Chechnya (Russian: Чечня́ cheech-NYAH; Chechen: Нохчийчоь/Noxçiyçö) or Chechen Republic (Russian: Чече́нская Респу́блика chee-CHYEHN-skuh-yuh rees-POOB-lee-kuh; Chechen: Нохчийн Республика Noxçiyn Respublika) is a republic within the Russian Federation.
Nominally part of Russia since the early 19th century, fiercely independent Chechnya has been in a near constant state of rebellion ever since the approach of Russian power. At times throughout the history of this conflict, including very recent times, Chechen rebellion has spread to neighboring regions and threatened the specter of a multi ethnic Muslim rebellion across the entire northern Caucasus. What is most important for the traveler is that the anti-Russian violence as well as the Russian military response have been spectacularly brutal, purposely victimizing whomever is most vulnerable.
One of the most traumatic episodes of violence took place following the Second World War, when Stalin accused Chechens of collaborating with the Nazis and mass deported the entire ethnic Chechen populace to the cold steppe of northern Kazakhstan. Needless to say, provisions were not made to ensure that the deported Chechens had a good chance of surviving the deportation. Survivors were allowed to return under Khruschev. In one of the most horrific events of recent times, the radical Chechen rebel leader Shamil Basayev ordered his commandos to take an elementary school in Beslan, North Ossetia hostage, resulting in a shocking massacre of innocent schoolchildren.
On a lighter note, Chechnya is a country of extraordinary beauty, full of majestic mountains with lush vegetation and auls (mountaintop villages) rising above the tree lines; rapid rivers have cut spectacular gorges throughout the region. Chechen culture is distinctly romantic and chivalric. It is at once steeped in Islamic Sufi mysticism and in the macho codes of hardy mountain tribes. The Chechens have a distinct culture of Caucasian music and dance. The Chechens traditionally follow a strict code of honor and hospitality to accepted guests; unyielding hostility and violence towards enemies. All this could make Chechnya an intoxicating destination for the truly adventurous, but the present security situation should rule out this destination to all but the hardiest of travellers.
The present situation is taking an improvement, however on a light scale. The region is headed by the autocratic Kadyrov family. More recently, the government has allowed foreign companies to develop its neglected rich oil resources, which have brought wealth to the country. Yet, the money falls in the hands of a few people. While Grozny is full of new construction and a rising middle-class, much of the region remains poor. Corruption is considerably ubiquitous compared to some of its neighbors.
Chechnya's airport is finally open again for the first time since the start of the First Chechen War. Planes to Grozny leave 3 times a week from Moscow's Vnukovo airport. Estimated flying time is 2 hours and 30 minutes.
A train leaves from/to Moscow once every 2 days. This train is under heavy security by the Russian military so expect long delays and possibly other hassles. Caution must be exercised when traveling by rail in Chechnya due to potential terrorist attacks. In 2005 a train traveling from Moscow to Chechnya was derailed during a bombing.
A daily bus leaves from/to Nazran. Small buses leave from/to many caucasian,south-russians cities.
By car or motorcycle
Grozny, Gudermes and the central area is easily accessible by the federal highway, which connects Rostov-on-Don with Azerbaijan. This highway is in reasonably good condition in most places. Note however, that traffic police often hide at intersections etc, stopping anyone who make even the slighest error, and try to extract bribes from these. Make sure you follow every single traffic rule when driving here.
Chechen and Russian are the two main languages spoken in Chechnya. Remember that the political situation is very tense — a foreigner speaking Chechen may attract unwanted attention from the authorities. English on the other hand is spoken by almost nobody, even in the capital.
Chechnya is famous for its traditional swords and daggers. But remember that as any cold arms, they can only be transported as luggage and always need to be declared when crossing international borders.
Due to the economic consequences of the war, things in Chechnya are very cheap. But do not expect to find everything you are looking for. There's not much to find in Chechnya except for carpets, daggers, etc. Supplies are also somewhat limited.
There are presently not many shops in Chechnya. However, restaurants and cafès are slowly re-opening and new ones are being built.
There are no night clubs or discos in Chechnya. However beer is sold on the street in Grozny. Common sense should be used when drinking alcohol, especially in danger zones. Sales of alcohol legally only from 8.00 to 10.00 AM and prohibited for all other times.
More hotels have appeared with the flagship being the 5 stars GROZNY CITY with English speaking staff near the Presidential Palace.
The civil war may be over in Chechnya, but the situation is far from secure and basic necessities are often relatively scarce. It would be wise for one to assume that some necessities may not be available there, so get everything you really need before traveling to the region.
Working plumbing, heat, and electricity are commodities in parts of Chechnya due to a failing infrastructure that is the result of years of conflict. Be sure to sanitize all water or bring bottled water.
Hospitality and respect for guests is a source of pride for the average Chechen. Remember that Chechnya is a strongly patriarchal Sunni Muslim society, so try to behave accordingly. Women travellers are advised to exercise particular caution - dress appropriately (don’t dress too revealingly) and - for lone female travelers - consider reliable protection services.
Chechnya's troubled, violent, past has created a uniquely complex situation within Russia. Although the worst of the Chechen-Russian conflict has gone away, some, if not all, Chechens still desire full independence from Russia. The main thing to avoid is pontificating about the situation or taking one particular side over the other, as it can and will result in a very heated exchange. As with virtually all cultures, don't do anything you wouldn't do at home.
Avoid discussing Chechen politics, including passing comments about the Kadyrov family, as it will most likely not be welcomed or appreciated. Politics remain a very controversial subject to talk about, especially in this politically volatile region that functions as its own country where Russian laws and norms are non-existent.
In Chechnya there are two Russian federal GSM operators (Beeline,Megafon) and they often have offers that give you a SIM card for free or at least very cheap. If you are planning to stay a while and to keep in touch with locals, you should consider buying a local SIM card instead of going on roaming. If you buy a SIM card from a shop you'll need your passport for identification.