Georgia (Georgian: საქართველო, Sakartvelo) is a country in the Caucasus, in between Eastern Europe and Western Asia. It is bordered by Russia in the north and northeast, by Turkey and Armenia in the south, and by Azerbaijan in the southeast. Georgia forms part of Europe's easternmost flank, straddling the continent's border with Asia. Set on the shores of the Black Sea, Georgia's coastline faces the Balkans.
Georgia is approximately the size of Ireland and lies along the same latitudes as Bulgaria, Southern France, and New York. For a country of its modest proportions, it presents a remarkable mix of landscapes and climates, ranging from some of Europe's highest mountain peaks to the vast wine-growing valleys and lush Black Sea resorts. In Greek mythology, Georgia was the site of the famous Golden Fleece sought by Jason and the Argonauts. The tales of Georgia's ancient history are not without foundation; modern archaeological evidence suggests that Georgia is the oldest winemaking country in the world, with some wine samples dating back to 6,000 years BC.
Georgia is a developing but rapidly improving country with very low levels of both crime and corruption. Starting in the mid-2000s, Georgia's tourist infrastructure has expanded substantially (as has mass tourism to popular destinations), and the number of tourists visiting the Black Sea republic has increased several fold.
Georgia has a distinctive culture and a rich history that can be traced to classical antiquity and beyond. Archaeologists have found the oldest known traces of wine production, dated 8000 years BC, in Georgia. Due to this long history of viticulture, grapevine is one of Georgia's national symbols, adorning medieval decorations, carvings and paintings. Even the current Georgian alphabet, with its characteristic curvy shapes, looks like the loops and twists of grapevines.
A people of distinct culture, Georgians are not related to the Russians, Turks or Greeks, nor do they have any ethnic or linguistic ties to other nations that surround them. There are academic theories which link Georgians to Basque and Corsican people in Southwestern Europe, but there is no definitive evidence of this (and lots of evidence against it). For centuries, Georgians have been embroiled in power struggles against the world’s biggest empires (Roman, Mongol, Byzantine, Persian, Ottoman and Russian), but they nevertheless managed to preserve their identity. In testament to this long history, Georgia's countryside is covered with ancient towered fortifications, monasteries and UNESCO World Heritage Sites, which have survived through great adversities.
The majority of Georgians are Eastern Orthodox Christian, which encompasses Greek, Russian and other European Orthodox denominations. Aside from Russia, Georgia is the only Eastern Orthodox Christian country in the region (contrary to popular belief, Armenia is Oriental Orthodox, which is a separate church). Georgia's culture is strongly influenced by Christianity, but Georgians are not as religious as they may outwardly appear. A large portion of nominally religious Georgians do not actively practice their faith and identify with religion for historical and cultural reasons. Most people attend church only on special occasions, and religious holidays are more about feasts and keeping up with traditions than religious dogma. Many religious taboos are shunned in public but widely practiced in private, a legacy of Georgia's complicated history.
The exact origin of name Georgia has never been established, but there are a number of theories as to its provenance. Some have explained the name's origin by the popularity of St. George among Georgians (St. George is Georgia's Patron Saint). Others link the name to the Greek word γεωργός ("agricultural") or some Persian variations thereof. Georgians usually tell you that the name is related to Saint George, since that is an explanation closest to their heart.
Classical and medieval periods
In Greek mythology, western coasts of Georgia were home to the famous Golden Fleece sought by Jason and the Argonauts. Incorporation of the Golden Fleece into mythology was influenced by an ancient Georgian practice of using fleeces to sift gold dust from the mountain rivers. Aside from ties to ancient Greeks, various early Georgian kingdoms were client states and allies of the Roman Empire for centuries. In the 4th century, a Greek-speaking Roman woman named Saint Nino - who was a relative of Saint George - began preaching Christianity in Georgia, leading to the eventual conversion of this previously pagan kingdom. Georgia's conversion to Christianity meant that it would have a historical and cultural leaning to the West, instead of the Muslim empires on Europe's doorstep (Turkey and Persia).
By the 10th century, various Georgian-speaking states converged to form the Kingdom of Georgia, which became a potent regional power in the 12th and 13th centuries, also known as the Georgian Golden Age. This period of revival was inaugurated by King David IV of Georgia, son of George II and Queen Helena, who succeeded in driving out the Turks. During this time, Georgia's influence spanned from the south of Ukraine in Eastern Europe to the northern gates of Persia. Like its ally Greece, Georgia was in some sense Europe's gatekeeper throughout the Middle Ages - being a peripheral country, much of the Islamic invasions hit Georgia first.
By the end of the Middle Ages, Georgia began to gradually decline and fracture due to persistent incursions of Mongols and other nomadic peoples. The Mongols were expelled by George V the Brilliant, but various Muslim conquerors followed, not giving the realm enough time to fully recover. Georgia's geopolitical situation further worsened after the Fall of Constantinople, which meant that Georgia was now an isolated enclave, surrounded by hostile Turco-Iranic neighbors with whom it had nothing in common. Under pressure, Georgia soon disintegrated, allowing Ottoman Turkey and Persia to subjugate western and eastern regions of Georgia, respectively.
18th and 19th centuries
Since the mid-15th century, rulers in both western and eastern Georgian kingdoms repeatedly sought aid from major European powers but to no avail. King Vakhtang VI of Eastern Georgia sent his emissary, Saba Orbeliani, to France and the Papal States in order to secure assistance for Georgia, but nothing tangible could be secured. Lack of Western assistance left Georgia exposed - pushed by the invading Ottoman Army, both Vakhtang and Orbeliani were eventually forced to accept the offer of protection from Peter the Great and escaped to Russia. In modern-day Georgia, Orbeliani's diplomatic mission to France would become an allegory of how the West neglects Georgian appeals for assistance.
Left with no good options, in 1783 Eastern Georgia signed the controversial Treaty of Georgievsk with the Russian Empire. Recognizing the bond of Orthodox Christianity between the two nations, the treaty established Georgia as a protectorate of Russia, while guaranteeing Georgia's territorial integrity and the continuation of its reigning dynasty. Despite the promises, however, Russia did not hold it's end of the bargain: it failed to immediately render assistance against foreign incursions and instead began to absorb Georgia piece by piece against the spirit of the original agreement. Russia downgraded the Georgian Orthodox Church to the status of a local Russian archdiocese, while also downgrading the Georgian royalty to the level of Russian nobility, all of which offended many Georgians. The country quickly turned into a resort for the Russian Imperial Family, some members of which had respiratory problems and cherished Georgia's clean, alpine climate.
Having lived more than a century under the Russian Empire, in 1918 Georgia established its first-ever modern republic with German and British military support. Russia, however, soon cajoled Georgia into becoming a neutral state, which resulted in British troops leaving the country. Once Germany and Britain were out of the equation, just several months later Russia invaded and forcibly incorporated Georgia into the Soviet Union. This unfortunate turn of events would become one the reasons why in the 21st century, military neutrality is an unpopular concept in Georgia and can end political careers.
During the Soviet era, Georgia suffered terrible repressions at the hands of its own son Joseph Stalin (himself Georgian), who had tens of thousands purged and executed. But this period also came with major changes. Georgia turned into one of the more prosperous Soviet republics renowned for its spas, resorts, cuisine and wine. Upon the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Georgia reclaimed its independence but at a heavy price. Pro-Russian separatists in Abkhazia and South Ossetia waged secessionist wars, descending the country into chaos for most of the 1990s.
Georgia's turbulent period started to come to an end following the peaceful Rose Revolution of 2003, following which the country implemented major democratic and economic reforms aimed at integration with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and various European institutions. Georgia's increasingly close relations with the United States and the European Union led to tensions with neighboring Russia, which opposes Georgia's move from its sphere of influence. Due to these lingering political disagreements, Russia and Georgia have no formal diplomatic relations and are represented by the embassies of Switzerland. In 2012, the newly-minted "Georgian Dream" (GD) party defeated the ruling "United National Movement" (UNM) party in the Georgian parliamentary elections. GD has promised better, more pragmatic relations with Russia; however, the extent to which this has been achieved is entirely open to interpretation.
According to Transparency International, as of 2018 Georgia is the least corrupt country in the Black Sea region, including all of its immediate neighbors, as well as nearby European Union States states. Georgia is a member of the Council of Europe, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, as well as Eurocontrol; since 2014, it is also part of the European Union's Free Trade Area. Although Georgia has never petitioned for EU membership, in 2014 the European Parliament overwhelmingly voted in favor of a resolution 2014/2717(RSP) which established that Georgia, along with Moldova and Ukraine, are eligible to become members of the Union in the future, provided they meet requisite standards.
The following geographic divisions are not official and only serve an illustrative purpose. Official administrative divisions and names will vary.
Nationals of Albania, Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Azerbaijan, the Bahamas, Bahrain, Barbados, Belarus, Belize, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Honduras, Iceland, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Liechtenstein, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, New Zealand, Norway, Oman, Panama, Qatar, Russia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Seychelles, Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Ukraine, United States, Uzbekistan and Vatican City may enter Georgia visa-free for up to one year. Additionally, British Overseas Territories citizens with passports issued in Bermuda, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, the Falkland Islands, Gibraltar and the Turks and Caicos Islands may enter Georgia visa-free for up to one year.
Nationals of Iran may enter Georgia visa-free for up to 45 days.
If you’re not from one of the above countries, you can get an online visa at . These are valid for multiple entries, within 30 days in a 120-day period, or 90 days in a 180-day period, depending on your nationality
Nationals of Nauru, Nicaragua, Syria and Venezuela need a visa from a Georgian embassy/consulate
The border with Russia at Zemo Larsi/Chertov Most, north of Kazbegi, was only open to Georgians and Russians for several years until 2006, when Russia closed it (‘temporarily’) to everybody. However, there is an open border crossing point with Russia at Verkhniy Lars (Верхний Ларс). It doesn't issue visa.
The crossings from Russia into South Ossetia (the Roki Tunnel) and Abkhazia (Psou River between Gantiadi and Adler) are considered illegal by Georgia. Some travellers who continued on into Georgia after entering South Ossetia or Abkhazia from Russia have been fined or jailed. Others have got away without problems.
There are flights to Tbilisi from a number of European, North American and Asian cities, including Paris with Georgian Airways, Vienna with Austrian Airlines, Warsaw (LOT Airlines), Kiev (Georgian Airways), Munich (Lufthansa), Athens (Georgian Airways), Riga (airBaltic), Istanbul (Turkish Airlines), Prague (Czech Airlines), and London (Georgian Airways). Just recently, KLM cancelled their flights to Tbilisi but you can fly with Georgian Airways from/to Amsterdam. Belavia (Belarusian National Airlines) is now offering daily direct flights from Minsk to Tbilisi at great rates, and there are plenty of connecting flights from European cities to Minsk, e.g. from Amsterdam (a transit visa is not required if you fly to Georgia).
Please note that Georgian Airways (AirZena) has many flights from many different cities. See also airBaltic for cheap flights to many European destinations.
Tbilisi is also served from the Middle East from Dubai with the low cost carrier flydubai, which offers flights three times a week.
Kutaisi Airport is served by Wizzair from Berlin, Budapest, Dortmund, Katowice, Larnaca, London Luton, Memmingen (Munich), Milan, Sofia, Thessaloniki, Vilnius and Warsaw, and by Pegasus Airlines from Istanbul Sabiha Gokcen. Georgian Bus Company provides comfortable bus transfers from the airport to major cities of Georgia, including Tbilisi. The bus schedules are synchronized with flights.
2007 saw the reopening of the airport in Batumi. Turkish Airlines flies every day between Batumi and Istanbul. Other destinations serviced by the Batumi airport include Kharkov, Kiev and Minsk (twice per week with Belavia). The Batumi airport is located about 10km south of the city centre and is accessible by minibus and taxi.
Flights to Moscow and other Russian cities are still irregular, given the current state of affairs between the two countries.
Rapidly expanding tourist infrastructure (Black sea resorts along Georgian coastline, ski resorts in the mountains of subtropical Ajara region and in Svaneti) led to the opening more international airports (most recently in the ski resort of Mestia).
There are direct bus services from Istanbul, Turkey, which stop at various places on the route and terminate in Tbilisi. There are also several non-stop bus services between Tbilisi and Baku, Azerbaijan. Buses departured from Baku International Bus Terminal every day at 21:00 and 23:00
There is a bus that goes from Ardahan, Turkey to Tbilisi every day during the summer around 10:30am. To get to Ardahan there is one marshrutka every day leaving from the old bus station (eski otogar) in Kars at 8am. There may be more buses latter in the day as well depending on the day of week and time of the year.
There are many minibuses (sing. samarshruto taxi; pl. samarshruto taxebi) that operate international routes to and from cities and large towns in Georgia. Minibuses run between Georgia and Russia (and despite the current state of affairs between two countries, are more reliable and more accessible than the often irregular flights to Russia), Azerbaijan, Armenia, Iran, and Iraq. In Tbilisi, these routes usually originate and terminate at bus stations and the Didube subway station. Outside Tbilisi, minibus routes may stop at either bus stations or central locations (town squares).
Entering with a car is no major problem. It is recommended to carry a power of attorney with you if you are not the car owner. In the past, the International Insurance Card was not valid for Georgia, purchasing insurance at the entry point was necessary (even though the amount covered to be ridiculously low). Note that only the driver may enter the control area with the car, anyone else in the car has to use the pedestrians' lane.
Roads within Tbilisi and other major cities are typically smooth and safe, but country roads are often in disrepair. Though traffic laws are enforced, driving can still be very chaotic. Drivers honk frequently and often pass with little room between vehicles, whereas pedestrians will walk into traffic without so much as a glance in either direction. In rural areas, cattle and deer may occasionally slow traffic. An adventurous traveler may find an automobile a convenient way to tour the country, but with the abundance of taxis, buses, and marshrutkas, the average traveler would be better off in the passenger's seat.
There are train services from Baku, Azerbaijan which stop at various places on the route and terminate in Tbilisi. Note that the "BP train" has been canceled. Construction of a railway linking the Turkish town of Kars to Baku, Azerbaijan-including both a new line and modernization of existing lines-is underway and will be finished sometime in 2017. This will establish a direct link from Tbilisi to Istanbul and farther to Europe. Also, there's service from Yerevan, Armenia. The train for Yerevan is old but first class offers Wi-Fi and air conditioning.
There are boat services to Batumi and Poti from Istanbul and Odessa. At the time of writing the Turkish Black Sea port of Trabzon was closed to passenger services. Be also aware that Georgian port of Sukhumi is closed for any cargo or passenger boats apart from those with humanitarian purposes. All vessels going to Sukhumi must undergo border check with Georgian coast guard in the nearby port of Poti.
Taxis in Georgia are the most convenient method of travel, and they are very cheap. Trips within Tbilisi range from 5-15 lari (GEL5-15), depending on distance. Drivers are known to exaggerate prices for foreigners. You should establish your destination and price before getting in the cab. All official taxis are required to install meters, but the drivers may not use them unless prompted. The vast majority of taxis in Georgia are still unofficial "gypsy cabs" driven by anyone looking to make some money.
While ridesharing is not used in Georgia, taxis booked through apps and online are becoming widely available in the larger cities. Trips booked through these have a set price, so you are sure to not be overcharged.
One of such services is yandex.taxi. The prices drop to 2-5 GEL within Tbilisi main area.
Minibuses are locally called marshrutkas, and they operate on established routes. After finding out the number of your route, flag down a marshrutka on the street by holding out your hand, palm facing down.
There are also minibus lines from city to city. Their routes end usually at bus stations and city markets. Their destination is written in Georgian, on a sign in the front window. Ask marshrutka drivers if you cannot find the minibus you are looking for. Two major marshrutka stations in Tbilisi are around didube metro station and around the main train station.
For inter-regional minibus routes, as of 2015 prices can fall in the following range: Tbilisi to Mestia - 30 Lari Tbilisi to Kazbegi - 10 Lari Zugdidi to Mestia - 20 Lari (tourist price)
Tbilisi and Batumi operate a large fleet of modern, blue buses (with fares starting at GEL 0.5). There are also a number of inter-regional bus services between Tbilisi and Batumi, and Tbilisi and Zugdidi. These can often be booked online, and run several times per day. These buses are frequently air conditioned and have undercarriage luggage storage. For inter-regional bus routes, as of 2018 prices can fall in the following range: Tbilisi to Batumi - 30 Lari Tbilisi to Zugdidi - 20 Lari
There is a relatively extensive network of trains in Georgia. The train company's website is http://www.railway.ge. It is possible to book tickets online from abroad, but travelers have reported difficulties booking. Especially in the central and eastern parts of the country, locals can be largely unaware of the train schedules and will tell you no trains will depart, which is often incorrect. Nevertheless it is worth retrying to book online once you are in Georgia, or to simply go to the train station and ask. TIP for onlin booking: always change the wagon category to "modernized" or you will get a message: "To search vacancies by requested datas aren’t possible". Wagon class should be selected either I or II class or "All". The trains operating in Georgia are rather slow, but also very cheap. Long distance trains from Tbilisi to the Black Sea coast and back tend to be the newest.
As the country is relatively mountainous you should consider a mountain bike. Many roads remain unpaved. But by bike allows you to reach more remote regions. You can rent mountain bikes in bigger towns, for example at the Jomardi club] in Tbilisi.
To get to the more remote regions of Georgia (e.g., Dusheti, Khevsureti, etc.) without a tour company, buses and taxis will only take you so far. At some point it will become necessary to hike, catch a ride on a goods-transporting truck, or hire a jeep. Catching a lorry requires that you are flexible in your travel plans. Hiring a jeep can actually be quite expensive because of the high cost of gas caused by scarcity in the remote regions. To find out about either option, ask around at the bus station or central market of the last town on the bus or marshrutka line.
By Rental Car
Car rentals are an option the more and more used by travelers, especially last years. There are several reasons to rent a car for a road trip: While enjoying your holidays in Georgia, you don't want to worry about taxi prices, Marshrutkas, schedules or bus stops. You just want to explore, improvise and enjoy your time. A car rental allows visiting remote places across the country, hidden trails or restaurants with a view, impossible to get to by taking a taxi or a bus. These special places are usually inaccessible by bus. Also, there is nothing better than a car waiting for you at the railway station or airport. When you arrive at Tbilisi airport, it's very easy to find the car rental offices at the terminal. Besides, there are many local companies based outside the airport which usually offer a free shuttle to connect their offices to the airport, or they simply deliver cars to the airport and meet you at the arrivals area. One of the local car rental companies: GSS Car Rental https://gsservices.ge
See also: Georgian phrasebook
For language fans, Georgian language and its dialects are an object of fascination. For everyone else, however, they could be a nightmare. Georgian is not in any way related to languages spoken outside of Georgia, and it's famous for its consonants. Not only are there quite a few, but many words start off with at least two. It is possible to string together as many as eight consonants, as in vprtskvni (ვფრცქვნი), meaning "I am peeling it". Keep in mind that some of the consonant clusters exist because certain sounds in Georgian can only be expressed in English via multiple letters. Original Georgian words are usually much shorter and less complicated than they appear.
Everyone who visits should attempt to learn at least a few Georgian words, as well as a few words in Russian, which is still useful among members of the older generation and ethnic minorities, such as Armenians, Azerbaijanis, Ossetians, etc. (This is due to the fact that Russian was compulsory during the Soviet period, whereas the local languages of each Soviet republic were not). Speaking Russian is useful and recommended in areas where ethnic minorities live, especially in the regions of Kvemo Kartli where 50% of the population is ethnic Azerbaijani and Samtskhe-Javakheti where 50% of the population is ethnic Armenian.
Younger Georgians, as well as the educated elite, largely prefer to study English, which is in part motivated by their desire to move away from the Russian sphere of influence. Access to good quality English instruction in provinces is low, however recently many schools received native English speaking volunteers and English is rapidly becoming a second language nation-wide. When in need for help, look for younger people; they are more likely to know some English.
Finally, signs in Georgia are often not bilingual (apart from Tbilisi metro); however, most road signs are in both the Georgian and Latin alphabets. Basic knowledge of the Georgian alphabet is very useful to understand road signs, store/restaurant names, and bus destinations. For those traveling without knowledge of Georgian, it may be a good idea to carry a phrasebook or a travel guide.
Georgia is famous for its ancient Orthodox churches, many of them built right on mountains of the Caucasus. Georgian temple architecture is in many aspects similar with Armenian one, featuring notable cone-shaped cupolas.
Georgian currency is lari and is denoted by GEL. 1 lari is divided into 100 tetri, i.e. cents.
When exchanging money in banks be sure to present your ID. With the small exchange cabins available almost anywhere in the country this is not necessary. These cabins may also have slightly better exchange rates.
When traveling out of Tbilisi and in need of Georgian lari, be sure to exchange money before the trip as exchange rates are worse in rural areas. Georgian lari is a closed currency, so be sure to change the remainder of your money back before leaving the country.
Most importantly, be aware that some ATMs in Georgia may not accept foreign cards (though this is not usually a problem in Tbilisi). This can be a potentially serious problem if you are caught without cash during non-business hours or on weekends, so have some cash. Also, while prices are generally very reasonable in Georgia, a side effect is that many small establishments and taxis will not have change for large lari notes (especially 50 or higher), so travelers are advised to carry plenty of smaller notes and coins.
If you visit Georgia for one week, you would have a great time if you bring USD 700-800, and GBP/EUR 350-400 with you. With this amount you will be able to go on most sightseeing tours, buy souvenirs, eat good food and have nice wine. This excludes lodging, which varies greatly, ranging from cheap hostels (50 lari or less) to luxury hotels running hundreds of dollars per night.
In 2007, government and business circles together initiated a wide-scale fight with counterfeit wine and mineral water so the percentage of counterfeit products have almost been eliminated. However, when stocking bottled wine it is best to buy it at large supermarkets which have better control of their procurement compared to smaller stores. Such supermarkets are Goodwill, Big Ben or Populi. Same applies to mineral water.The quality of wine making improved immensely in recent years following re-orientation of wine exports to EU markets.
Mtsvadi, a tasty grilled chunks of marinaded pork or veal on stick with onions, is another staple. But this is by no means the end of the list of wonderful dishes, usually flavored with garlic, coriander, walnuts, and dill. A traditional Georgian feast (supra) is truly a sight to behold, with a spread that no group could finish, accompanied by at least 20 toasts set to wine or brandy.
For a quick snack you can try all variety of "ghvezeli" pastry stuffed with meat, potatoes, cheese, or other ingredients, usually sold in markets and on the side of the street. Be aware of western-style dishes (pizzas, hamburgers etc) though, which are usually a pale copy of their true selves. Pizza, for example, is often topped with mayonnaise instead of cheese. For adventurous people, it might be a fun change; for others, it may be much better to try local food.
The fruit and vegetables here will spoil your taste buds forever—you may no longer be able to stomach the produce you get at home. Whatever it is here—the lack of any processed foods, a special quality to the soil, the fabled tale of God tripping on the Greater Caucasus mountains and dropping his lunch here—the produce is bursting at the seams with flavor. And it's very cheap. Even if you only speak English and stand out as a foreigner like a slug in a spotlight, you can get fruit and vegetables in the market for a mere fraction of what you would pay in, say, Western Europe. Grabbing a quick meal of tomatoes, fresh cheese, puri (bread), and fruit is perhaps the most rewarding meal to be had in the country—and that's saying a lot.
If you can, try and get yourself invited to dinner at someone's home (this is not too difficult in Georgia, owing to their hospitality and general desire to stuff foreign visitors full of all the food they can afford). The food in restaurants is an odd set piece of the same dishes over and over. But Georgian cuisine is far richer, and has an untold number of dishes to try, prepared from scratch with fresh, locally grown products (although supermarkets are now spreading throughout Georgia). Try and get your hands on ajabsandali, a sort of vegetable ratatouille, made differently according to each family's recipe, and which is wonderful. Another streak of dishes made out of lamb (chanakhi, chakapuli) is simply delicious. Finally, there are a lot of tasty vegetarian dishes (mostly in western parts of Georgia) which accompany most local parties with heavy wine drinking.
Chacha (ჭაჭა) is a clear fruit homebrew, which is analogous to Italian grappa. Chacha is made of grape pomace (grape residual left after making wine). It can also be produced from non-ripe or non-cultured grapes and in some cases fig, tangerine, orange, or mulberry. It is usually bottled "manually". It can be purchased in Mom and Pop corner markets, Farmers Markets, back alleys and basements throughout Georgia. There is Chacha commercially made that can be found in some shops and supermarkets. The term "Chacha" is used in Georgia to refer to any type of moonshine made of fruits. Their fruits are very great, so I recommend trying them!
Georgia has one of the oldest wine-making traditions in the world and has been called the birthplace of wine (also as "Cradle of Wine"), due to archaeological findings which indicate wine production back to 6000 BC. Due to this fact, Georgians have some of the best wines in the world. Thanks to the ancient tradition of wine production and amazing climate, Georgian wine holds its strong competition with French and Italian. Definitely try out Georgian wine. Unfortunately, you are not allowed to export home-bottled wine, which is often the best kind. Georgian wines are actually quite famous. It may be true that they are little known in the West, but this definitely does not include some 280 million people in the former Soviet Union where Georgian wines remain a welcomed drink at any dining table.
The most well-known and popular autochtonous grape sort used for Georgian red wine is Saperavi ("Paint").
Imports of Georgian wine and mineral water have been banned by the Russian government from 2005 to 2013, because of the political tension between the two counties, but now the wine is available in Russia again.
Georgia produces a number of local beers. A beer tradition has existed in Georgia since ancient times in the mountainous regions of Khevsureti and Tusheti. After independence from the Soviet Union, Georgia revived its beer production and introduced its high quality beers to the market. The first and most popular of Georgian beer was Kazbegi. As of today, beer production in Georgia is still growing, offering high quality beers (thanks to the high quality mountain spring waters in Georgia and to German designed beer factories). There are also many foreign beers like Heineken, Bitburger, Lowenbrau, Guinness, etc.
Georgian mineral waters have exceptional and interesting tastes - very different from French and Italian varieties. The most famous Georgian mineral waters are Borjomi (ბორჯომი bohr-joh-mee) and Nabeglavi (ნაბეღლავი nah-beh-ghlah-vee). But there is a plethora of less well-known springs located in small towns and alongside roads throughout the country that is worth sampling.
Lagidze waters (soft drinks)
Mitrofan Lagidze (ლაღიძე lah-ghee-dzeh) is a surname of a very famous Georgian businessman of the 19th century who produced very popular soft drinks in Georgia. Nowadays these waters are called “the Lagidze Waters.” Lagidze soft drinks are made only with natural fruit components, without any chemical, artificial sugars or other additives. The most popular flavors are tarragon and cream&chocolate. You can find them bottled in stores.
The number of major Western hotels in Georgia is growing every year, and not only in Tbilisi, but also in Batumi and other Georgian cities. Throughout much of the countryside, however, private homes are the cheapest and most enjoyable option, though this option is very much a homestay; expect little privacy. In general, accommodation in Georgia, particularly outside of Tbilisi and Batumi, is overpriced, and as tourism remains a fledgling industry, service at hotels often leaves something to be desired (such as a lack of toilet paper).
There are a handful of universities in Georgia which offer degrees or exchange programs taught in English:
In Georgia work usually starts at 8AM or 9AM, and ends at 4PM or 5PM. As elsewhere, the hours vary based on industry. Many Georgians take from two weeks to a month for vacation. Unlike Western Europe, in Georgia time vacationing is often unpaid. Georgians, however, increasingly receive health insurance through private employers, while government covers those who are ineligible.
Work for foreigners is generally very limited due to the local salaries being below a living wage by most standards, even for people from other parts of Eastern Europe and the more "well off" former USSR countries like Estonia and Lithuania. A local wage will typically be around 300-400 GEL a month, with only a small section of professional managers making in the 2000-2500 GEL a month range. Having said that, most Georgian families have one or more apartments and houses out in the countryside, and when one does not have to pay full private sector rent and can share utilities the local wages will be sufficient for food and drink.
Foreigners working in Georgia are either employed by the main NGOs like the UNHCR, Save the Children, Danish Refugee Council, etc. Some large Georgian companies may employ foreign managers and consultants. These workers are generally salaried according to Western norms. One great way for travelers to experience Georgia is to participate in the Teach & Learn with Georgia program. This program places English-speakers in Georgian schools all over the country to assist local teachers in public schools. The Georgian government has set ambitious goals to make English the second language of the country (replacing Russian) by 2020. Participants in the program will have their airfare paid for, will be housed with a local family and will receive 400-500 GEL stipend a month. Native speakers, even without teaching experience, are in demand for language schools in Tbilisi, which pay about 20 gel per one hour lesson, and public or private schools (grades 1-12) which pay about 15 gel per 45 minute lesson. Private teaching pays 30-35 gel on average per hour lesson. There are international schools, and foreigners hired locally receive local wages (which are better than regular schools).
Most of Georgia is very safe for travellers. Crime rates are one of the lowest in Europe. Corruption, once a big hassle, has become far less visible since the Rose Revolution. It is now safe and reasonable to trust the Georgian police, as the infamous and corrupt traffic police have been disbanded. Police cars are patrolling streets in Georgian cities and towns regularly, and can help in case of car trouble, or any other problem on the road.
Use of seatbelts is now obligatory and strictly enforced. Radars are installed at all main junctions and on key streets and highways throughout the country. However, motorists often disregard pedestrians. Do not expect that cars will stop at intersections even when you have the right of way (crosswalk or green walking man).
Things in Tbilisi and the surrounding countryside have calmed down a lot in the last 2 years or so. Although Tbilisi sometimes has been singled out for its (not always deserved) reputation for street crime, mugging is rather a rare phenomenon.
Other crime-related hazards in Tbilisi used to be the apartment break-ins and carjacking. The situation has changed drastically, and today Georgia boasts one of the lowest crime rates in Europe.
The available evidence indicates that Kutaisi, the second largest city in Georgia, suffers from crime rates significantly higher than the national average. It is very important to exercise caution in Kutaisi after dark.
The separatist conflict between Adjara and the central government has ended with little violence, and it is now perfectly safe to travel throughout the region. The once rampant corruption should now be a rarity for travelers. Passing through customs at the Sarpi-Hopa border crossing is now routine and uneventful for most tourists.
It is not safe to travel to Abkhazia or South Ossetia. These regions are not under the control of the national government and are marked by violence between the Georgian military and separatist militant groups, who since Summer 2008 are backed up by Russian troops who are considered to be occupiers by the Tbilisi government and under international law. The area's high rate of crime/lawlessness is facilitated by the absence of the central government's police and legal jurisdiction.
In Georgia, especially in Tbilisi you will be able to find many gyms and fitness centers with swimming pools and brand new training equipment, where you will be able to work out. Facilities include:
Giardia is a common threat to foreign visitors. Contraction is most likely via:
Georgia uses GSM (900 MHz and 1800 MHz) for mobile phones and there are three providers, Geocell  (pre-paid LaiLai card), Magti  (two prepaid brands "Bali" and "Mono"). Coverage  and BeeLine. Service provided by the first two is exceptionally good and you should be able to use your phone in most non-mountainous areas provided is supports the afore-mentioned technologies. Check with your mobile provider to ensure that they have roaming agreements with at least one of the Georgian operators. Both, Geocell and Magti have UMTS/3G service including video call and high speed data. Roaming is possible if you own a UMTS capable mobile phone. Geocell has cheapest mobile internet solution over its network.
DSL is available in Georgia from Caucasus Online and Silknet
Fiber Optic line is available in Georgia from the same two firms.
In major hotels Wi-Fi service is available.
Internet cafés are common and cheap. Some places offer free Wi-Fi to their customers.
In Tblisi there is free WiFi through much of the central part of the the city via 'Tblisi loves you' network.