Crimea is a beautiful region on the Black Sea that has long entranced visitors. The Crimean Peninsula is connected to Ukraine by two narrow necks of land, making it more like an island with a couple of natural land bridges than simply a bit of land jutting out into the sea.
Crimea is a disputed region claimed by both Ukraine and Russia as part of either southern Ukraine or southwestern Russia. Although most of the international community doesn't recognize Crimea as part of Russia, it is administered by Russia, and most citizens identify as Russian. Russian currency is used and Russian laws apply.
The peninsula was the site of the Crimean War, between 1854 and 1856, and gave rise to modern nursing, live war reporting, the infamous Charge of the Light Brigade and the Balaclava (woollen head garment).
This little diamond features many landscapes: Crimean steppe or prairie in the East and North, Feodosia's sandy beaches, undulating hills of vineyards and fruit trees, castles reminiscent of Bavaria cling to cliffs plunging into the warm sea and there are forested mountain ranges with fabled cave cities to the West.
On 30 March 2014 at 03:00, when it would normally have changed to Eastern European Summer Time, Crimea advanced the clocks even more to be in the same time zone as Moscow.
Crimea has a long history, mostly separate from neighbouring regions. In antiquity many Greek colonies existed along its coast, later it belonged to independent local states or foreign powers like Roman & Byzantine Empire, or Genoa. In medieval times the region was conquered by Tatars who became later vassals of Ottoman Empire. The Crimean Khanate survived until 1774, when it was conquered by Russia for the first time in its history. Russians persecuted native population and colonised the land with new settlers, still until World War II it was a multi-ethnic territory with Crimean Tatars, Russians, Ukrainians, Greeks, Armenians, Germans and many others living together. After the War though Soviet Union expelled virtually all Tatars to Central Asia, and many new settlers arrived. Most of modern day inhabitants are settlers from post-war times, thus explaining high pro-Russian sentiment. The Crimean Oblast was transferred from Russia to Ukraine in Feb 1954 while both countries were constituent parts of the former Soviet Union. In 2014 Russia annexed forcibly Crimea causing international crisis. Officially it was acknowledged by local population in referendum, although its legality and results are highly controversial. Official data say that 95.5% of voters voted yes in the peaceful referendum to join Russia again according to the BBC.
Genealogy & research
All historical documents (including birth records) for all nationalities currently and historically represented here (Russians, Ukrainians, Tatars, Jews and Germans) are kept in the National Archive in Simferopol.
You may contact them by email at [email protected] although the best way to receive a response to your email will be to send it in Russian. The archive is open M-F 08:00-17:00. Individual access to much of the archive is not permitted, although for USD30 you can pay someone who works in the archive to do the work for you. Nobody in the archive speaks English so either be prepared to speak Russian or bring along a translator.
The archives and its staff are not accustomed to foreigners so be prepared to explain to the guard at the front desk what it is you want to do.
The Lutheran Church in Simferopol supposedly has a list going back to the early 1800s of all German families who emigrated to Crimea under Catherine the Great, or so it was said at the Archive. This information has not actually been confirmed at the Lutheran Church. For that matter, finding the Lutheran Church, although mentioned in the guide book, is actually a quite difficult task.
The city of Feodosiya has a Jewish Community Centre that is very active in doing research on the Jewish community of Crimea. You may contact them at [email protected] They can communicate in basic English (so you can send the email in English) but more than likely the response back will be in Russian.
When you get to Crimea you can buy the local guide book "TIME to COME to CRIMEA!" (in both English, Russian and Ukrainian) at many of the small booths on the street. For your reading entertainment here are some quotes from the book:
"The attitude of the population to lesbians is curious and benevolent; to gays it is hostile, except for the famous ones."
"The modern military tourism including, for example, shooting from grenade launchers and flights by supersonic fighters, is developing at numerous polygons and air stations that used to be secret ones."
Weather and water
The weather in Crimea during the summer season is very much Mediterranean. Expect relatively hot weather and lots of thunderstorms that come and go. Hot and very humid at night. In the winter snow can cover the mountains and make the roads almost impassable. However it almost never snows on the southern coast of Crimea.
The water is fairly warm, although not as warm as the Adriatic. The water is clean and clear, although also a bit less clear than the Adriatic, and its mostly warm June through September.
January Hi 7*C (47*F) Lo 6*C (38*F)
February Hi 47*F (7*C) Lo 38*F (5*C)
March Hi 54*F (11*C) Lo 44*F (6*C)
April Hi 60*F (15*C) Lo 49*F (10*C)
May Hi 72*F (22*C) Lo 55*F (12*C)
June Hi 77*F (26*C) Lo 60*F (15*C)
July Hi 81*F (28*C) Lo 66*F (19*C)
August Hi 90*F (32*C) Lo 70*F (21*C)
September Hi 79*F (26*C) Lo 64*F (18*C)
October Hi 70*F (21*C) Lo 58*F (14*C)
November Hi 56*F (13*C) Lo 48*F (9*C)
December Hi 47*F (8*C) Lo 37*F (3*C)
The Crimean parliament has ordained that there are three official languages in the region:
Russian is the universal language of communication.
Crimean Tatar (a Turkic language, closely related to Turkish) is also widely spoken by the Crimean Tatars.
Ukrainian. In decidedly and staunchly pro-Moscow Crimea, you might be met with a degree of hostility if you speak Ukrainian.
Few people speak or understand English.
Spoken English in the Crimea is of a low standard. Few people have more than a passing knowledge of English. A lack of exposure to the language and the relatively low number of foreign tourists, coupled with a continued Soviet-style education means that the population is decidedly monolingual.
Be prepared to memorize words in Russian and to become familiar with the Cyrillic alphabet. A few select older people have some familiarity with German, which may be of some use. Those proficient or familiar with Turkish will have a great deal of success in communicating with Tatar speakers.
Some of the street signs in Yalta are in English from the time of the Yalta Conference in 1945.
All roads coming to Crimea leads to Simferopol, it is the undisputed transport hub of the region.
Regardless of your position on Crimean independence and the peninsula's annexation by Russia, entering Crimea will require you to go through Russian authorities, so please look at the Russia page for visa information and other customs information.
Unless you are a Ukrainian citizen, entering Crimea from mainland Ukraine will also require you to get a special permission from the national migration service. There is a limited number of reasons to get the permission which includes having close relatives or property there, being a human rights activist or being a member of some international organisations.
If you don't have any of the reasons above, it's typically easier to enter the peninsula from mainland Russia by plane, Crimean Bridge or Kerch Strait ferry. However, note that most countries consider such visits as an illegal crossing of Ukraine border and support for the Russian occupation; all such visitors risk getting a long-term ban from Ukraine. Ukrainian citizens who enter Crimea from Russia will get a heavy prison sentence when returning to Ukraine.
Simferopol International Airport was a major hub in Ukraine and had both domestic connections with Ukraine and several international flights. Flights from Ukrainian and European cities, have been suspended after anexation by Russia, only flights to Moscow, Anapa, Volgograd, St Petersburg, Orenburg, Novokuznetsk, Novosibirsk and many other Russian cities continue.
There were also a very limited number of flights to Sevastopol Airport.
Since December 2014 there are no trains from Ukraine to Crimea. Russian Railroads offer a combined "train+bus" tickets to Crimea from major Russian cities.
Since late December 2019, trains go from St. Petersburg and Moscow to Crimea--avoiding Ukraine all together.
All bus services across the border with mainland Ukraine are officially disrupted. There are bus services going to one side of the border, which you must walk across, and then take another bus.
Buses from Russia reach Crimea via Kerch ferry or the bridge. The bus services are operating from Sochi,Gelendzhik,Novorossiysk,Krasnodar,Anapa(the closest city to the Kerch ferry),Rostov-on-Don,Voronezh and even Moscow. Here you can find the E-tickets. https://e-traffic.ru/
List of Crimea bus stations and bus schedule.
Kerch ferry was one of the most important links to the region until construction of the bridge. You could decide to use it if you're travelling without a car, but there shouldn't be a reason to not just drive across the bridge.
Crimea uses the Russian ruble.
Street food can be delicious in Crimea, if you are not prone to gastritis, and you can manage to dodge the lamb hidden in many dishes.
The ice cream sold at the beach includes a simple one called molochnoye (Russian: молочное, "made of milk"). It's white, but it's not vanilla-flavoured. It tastes like sweet milk.
If you see women walking up the beach selling something from buckets, it's probably paklava (Russian: паклава, baklava). This paklava is like nothing you have ever had before. It's thin layers of homemade dough, put together to resemble big flowers, deep-fried and covered with nuts and honey. It's absolutely heavenly.
Find a pastry shop and try the trubochki (Russian: трубочки, "little trumpets"). A trubochka is a cornucopia shape of short pastry filled with meringue and sometimes dipped in nuts. Delicious with chai (Russian: чай, tea).
The beer in Crimea is outstanding and cheap.
Crimea is a wine-producing region. Most of the wine produced here, at the famous Massandra Palace winery and in Koktebel', is dessert wine in the style of Port or Madeira. Unwary foreigners might buy a bottle of what looks like red or white wine in a kiosk and find it undrinkably sweet. That's because it's meant to be sipped, in very small quantities, not drunk like a Merlot. If it's regular wine you're looking for, avoid anything labeled Портвейн (Portwine), Мадейра (Madeira), Мускат (Muscat), Токай (Tokay). For table wines, ask for "sukhOye vinO" (dry wine) or look for labels such as Совиньон (Sauvignon), Каберне (Cabernet), and Ркацетели (Rkatseteli), or look for Georgian wines, which are delicious and plentiful.
Try the regional sparkling wine, produced at Noviy Svet (Russian: Новый Свет, "New Light"), near Sudak. It's labelled "Шампанское" ("Shampanskoye", champagne). It's very good. Try to buy it somewhere reputable, though, because there are knock-offs. Noviy Svet is a very beautiful spot; you can tour the caverns where the wine is aged.
If you're not going anywhere else in Russia and Ukraine, try kvass (Russian: квас).
It's a very refreshing non-alcoholic drink made of fermented wheat, the traditional drink of farmworkers in the bread-basket of Ukraine, prized for its restorative properties.
Try the local kefir (Russian: кефир), a cultured-milk beverage. When ice-cold, it's extremely refreshing on a hot day.
If you're feeling adventuresome, you might look for "kumys" (Russian: кумыс or кымыз), which is fermented mare's milk, a traditional drink of the Tatars and nomadic peoples of Central Asia.
Beware, some of the local mineral waters taste very salty. Look for a Western European brand, especially if you're going to be exercising.
Vodka is cheap and plentiful, some of the supermarkets have the best prices and the widest choices.
Vehicles will be the biggest hazard to your safety in Crimea. Drivers tend to stick to speed limits as there are many police cars but the road surfaces are poor which leads to some unsafe overtaking, even on the curvy coast and mountain roads. Pedestrians cross roads at their own peril. Be particularly careful if a car has stopped for you at a marked crosswalk; check around the car before you venture past it farther into the crosswalk, because another very well may swing around it and go right through... right where you would be walking. Most cars ignore pedestrians!
There is a very strict zero tolerance policy to drinking and driving. Police patrols are frequent as well as roadside checks for documents.
Crimea does not have a major problem with crime. However, foreigners are at risk of being robbed if they are not careful about flashing wealth, except in Yalta during the summer which is filled with Russians. Foreigners should not hitchhike or take unmarked cabs unless they are travelling in a group. The safest way for a foreigner to travel alone is to take a bus or a marshrutka (a microbus that follows the regular bus routes). Moreover, beware of drunk men at night, especially if your skin is coloured. Beware also of the police, who may be corrupt and ask you for "presents", i.e. bribes.
The countryside, which is extremely poor, is very safe. You are more likely to get kicked by a wandering horse than robbed. Crimeans on the whole are very polite, except when lining up for a bus or service at a shop when pushing to the front has been perfected into an art form. Standing in line is not an option!
There are plenty of ATMs, however none of them at the moment service western bank cards. As a foreigner, the only way for you to pay for things is with cash, which you will need to bring with you from outside of the Crimea. Do not make the mistake of relying on cards while in Crimea. At night avoid lonely places where the numerous drunks hang out; they are not really a danger except they might fall on top of you.
Due to disputed status of Crimea, take special care to leave through the same border as you entered. Specifically if you arrived into Crimea by plane or car from Russia, and attempt to continue into Ukraine, Ukrainian authorities will find you guilty of entering their country illegally. Once you've finished exploring the beatiful Crimea, come back to the same country you entered from and continue exploring Ukraine or Southern Russia