer months he puts on a BBQ.

T-Bar - Good Food (most of the time). Quiz night on Mondays is pretty rowdy. Friday nights the lights dim and the dance music gets really loud. Then all the Kurdish dudes dance with each other.

Race Track - Newly renovated 2 level reso-bar concept on a go-kart track. Good food, expensive drinks, not a lot of commingling of the guests. Fun to go with some mates, drink and get behind the wheel..

Skybar - On the top floor of the Noble Hotel. Great views, good food, expensive drinks. Sometimes its booked for private functions.

The Marina - What you will find is 5-6 hundred Iraqi people sitting at tables in their best gigs, having food and hitting the hookah.

Hotel Azmar Aka Azmar Palace - It is on the top of the mountain overlooking the city. Nice views outside and inside.

  • Assyrian Cultural Club, Duhok. The best bar in Duhok, the Assyrian Cultural Club (markaz adth-thakafi ashuree) is a charming combination of friendly bar/restaurant and bingo hall. Very fond of Westerners. Open until 1am. Thursday is family night and the place is crowded with Christian families, including their children, and single men or groups of are not allowed on Thursdays. (,Duhok) edit

Stay safe[edit]

Currently Iraqi Kurdistan is considered as a safe place, but you should stay sharp on security. You should plan where you want to go in Kurdistan. Dohuk and Erbil city are controlled by the Kurdistan Democratic Party, while Sulaymanyah and Halabja is controlled by the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan. In the mean time, Kurdish people are very friendly and helpful.

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