If you are not planning to do any trekking, then you will not need any special equipment, or even warm clothing as you will be able to pick up good warm clothing on entry to the region. If you do need warm clothes, don't miss the second-hand markets selling attire from wealthy nations.
If you are trekking, the equipment you will need depends on your destination, in most of Nepal you will need nothing more than a sleeping bag and a pair of boots; the Indian Himalaya offer a large number of routes that are possible to trek independently if you have a tent, stove, and all the equipment needed for unsupported trekking.
Most parts of the Himalaya are connected to the plains to the south, by bus and airplane.
The Himalaya are a home to a diverse number of people, languages, and religions. Generally speaking Islam is prevalent in the west, Hinduism in the southern ranges of the eastern Himalaya, and Buddhism in the northern ranges of the western Himalaya. While there are numerous languages spoken, Hindi/Urdu (when written, they are two totally different languages, when spoken they are nearly interchangeable) will take you very far, as it is understood by the majority in the Pakistani, and Indian Himalaya. In Nepal it's not very useful, but it does have significant overlap with Nepali, and as such gives you a head start with that language.
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Set Oct Nov Dec Min temp °C 2 4 7 12 16 19 20 20 19 13 7 3 Max temp °C 18 19 25 28 30 29 29 28 28 27 23 19 Rainfall mm 15 41 23 58 122 246 373 345 155 38 8 3
Flora and Fauna
The diversity of wildlife in the himalayas is huge. In the lower ranges, tigers, leopards, and the one horned rhinocerous can be found while the higher altitudes support a smaller but more unique group of animals. These include the snow leopard, Markhor goat, argali, and red panda.
The northern Areas of Pakistan offers some of the most visually stunning parts of the Himalaya. The trekking in Northern areas is arduous, seldom without glacier crossings, and not for the inexperienced, or unprepared. Local law, and good sense, prohibit trekking without a local guide on most routes. As such it is one of the more costly parts of the Himalaya for trekking. The people in this area, while being almost entirely mulslim, are diverse, with numerous languages, and different types of Islam followed--some highly conservative, some noticeably liberal.
This highway leads North from Pakistan into Western China.
Some parts of Azad Kashmir is off limit for foreigners especially the buffer zone (India-Pakistan line of control), due to the ongoing conflict with India.
This is a very conservative, largely tribal area, much of which would be unwise for tourists to visit, Peshawar is an exception to this, and is an fascinating, accessable look at a Pashtoon city.
Picturesque forested mountains, this was a popular destination with travelers until the conflict escalation between Pakistan and India. While Srinagar is reasonable safe, don't spend time in the country-side. Ladakh is the important exception to this. Offering much in the way of sight-seeing, and trekking it's not to be missed.
A pleasant, laid back, predominantly Hindu state, with a Tibetan Refugee population; popular with Tourists.
Another state of India, the source of the Ganges, it has a number of pilgrimage sites.
Wedged between, Nepal, Bhutan, China and West Bengal, Sikkim was predominately Buddhist until the 19th century, when numerous Nepalis came. As such there are many, Buddhist monasteries, and related sights. Trekking here is limited due to the closeness of the border with China. You must take a guide and go as a group, there are very limited number of routes.
Seldom visited by tourist, this state is a fascinating mix, with a large tribal population, people follow, Animist, Hindu, Buddhist, and Baptist Christian religous traditions.
A major tourist destination, with numerous sightseeing, trekking, and other adventure sport opportunities, Nepal has a level of tourist specific infrastructure far in advance of anywhere else in the region. Here you can trek for a month and stay in guest houses every night, and need not carry more than a change of clothes or two, and your sleeping bag.
A fascinating little kingdom, Bhutan only issues visas to tourists on expensive group tours or to individuals who benefit the country, i.e. NGO workers, or exchange students.
The northern borders of India, Nepal and Bhutan generally follow the Ganges-Brahmanputra watershed, however the Himalaya extend north of this watershed. There are also outlying ranges rising out of the plateau northward to the Brahmaputra (or Yarlung Tsangpo as the river is called in Tibet) which are included with the Himalaya. This part of the Himalaya is less explored, often difficult of access, and has numerous unclimbed peaks.
Most sights relate to the mountains themselves, and to religious structures, Muslim, Hindu and Buddhist. Many of the most popular destinations are sights in themselves.
Trekking is the most popular activity, with a wide selection of possibilities, from deserts to jungles. It's also popular to study Yoga or Meditation. White Water Rafting is popular in many places
In general the Himalayas have fewer dangers than the more densely populated plains around them.
Flights out of the Himalayas are often cancelled due to bad weather, be sure to give yourself at least a few days before needing to catch a connecting flight. If you do not you will be stuck there and be having to pay extra.