Herat (Persian: هرات) is a big, relatively wealthy city in western Afghanistan.
A view of Herat from the city's center.
Herat is the second largest city in Afghanistan, located in the north western part of Afghanistan. It is famous as Nagin Aseeya or Diamond of Asia in some literature. The city has a history of more than 3000 years. History of this city is very eventful. It was destroyed and rebuilt many times. After the fall of the communist government in Afghanistan in the early 1990s, the city changed it's face due to development by Ismail Khan (Amir Ismail Khan), a local Jihadi Commander who ruled Herat till the takeover by the Taliban. Ismail Khan became the governor of this province again after the fall of Taliban and the establishment of the Karzai Government. He has continued to build on his earlier works.
The people are very friendly and hospitable to foreigners and are also more religious than people in Kabul. Most of the young understand some English and occasionally other foreign languages. It is comparatively safer than some other provinces of Afghanistan.
Herat International Airport
The Herat International Airport is situated 15km south of the city just east of the road towards Farah. Daily flights from Kabul are available from "Safi Airways" (http://www.safiairways.com), Kam Air , Ariana  for 3500 Afg, and Pamir Airways , for 4000 Afg. Both UNAMA and UNHAS operate flights between Kabul and Herat, occasionally via Bamiyan, available to staff of partner NGOs.
A bus service is available from Mashhad in Iran, buses are supposed to leave a 7 AM from the bus terminal but departure times are flexible, be there early. Arrival at the border is around noon and in Herat a bit after 3 PM. Border procedures are relatively straightforward.
Overland travel by car can be both time-consuming and dangerous. The road from Kandahar has been rebuilt but is extremely dangerous as it passes through Helmand and Farah, both which are active war zones. The roads from Iran and Turkmenistan are both in good shape, the later one being tarred. However, expect a few craters here and there. There are occasional security incidents on the road from Turkmenistan as trouble spills over from Badghis province which is unstable. Get up-to-date advice before attempting this route. The A76 highway connects to Mazar-e Sharif via Maimana. The upgrade of this road is not yet complete, largely due to the kidnapping of the construction team in April 2009. This route is not recommended.
The central route to Kabul via Chagcheran and the Minaret of Jam is a very rough 3-6 day journey, sleeping in chaikanas along the way. It used to be a possible route until 2010 when several travelers reported no safety issues.
However the situation has considerably worsened in recent years and as of Sept 2013, the Taliban have large or total control across all the eastern districts of Herat province and the western districts of Ghor province (i.e. west Chaghcheran, including the Minaret of Jam), with no plan of the government troops to retake the area (or even increasing the police presence) any time soon.
Visiting the Minaret of Jam, as of Sept 2013, is no longer possible as the district is one where the Taliban have asserted full control now.
Update 2016: It seems as though both Chagrcharan and the Minaret of Jam are now under government control, and the central route "might" be possible. Taliban still have large control of parts on the northern and southern route. If planning an overland trip through Afghanistan, DO NOT TAKE IT LIGHTLY. Do plenty of research beforehand and ask around locally. PROCEED AT OWN RISK.
The Museuam inside the Herat Citadel
Ghala Ekhteyaradin, Takht Safar, Bagh Milat, Bagh Shaidayee, Masjid Jami, Howz Charso, Minarets, Poli Malan (Malan Bridge), Gowhar Shad Tomb, Gazer Gah Sharif, Sang Haft Ghalam, Dig Masjid Jami and many other nice and beautiful places exist in Herat and are really worth a visit. Some of these historical places are expected to be nominated as world heritage sites by UNESCO soon.
- The Friday Mosque is more than 800 years old, full of life and incredibly beautiful. Be sure to seek out the craftsmen's shop behind the main entrance, where you can watch them cut tiles and lay out new pieces for the building.
- The Herat Citadel is on a hill to the west of the old city, with great views overlooking the city. It has recently reopened to visitors after being used by the military to store ammunition for the last few years, and has been restored by the Aga Khan Trust for Culture. It has an eerie deserted feel, and you're free to roam and climb around all you want - however, some of the paths are precarious. Entrance is 500 Afghanis, including camera fee. (Apr 16)
The Herat National Museum is located inside the Citadel and costs another 500 Afghanis to get in.
- Musalla Complex, about 2 km due north of the Citadel. Once a mosque, a medressa, and a mausoleum, all that remains is a single, precariously tethered minaret and the large domed tomb of Gowhar Shad, who commissioned the original complex. If you have time, wait for the keeper to unlock the tomb (this might involve asking the guard to call) - he will ask for a few dollars, but it's worth his $3-5 fee to see the interior. At the very back of the park behind the mausoleum, part of a second minaret, part of the madrassa, can be found with a rusting tank parked nearby.
- Minarets of Sultan Baiqara, next to the Musalla Complex. The 4 minarets are all that remains of the medressa that he built. The new Iranian-built road cuts directly through them, two on each side. Most of the once beautiful blue tiling has vanished, though the floral outlines remain.
- Tomb of Jami. Jami was a very famous 15th century Sufi poet. His tomb is highly revered, and popular with local women. To get here, walk roughly a kilometre north from the Baiqara minarets along the main road. When you get to a junction with a large monument in the center, look out to the left and the large building that looks like a mosque is the one. Otherwise, there is a taxi stand near the junction if you're out of steam or heading to Gazar Gah (50 Afg) or Takht-e Safar.
- Gazar Gah is the large and famous sufi shrine of Khoja Abdullah Ansari, tiled in blue with Kufic calligraphy. His tomb is the large blue structure at the back. There is no entrance fee, but donations are appreciated.
- Takht-e Safar, a very old and famous park situated near the mountain close to Gazar Gah.
- Military Museum, (Next to the Five Star hotel north-east of town - best to take a taxi), . An overwhelming collection of weapons and military equipment left behind after Afghanistan's numerous invasions. Upstairs is a display in memory of the Soviet invasion. The museum has not yet officially opened (Sept. 2009) but the guards will let you in for a look. edit
- Take a shower in the huge subterranean Hammams.
- There are several antique shops on the north side of the mosque that sell jewelry, tea pots, old coins, traditional clothing, etc. Be sure and look for Sultan Hamidi (0774282153) in particular - he will happily show off his photograph in the Lonely Planet guidebook, demonstrate any instruments he has for sale, and send you down the block to visit the glassblowers' workshop where many of his wares are made. Bargain hard and in Afghanis!
- There is also a silk bazaar near Chahar Su and the Friday Mosque, where you can watch the weavers at their looms and bargain on scarves and cloth.
- There are money changers near Chowk Gulha and along Bagh-e Azadi, north of the old city.
- Western Union , Bagh-e Azadi, near Da Afghanistan Bank.
- Afghanistan International Bank (AIB) , Bagh-e Azadi. This location has an ATM but is closed on Fridays.
- Kabul Bank  has a branch in Herat. It also has western union services.
- Bank Alfalah Limited* Herat Branch, Ground Floor, Chamber of Commerce & Industries, Herat Blood Bank Street, tel 0093-40-230704
Herat has a mixture of traditional and modern foods. While in Herat do not forget to try Kichiri Goshti and Chainaki. Also Halwa Sohan Herat, Shipira Zafarani and Dashlama Herati are best sweets.
- Chaikanas are plentiful, and serve cheap local Afghani food.
- Shahiste Restaurant, jad-e Badmurghan, is in the Marco Polo Hotel and is the one of the best restaurants in the city. The menu changes daily, and usually features several Iranian/Afghani options. Meals from around 200Afs.
- Arghawan Restaurant, next to the Nazary Hotel, serves kebabs and pizza, with a garden for hookah. Women may be assigned to a small "family room" at the back. Meals from around 200Afs.
- Fardeen Supermarket, jad-e Ghomandani, about two blocks north of Bagh-e Azadi. A well-stocked supermarket with plenty of western and Iranian imports.
- Thousand and One Nights, Near new US consulate (hill above University). Rice, kebabs, shisha. Waiters are dwarves in bright blue shirts, black trousers, and striped waistcoats. While this may seem patronizing, the restaurant offers them decent jobs where they would otherwise be unemployed. edit
- Mowafaq Hotel, northeast corner of Chawk-e-Golha (blue building) (GPS: 34.34872, 62.195553). Recommended. Excellent location, right next to several travel agencies and short walking distance to the Citadel and Jame Mosque, great polo restaurant just around the corner. Reasonably clean, working wi-fi and cheap gym on second floor. Rooms are clean and have cable TV. Armed guard on ground floor. USD $15 for room with shared bathroom, $20 for room with private bathroom (Apr 16). (34.34872,62.195553) edit
- Jaam Hotel, in the old city, 150m west of Darb Khosh, +93 (0) 40 223 477. Has 30 very basic double rooms, all sharing 2 squat toilets and 2 showers. Management speaks some English and is very friendly, and there is a restaurant on site. Update: Management is now trying to charge foreigners USD $20 per room but can be negotiated down to $15. Poor value - dirty linens and bathroom, extensive use of child labor, no wi-fi, no security. (Apr 16)
Guesthouses are recommended for longer stays
- Marco Polo Hotel, Jad-e Badmurghan, ☎ +93(0)40-221946, +93(0)799206192 ([email protected]). The most popular "western standards" hotel in the city. Internet access, breakfast, laundry and transportation is included. USD $30 for single room (Apr 16). edit
- Park Hotel, (Just south of Girdha Park on the road from the airport), ☎ +93(0)40-223010. Oldest hotel in Herat built in the 1930s, recently reopened after being occupied by the military. Currently still very empty and has a faded, grand old haunted house feel. Large, high-ceiling rooms have 3 single beds and large tiled bathrooms with western toilets. Surrounded by trees on secure grounds. From 1000 Afg per night, for three persons 2000 Afg. edit
- Baharistan Hery Hotel, Taher Fushanji Ave. (In the Arefi Business center), (bahar[email protected]). A new western-style hotel located on the same street as the Marco Polo Hotel. Internet and heating system avalible. Plenty of rooms (around 20) and a terrace with views of the whole city. Staff is very helpful. It was closed in fact of bad management. Since May 2012 it is open again. Contact details will follow up soon. There is no restaurant inside the Hotel but many near by. The Hotel and the rooms are very clean. Double room for 2000 AFN. edit
- Nazary Four Star Hotel, Walatay St.  +93(0)799 351899, +93(0)795 606400. A new Dubai-esque tower block on the main east-west street. Rack rates are around $84 for an en suite double but discounts are available. Rooms have a/c, heating, satellite TV and LAN internet.
Herat is one of the safer cities in Afghanistan. However, there are sometimes small usually harmless explosions attributed to political parties which are trying to make a point or create the impression that the city is not safe. Shootings and gun battles between the Afghan National Army and Afghan National Police happen rarely.
Be quiet, respectful and dress appropriately when visiting mosques and shrines. These are holy places of worship and should not be treated as tourist attractions. Be discreet with your camera.
Chisht-i-Sharif is some 177 km from Herat city. As you approach it across a plateau, you can see the two famous domes of Chisht. The town with its meandering bazaar street sits in the ravine between these plateaus. Winding down and up, you will find an avenue of pine trees leading directly to two ruined buildings now standing in the middle of an extensive graveyard. Experts argue as to the purpose of these buildings. Some speak of them as mausoleums. Others see them as parts of a grand complex of buildings. The mutilated molded terra cotta brick decoration can only speak softly their former magnificence.