Driving in New Zealand
This article is a travel topic
Driving around New Zealand will allow you to see those parts of this wonderfully scenic country that tourist operators haven't discovered yet.
All measurements in New Zealand are metric. It is easy to underestimate the time needed for travel. The local Automobile Association (AA) publishes a travelling time guide that suggests average travelling speeds in the range of 50-70 km/h should be allowed if travel is to be enjoyed. However, if you are travelling below the posted speed limit and holding up other traffic, you should pull over to the left when safe to do so to allow following faster traffic to pass.
You can legally drive for up to 12 months if you have a current driver's licence from your home country. It must be in English or you must have an International Driving Permit (IDP) to accompany it. You must carry a valid driving licence at all times when driving.
Driving a campervan/RV/motorhome in New Zealand is not difficult but it helps to learn a few things before you arrive jet-lagged. If collecting a campervan/RV/motorhome at the airport after a long flight it is advisable to have a sleep of at least a 2 hours before commencing your drive, there are usually free car parks near the collection points and airports which you will be able to rest up in before commencing your drive. Overseas drivers are twice as likely to be 'at-fault' in an injury or fatal accident in New Zealand. You can view this seven minute driver education video from Campermate that highlights New Zealand road signs, one-lane bridges, roundabouts, indicating and also freedom camping.
Drive on the left-hand side of the road.
Unless in a one-way street, it is unlawful to stop (and especially to park) on the right hand side of the road - as well as being especially dangerous for those drivers coming from countries where folks drive on the right!
If you are used to driving on the right, you need to concentrate at all times. Take particular care when pulling out from laybys and driveways or when you are tired. It is very easy to have a lapse of concentration and to revert to habit. Such lapses cause fatal head-on collisions in New Zealand every year. A useful trick is to put a sock over the gear lever or handbrake to remind you.
Most roads lack median barriers, so there is nothing to force the driver to stay on the correct side of the road.
Major intersections and urban intersections have directional signs - White Arrow on Blue Circle background. These point you in the right direction. They are very helpful, reminding you to Keep Left. As you approach intersections, look for the white-arrow-on-blue-circle signs.
Give way to the right
Generally speaking, driving in New Zealand is relatively stress-free.
As a rule of thumb, most New Zealand driving instructors used to say that if, in a collision, the other car would hit your driver's side door (right hand side of the car), you should give way.
It is important to note that anyone behind a give way sign must give way to any cars on roads without the give way sign. Failure to give way will result in a $150 fine.
The rules for giving way at uncontrolled intersections were changed in 2012, bringing them more in to line with other countries: At a X intersection, traffic turning left has right of way over opposing traffic turning right (i.e. if you are turning right you give way to everyone). At a T intersection, traffic turning right from the top of the T has right of way over traffic turning from the stem.
There are many rural intersections where a minor road intersects a highway at a T intersection. When turning right from the highway on to the minor road it is dangerous and illegal to pause in the traffic lane if it is necessary to give way to oncoming traffic. Instead, you should pull over on the left shoulder and wait until the road is clear in both directions.
New Zealand has a network of major arterial roads throughout the country that are called State Highways (abbreviated SH). Most are relatively narrow with a single carriageway in each direction with a good surface cambered to shed water. Only a few roads designated as Motorways are engineered to international highway standards and that term is used to describe a road reserved and designed specifically for motorised vehicles. Stopping on the side of a motorway other than in an emergency is prohibited.
In many respects, New Zealand highways are simply the major roads between significant places and can be used by any traveller, including cyclists, pedestrians and even farm animals.
The state Highway Network is documented at Wikipedia: New Zealand State Highway network
New Zealand Road Signs generally follow international conventions. There are three types:
Zebra crossings: white parallel bars are painted across the road. A white diamond is usually painted on the road before pedestrian crossing, together with warning signs and amber flashing lights or round orange reflectors on black and white striped poles at the crossing. Drivers must stop for pedestrians waiting at the crossing. This applies to the whole crossing and pedestrians on both sides of the road, even if the white centreline passes through the crossing or there is a painted centre median. Only when there is a raised traffic island may the crossings in either traffic direction be treated separately. Vehicles may proceed once the pedestrian has safely passed by the front of their vehicle.
Signalled pedestrian crossing: these can be at intersections, accompanying a railway crossing, or standalone. When turning across one in a vehicle, extra care must be taken to ensure no pedestrians are completing or commencing their crossing, particularly when the pedestrian figure is green or flashing red. A constant red figure indicates pedestrians should not be on the road.
Traffic island: these are small cement structures in the middle of the road that allow pedestrians to wait in the middle of the road before completing their crossing. Typically these will not have any other markings on the road and drivers do not need to slow or stop unless otherwise indicated.
Stop and Give Way signs: drivers have right of way over pedestrians. Drivers sometimes signal pedestrians to cross in front of them but this is not recommended due to the risk of traffic entering their path from another direction.
If the word SCHOOL is painted by the diamond or on the warning sign, the crossing is controlled by a School Patrol with round STOP signs. Traffic must stop and stay stopped if even one school patrol stop sign is displayed on either side of school patrol crossings. Although these crossings are often operated by trained school children, there is generally a responsible adult supervising too. Crossing patrols operate about half an hour before and after school, typically 08:30-09:00 and 14:00-15:30.
Traffic signals (traffic lights)
All New Zealand traffic signals are standardised with red on top, amber in the middle, and green at the bottom. Only one colour shows at a time: unlike the UK, there is no red-amber phase indicating the lights will shortly change to green.
The following lights occur: they have the same meaning on vehicles:
A 50 km/h speed limit applies anywhere where there are street lights, unless otherwise indicated.
Auckland is the largest city, and drivers will encounter heavy traffic congestion at peak times. Other major cities such as Wellington also have traffic jams around 8:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m. on key roads in and out of the city. At off-peak times driving from the city to the airport can take 25 min. In peak times it can take up to an hour, but generally 40 min, to travel the same route. There are areas of extensive road building/improvements through the city and can cause delays where they meet the existing network. Note that particularly in Auckland but anywhere in the country, roads do not often follow a grid pattern and fog can be an early-morning obstacle.
There are generally very few one-way streets in New Zealand, but most of them are located in the cities' central business districts, so beware of them while driving there as they are not always obvious. Be particularly careful in Wellington where not only one-way streets but also bus-only streets exist. Also, be particularly careful of the unusually high kerbs in Wellington, which can cause a driver to scrape the paintwork or undercarriage of the car when normally they would expect only the tires to hit the kerb.
The speed limit on the main highways and motorways is 100 km/h for cars, but only 90 km/h for buses, trucks and vehicles towing trailers. Some semi-rural roads have 70 km/h or 80 km/h limits, especially approaching and leaving urban areas. The Auckland Harbour Bridge and the Central Motorway Junction in Auckland have an 80km/h limit.
Be careful when turning into side roads while in rural areas. Stopping in the middle of the road while waiting to turn can result in a rear collision. Drivers typically wait to the left of the road instead of the middle.
Many rural highways are sinuous single carriageways with tight corners. While the speed limit is freeway-like (100km/h), the conditions are more dangerous than freeways as there is no barrier separating you from oncoming traffic. Oblong black and yellow arrow signs with a number (eg. "65") approximately indicate the tightness of an upcoming turn; the number indicates an appropriate speed to travel at through the corner. It is generally accepted that an experienced driver in good conditions when not towing or driving a heavy vehicle will be able to take the bend at 20 - 30km/h more than the marked speed. However for signs reading "35km/h" the speed advice should be taken literally as all 35km/h turns are exceedingly difficult turns around which it is hard to remain in your lane at above this speed. Also in bad weather it is often necessary to follow precisely the advice of all these signs.
Speed limits and enforcement
In general a 10km/h enforcement tolerance is used by Police, so many drivers travel a little over the limit. Officially though, the Police have a no-tolerance policy and can issue tickets for any speed over the limit. On public holidays and holiday weekends the speed tolerance is reduced to 4km/h over the limit. Further, police occasionally issue fines (infringement notices) for driving at or below the sign-posted speed limits, where a vehicle's speed is excessive for the driving conditions (e.g. in crowded streets in town centres or on icy roads).
Travelling more than 40 km/h over any posted speed limit is considered dangerous driving and will result in arrest, suspension of driver's licence and possible impounding of the vehicle if caught by police. Failing to stop for Police when directed (e.g. Flashing red and blue lights/siren) may also result in an arrest, as New Zealand Police will pursue a fleeing vehicle unless doing so would endanger other road users.
The police operate a dedicated Highway Patrol who have the responsibility of enforcing traffic laws and assist at accidents. These vehicles are marked in yellow, blue and white (rather than the orange, blue and white of other police vehicles). Unmarked (or mufti) patrol vehicles are also used. However, all Police officers are expected to stop offending motorists if traffic offending is observed. However, it is rare for (non-Highway Patrol) Police officers to concentrate on offences other than speeding. Police officers are required to ensure a steady flow of traffic by ensuring overly slow drivers pull over and let traffic past; however, this behaviour is rarely observed.
Speed cameras operate from the back of unmarked cars or vans, or from camera boxes in fixed positions. Police also use handheld laser speed guns.
Take extra care at observing speed limits as you pass through small towns. There are often speed cameras just past where the speed limit drops to 50km/h, such as the fixed speed cameras entering Bulls from the south as with Palmerston North.
Also be sure to obey temporary speed restrictions put in place for road works and special events, even when there is no evidence of work actually in progress. When resealing has taken place, the limit is often left in place for a couple of weeks until loose stones have disappeared or been swept. Being caught driving at more than 80km/h in a temporary 30km/h zone will lead to automatic loss of driving licence plus a heavy fine. Do not be surprised if long lengths of highway have 30km/h restrictions despite there not being any sign of road works or workmen; this is notoriously commonplace to drivers' frustration.
Drinking and driving
New Zealand Police strictly enforce alcohol limits for drivers (0.05 for drivers over 20, 0.0 for drivers under 20). Police often set up checkpoints, sometimes around a whole city centre, and even on motorways. Any and every traffic stop is also an opportunity for testing for drink-driving. Police use breath alcohol test devices to detect drivers who have been drinking. Drivers who fail these roadside screening tests will be asked to undertake a evidential breath or blood alcohol test. Refusal will result in arrest.
Wearing seatbelts in cars and vans is compulsory. There are very limited exceptions for medical reasons (with a medical certificate) and for some antique cars. Passengers 14 years and older are responsible for wearing their own seatbelts, whereas the driver is responsible for passengers under 14 years old. If you are in a car, even a taxi, buckle up. You could be fined $150 if you are not wearing your seatbelt, even as a passenger.
Most of New Zealand's roads are single carriageways with only one lane in each direction, few median barriers, and few passing (or overtaking) lanes. When passing lanes do exist they are often fairly short. Passing lanes may sometimes be legally used by vehicles overtaking in the opposite direction too (but only when the lane is clear- traffic on the same side of the centre line as the passing lane has right of way). This depends on whether the centreline markings have double yellow lines (no crossing) or a single yellow line with a white broken line (crossing permitted from the white line side only), so keep to the left whilst driving in a passing lane except when overtaking.
Overtaking vehicles usually pass on the right. People often overtake by driving on the opposite side of the road. Make sure you spend as little time as possible on the opposite side of the road and only overtake when you can maintain at least 100 metres visibility throughout the whole manoeuvre. However, you must take care not to exceed the speed limit at all times, as speeding up to minimise the time spent on the wrong side of the road, will still be viewed by Police officers as dangerous.
Where overtaking is not allowed, the road is marked with a solid yellow line adjacent and to the left of the white dotted centreline. It is illegal to overtake in these zones unless you can do so without crossing the centreline. Never cross a yellow no overtaking line to overtake as these are often the only indication of a hidden dip in the road ahead. These hidden dips could be hiding oncoming traffic that would be impossible to avoid.
On multi-lane roads (including overtaking lanes), each lane is considered a separate road-way and passing on the left can occur provided you stay within the marked lanes. Slower vehicles are expected to travel in the left lane(s) when multiple lanes travel in the same direction, but may not, for example in heavy traffic. Also a driver is legally obligated, where possible to drive in the left hand lane, however this is rarely if ever enforced.
On two lane roads, slower vehicles are legally obliged to allow faster following traffic to pass when it queues behind them, whenever there is an opportunity to do so. Vehicles will often pull to the left edge of the road and indicate a left signal briefly.
Overtaking is a notable feature of intercity travel in New Zealand due to the lack of multi-lane motorways.
The speed limit passing a school bus that has stopped for passengers is 20km/h from either direction. This means you must slow to 20km/h even if the school bus is on the opposite side of the road. Some school buses have a yellow and black sign saying "SCHOOL" or "KURA" but no other warning signs or marking different from any other bus on the road; school buses lack distinctive colouring and are never painted yellow. There are a lot of school buses on rural roads between 7AM and 9AM and 3PM and 5PM on any school day so it pays to take care.
In the North Island the main hazards are:
The removal of the Newlands Traffic Lights and installation of an interchange has significantly reduced the hazards, but care is still required.
In the South Island the main hazards are: