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Colchester (Essex)

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Colchester[5] is a large town in Essex, East Anglia. By population, it is the 2nd largest borough in the East of England [6]. With its attractive old buildings, Roman wall (dating from Colchester's time as capital of Britain), Norman castle and proximity to Constable country, Colchester is an interesting place to visit. It is home to the University of Essex [7], the Colchester Institute [8] and an Army Garrison [9].


Colchester is a picturesque provincial town in the county of Essex, and the geographical region of East Anglia. It is commonly regarded as the "oldest recorded town" in England (due to being mentioned by roman author Pliny).

Originally the capital of the Celtic tribe Trinovantes, it was conquered by Claudius's army in AD43 and became the first Roman capital - and Britain's first-ever city. Known as Camulodunum, it was burned to the ground by Boudicca's Iceni tribe approximately two decades later.

Boudicca and her 100,000-strong army were soon defeated, but Colchester never returned to prominence in Roman Britain, becoming instead a settlement for ex-legionnaires.

After the fall of the Roman empire, Colchester then passed through the hands of the Anglo-Saxons, Vikings, Normans and was home to the royalists during the month-long siege of the English Civil War.

The town's main attraction is the Norman castle, founded by William the Conqueror himself and once the twin sister of the Tower of London, built at the same time and almost identical in design.

The town also boasts Roman walls, Saxon and Norman churches, countless timber-framed houses, buildings still showing bullet-holes and scars from the Civil War, and also the oldest Victorian water tower in Britain.

Get in[edit]

The easiest way to get in/out of Colchester is either by Rail or Coach. All travel timetables both into and around Colchester can be found from the County Council [10]

By train[edit]

Colchester is served by 5 train stations.

  • Colchester Station, known locally but unofficially as North Station (local buses call it North Station on the schedules) is located about 1 mile north of the town centre and is Colchester's main rail hub. It has approximately 5 services an hour to London (Liverpool Street) taking 50 minutes to 1 hour. Half-hourly expresses between London Liverpool Street and Norwich cover the 50 mile trip in around 50 minutes with 1-2 intermediate stops. Commuter trains take a bit longer and make many intermediate stops and are less comfortable, although tickets are valid on either service. There are also services north to Norwich (50 minutes), Lowestoft and Peterborough (no services to Cambridge - you should change at Ipswich) and local services to Ipswich, Colchester Town, Harwich, Clacton-on-sea and Walton-on-the-Naze. The station has recently been re-developed and has two entrances - the north entrance has a ticket office, self-service machines, ATMs, a taxi stand, long-stay parking and a bus station. The south entrance is smaller and has bicycle parking and self-service ticketing but no staffed ticket booths. You need a ticket to enter and exit the station as it has automatic ticket barriers. To get to the town centre, buses 61 and 62 run from right outside the north exit to Colchester High Street, although most local services depart from North Station Road - go through the south exit and walk down to the main road.
  • Colchester Town Station is more conveniently located at the St. Botolphs road junction in the south-east of the town centre and has a half-hourly shuttle to Colchester North as well as hourly services to Walton-on-the-Naze. To reach London outside of peak hours you should change at Colchester (North).
  • Hythe is a small, unstaffed station in the eastern suburb of Hythe, close to the large Tesco superstore and within walking distance of the University of Essex. There are hourly services between Colchester and Walton plus occasional peak hour services to Clacton and London. Avoid this station after dark as it's often too quiet and isolated.
  • Wivenhoe serves the attractive riverside suburb/town of Wivenhoe and the University of Essex - it has hourly services to London and Clacton, and a local hourly service between Colchester and Walton.
  • Marks Tey is in the western suburb/village of Marks Tey and is the interchange for the local line to Sudbury. It has regular connections from Colchester and London (mostly for services towards Clacton and Harwich as well as occasional services to Ipswich and beyond) and hourly services to Sudbury.

By bus[edit]

The two main operators in the town are First Essex [11] and Network Colchester [12], with Chambers [13] (services from Sudbury), Hedingham Omnibuses [14] (services from surrounding areas), Beestons [15] (services from Dedham), New Horizon [16] (services from Great Bentley & Brightlingsea), Carters [17] (services from Ipswich) and Regal [18] (evening and Sunday journeys on routes normally provided by other operators). Most services run from the Bus Station on Osborne Street but most will pick up at other stops around the town centre.

By coach[edit]

National Express [19] coaches serve the bus station (and various other stops) on route 484 between London Victoria and Clacton-on-Sea (three journeys daily), 350 between Liverpool, Manchester, Sheffield, Nottingham, Peterborough, Cambridge (and other towns and cities) and Clacton (1 journey daily) and route 250 between Ipswich, Stansted and Heathrow Airports (every two hours round-the-clock daily)

Network Colchester (airportbybus) [20] operates limited-stop bus service 133 from Colchester Bus Station, the University of Essex and Colchester North Rail Station to Braintree and Stansted Airport (every hour daily).

By car[edit]

Colchester can be reached by car either via the A12, which links up with the M25 from the south, or the A14, which links up with the M1/M6 from the North.

Get around[edit]

On foot The town centre is easily walkable and much of it is pedestrianised. The town core is encircled by High Street, Queen Street, Osbourne Street, St Johns Street and Head Street. Castle Park covers much of the north-eastern town centre and makes for a pleasant traffic-free stroll out of the town centre.

By Car Driving around Colchester isn't too much hassle, although traffic tends to come to a standstill during the rush-hours. Within the town-centre, parking on the street is illegal, or at least limited to short-stay (i.e. no more than 20 minutes) meaning that you will need to use a public car park. When approaching the town centre, digital displays on the road-side will tell you the availability of parking spaces in each parking building, saving you from having to search hard for a space. Generally, surface car parks such as Vineyard Street or the Britannia Building are the cheapest (about GBP1.50 per hour), Colchester Borough Council multi-storey parking buildings are a little more expensive (about GBP2.20 an hour) and are open 24 hours, whilst NCP parking buildings are the most expensive. In most cases you will be given a ticket upon entry from the automatic barrier, and the fee should be paid at the payment machine before returning to your car in order to exit the car park. Parking on residential streets close to the town centre requires a residents parking permit, so it's not advisable to park there as you may incur a parking penalty.

By Bus Local buses have limited use to the average visitor as almost everything is whithin walking distance, although they can be useful to reach further-afield attractions such as Wivenhoe, the university, Highwoods Country Park, Colchester Zoo etc. All buses serve the town centre via the inner one-way system, which can be confusing e.g. if you enter the town centre from the rail station, you will alight on High-Street (this is the first stop in the town centre), however to return to the station you have to board in Head Street. It's advisable to always check the schedule (available from the bus information centre on Queen Street) to make sure you don't board in the wrong place and head off in the opposite direction. Most routes run at 10-30 minute intervals from 6:00am-6:00pm and run less frequently in the evening up to 11:00pm. Fares start at around GBP1.50 for a single ticket (or GBP2.50 for a return) although if you plan to make more than a couple of journeys, a GBP3.50 day rover ticket is a useful investment as it gives you unlimited journeys for 1 day. Change is usually available but drivers will usually be reluctant to change anything bigger than a GBP5.00 bill. Useful routes are:- 61/62/78X/87: Serve the University and Wivenhoe. 75: Goes to Colchester Zoo. 8/8A/65: Goes to Highwoods Country Park 67/67A: Goes to West Mersea.

By bicycle Colchester is an attractive place to cycle, and 2 National Cycle Routes pass through the town. Due to heavy traffic and narrow roads, cycling in the town centre is a little hairy and there is little in the way of cycle-lanes, however there are plenty of cycle-paths away from the main roads when you get away from the town centre. Some bike stores such as Colchester Cycle Stores on St John's Street may allow you to rent a bicycle. Note that many National Cycle Routes run off-road and are not suitable for certain bicycle types e.g. road bikes.

By Taxi Metered taxis are a little hard to find although they can usually be picked up from taxi ranks on the High Street or outside North Station (north exit). However, it's usually cheaper and more convenient to call for a minicab - the most usefull operators include:- Five Sevens:- 01206 577777 Hawaii 5-0 Taxis:- 01206 543210 Towncar Minicabs:- 01206 515515

  • Colchester Taxis, Colchester,Essex, +44 0800 644 1946, [1]. M-Su 24hr seven days.  edit

See[edit][add listing]

Castle Park is a fairly large park in the grounds of Colchester Castle. A number of events are held there annually, including cricket matches (There is a cricket week every year when Essex C.C. play visiting counties), music festivals and a fireworks display in November.

firstsite, [21] Recently-constructed contemporary visual arts centre with exhibitions and workshops, located in a striking golden building designed by Rafael Viñoly following a worldwide architectural competition. It also houses a restaurant.[22]

Colchester Zoo, [23]. Makes an interesting day out for the family. With some of the best cat and primate collections in Europe, and recent winner of the 'Large Visitor Attraction of the Year' Award, it's well worth a visit.

Museums - Colchester is home to 3 museums, each one housed in a different beautiful old building and offering a different insight into the history behind Colchester:

  • The Castle Museum, [24]
  • The Hollytrees Museum, [25]
  • The Natural History Museum, [26]

Colchester is home to a large number of important historic and archaeological sites, inclduing Britain's oldest Roman city walls; the ruins of St. Botolph's Priory and St. John's Abbey; the oldest Roman gateway in the country, and Britain's only discovered Roman Circus (chariot race track). There are currently plans to designate the Roman Circus area as an archeological site with a dedicated visitor centre.

For an overview of the town, you can pick up a hop-on-hop-off tour with the Colchester City Sightseeing open-top bus, which can be found at the gates of Castle Park.

Mersea Island A small island located on the estuary of the River Blackwater. The northern end of the island is mostly made up of marshland but there are three settlements on the southern half - Barrow Hill (which consists of several houses along a road), East Mersea (a small collection of farms, a post office, a pub, a couple of tacky holiday parks and an outdoor youth centre) and West Mersea, a small fishing town most notable for it's seafood, fish and chips, countless pubs, a few small independent shops and a Co-op supermarket. It is quite a pleasant place to wander around with many miles of beaches. The island can be reached by car along the B1025 from Colchester (approx 9 miles) and crossing the Strood causeway (originally built by the Romans) onto the island - note that during high tides the causeway is likely to flood which effectively cuts off the island from the rest of society as it is the only road access. Bus service 67 runs every 30 minutes from Colchester town centre to West Mersea High Street although unfortunately as it is the only public transport option the fare is very high (roughly £4 single, £6 return). Journey time is roughly 30-40 minutes depending on the route taken and the time of day. There are no buses to East Mersea other than school services. During the summer there is a ferry service from East Mersea to Point Clear and Brightlingsea on the Tendring peninsular.

Wivenhoe A small town downstream of Colchester, separated from the town by the University of Essex. It has grown considerably over the last few years as it has become a popular place for London commuters to live because of the good rail links. However, the waterfront area and the High Street are still very traditional with lots of small independent shops, restaurants, pubs, a fish and chip shop and a Co-op supermarket. Wivenhoe can be reached in about 20 minutes by car by taking the A133 out of town past the university and then taking the Wivenhoe exit. There is free parking just off of the High Street, as well as long-stay Pay and Display parking at the train station. (Note that cars cannot use Boundary Road at the University as a shortcut as barriers restrict access to buses and university traffic). Trains run every 30 minutes from Colchester North to Wivenhoe, and every hour from Colchester Town. The 62 bus runs every 10 minutes from Colchester North Station to Wivenhoe Station - note that the 74 (every hour) and 87 (every half hour) also pass through on their way to Clacton and Brightlingsea respectively. Wivenhoe can also be easily reached by foot or cycle along the Wivenhoe Cycle Trail which starts from Colchester Castle Park, runs through the Hythe and along the river, ending up at Wivenhoe Station.

Dedham and Dedham Vale Dedham is a very pretty village on the Essex/Suffolk border not far from Colchester which has many lovely preserved buildings and architecture as well as beautiful countryside which is detailed in local artist John Constable's paintings. Surrounding villages (for example Flatford) are equally pretty and well preserved. Buses run to Dedham from Colchester but can also be accessed from Manningtree railway station.

Do[edit][add listing]

As mentioned in the See [27] section above, there are several historical sites and buildings to visit, as well as 3 museums and the newly-built Visual Arts Facility.

Special events often take place in the auditorium or exhibition spaces inside the aforementioned firstsite building [28]. The only cinema in Colchester is the multiplex Odeon on Head Street which comprises eight screens and shows all of the big blockbuster movies as well as occasionally putting on alternative and foreign films. The prices are on the expensive side so take your own snacks. There is also a theatre, the Mercury, for the theatrically-inclined, which puts on shows throughout the year.

Buy[edit][add listing]

Colchester has a large selection of shops, ranging from those you would find in any large town (Marks & Spencer, Debenhams, British Home Stores etc.) to many small individual shops. The High Street is the place to start - it is here you will find Williams and Griffin's [29], which is an awarding-winning independent luxury department store (with great views from the top-floor restaurant). However if you take one of the small turnings on the right as you go down the High Street you will find yourself in a warren of small semi-pedestrianised roads full of interesting things to buy. You can create and dress your own teddy bear at Build-a-Bear in Culver Square or treat yourself to some chocolates from Minerva in Eld Lane. There are some lovely old buildings and plenty of cafes to refresh the heavy-laden shopper.

If you are looking for appropriate souvenirs of your stay, the shop in the Castle Museum has plenty to buy with a Roman theme. Alternatively you could get some world-famous Tiptree jam, which is made (surprise, surprise) in nearby Tiptree (or take a trip to visit the factory). [30].

The new Colchester discount voucher scheme can save you money at your local business. offers great bargains from your shops, pubs restaurant and events. Find out more on [31] .

Eat[edit][add listing]

  • Peldon Rose
  • Sloppy Joe's American Diner, 37 High Street, CO1 1DH (Next to Marks & Spencer on the High Street.), 01206577229, [2]. Local favourite. Independent American Bar & Diner. Founded 25 years ago by a Texan immigrant, the restaurant serves mainly Tex-Mex. * Chain fast food restaurants are popular. Notable locations are Burger King, KFC, MCDonalds, and Subway on the High Street, MCDonalds next to Leisure World on Cowdray Avenue, and a MCDonalds by the A12 Colchester junction. * At mid-range prices, Wimpy provides good quality English Breakfasts, burgers and more on High Street. * Zizzi, on Crouch Street, near the High Street, is a top-quality Italian restaurant serving Italian style pizzas and pasta, plus dishes like calamari, skewered marinated meat with vegetables, and salads.  edit

Drink[edit][add listing]

  • The Abbey Arms
  • The Goat & Boot
  • The Forester's Arms
  • The Fox & Fiddler
  • The Hole in the Wall
  • The Hospital Arms provides excellent real ale, as does The Odd One Out.
  • The Playhouse
  • The Stockwell Arms
  • Wig and Pen

Sleep[edit][add listing]

  • The George Hotel
  • The Riverside Hotel
  • Ramada Colchester, A12/A120 Ardleigh Junction, Colchester, CO7 7QY, 01206 230900 (, fax: 01206 231095), [3]. checkin: 2pm (early check-in by arrangement); checkout: 11am (late check-out by arrangement). Ramada hotel with 50 non-smoking rooms and 100 on-site parking spaces. Each room includes bath and/or shower, work desk, flat screen freeview TV and complimentary WiFi. Some rooms have been adapted to allow for easier access. £86.50 Mon-Thur & Sat, £65.50 Fri & Sun.  edit
  • CROWNE PLAZA HOTEL COLCHESTER, Colchester Road, Essex, CM9 8HX, 01621 868888, [4]. The hotel is is surrounded by stunning countryside that provides the perfect get-away from London. Renowned as one of the most Luxurious hotels in Colchester.  edit

Stay safe[edit]

Proclaimed by some as the safest town in the UK, generally Colchester is safe and you should take the usual precautions. Petty crime is quite rare. Be careful where you leave your car, particularly after dark, as car theft can be a problem. Several downtown multi-storey car parks are open 24 hours and are much safer than the surface lots around the edge of the town centre (which are unstaffed and often meeting points for illegal street racers). The 'loop' road around the town centre (Cowdray Avenue, East Hill, Southway and Balkerne hill) becomes an impromptu race-track for illegal street racers at night - be on the lookout for people driving dangerously. The town centre can become rowdy on Friday and Saturday nights around pub-closing time so try to avoid getting into fights and stay in big groups - fortunately taxis are cheap and easy to find at this time. There are a couple of no-go areas that can be dangerous, particularly after dark. Most notable are Greenstead (a large council housing development in the east), the area around Harwich Road known as 'White City', and the Monkwick estate near the Army Garrisson in the south; however these areas have little to offer for tourists. Try to avoid drinking in the so-called 'Squaddy' pubs near the Army Garrisson in South Colchester as they can be very rowdy and fights involving members of the military can be common. Avoid taking trains from Hythe Station after dark as the station is poorly lit, isolated and has no staff and little CCTV. If you do have to take a train from here, wait by the level crossing on the street and don't enter the platform until the train pulls in - don't wait on the platform.

Get out[edit]

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