Bwindi Impenetrable National Park
Bwindi forest is popular for viewing mountain gorillas in the wild. There are four main points from where you can do this:Buhoma,Nkuring,Ruhija and Rushaga .All the four sectors offer similar opportunities to see the Gorillas. Permits must be obtained from the UWA office in Kampala at the price of USD600 for foreign nationals or with a tour company.
High altitude mountainous with deep valleys. Bwindi Forest is the last remaining piece of primary forest in the area, all the surroundings have been almost completely deforested, and even small pockets of forest are still being cut.
Flora and fauna
There is a wide range of flora and fauna in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park. The park supports over 400 plant species as well as a rich diversity of fauna including mammals, birds, butterflies. Its vegetation types vary from ground dwellers (thick herbs, vines and shrubs) to gigantic trees that for a green canopy. Almost 50% of the park is covered by mixed forest.
Notable fauna in the park are various primates that include mountain gorillas, chimpanzees and more. The park also hosts 120 mammals and the most notable are antelopes, forest elephants, etc. Some of these animals are endangered.
The climate varies - Uganda is wet most of the year, with dry periods from June to august. It can be a scorching 30 °C, or a chilly 9 °C, depending on the weather. If you go gorilla tracking, be sure to bring a sweater, at least 2.5 liters of water, long-sleeved t-shirt/trousers, a hat, rain-clothing and decent hiking boots. The tracking takes you through the dense rainforest, where you go up and down steep hills, often with no visible path. If it rains, it will be extremely muddy, if it's dry and the sun is out, you will need a lot of water. Bring insect repellent for the mosquitoes, and consult your doctor for vaccinations and malaria-pills for surrounding regions. No risk of malaria in Buhoma, Nkoringo and Bwindi Forest due to the altitude there are no mosquitoes.
Getting into Bwindi Impenetrable National Park requires a permit - the best place to get that is from the Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA). They have an office in Kampala, on Kiira Road, as well as in Kisoro. Check out the . Tour operators can also make reservations, but you only pay on arrival. There is no point in going to Bwindi without a permit, as you will be refused entrance.
From Kampala: A daily Post Bus takes about 8 hours from Kampala to Kabale. From there you can arrange private transportation, for which you have to reserve another day of travel - leave early in the morning; you'll need to get transporation to Butogota, and from there to Buhoma, where hotels are available only a short walk from the starting point of the UWA gorilla tracking.
From Kabale: many tour companies offer trips to Bwindi, or you can hire a private taxi. Kabale is a large city with lots of services, ATMs, and places to stay.
From Kisoro: a private car hire costs $80 to Bwindi and takes 1.5-2 hours. There are a few tour companies as well. Kisoro is a much smaller town with a quiet vibe and a few affordable guest house. It's also a good launch pad for Mgahinga.
As of January 2019 all gorilla tracking costs USD600 for a non-resident - although most think it well worth it for the unforgettable experience. Price includes a guide, but a tip for the guide and also the trackers is expected. Trackers and guards make about 500,000-1M USH per month, so typing is an important part of their income.
Online the current price is advertised as $750 and this is expected to go into effect some time starting mid 2019. But it could change any time.
You can easily buy the permit directly from the HQ where the trek starts (as of January 2019), so long as you have called in advance to reserve a Permit. They accept shillings or USD. In low season there is much less demand and it is possible to book only a day or two in advance. You can also reserve gorilla permits directly from Bamboo Ecotours, one of the major tour operators based in Kisoro, the chief town of the Bwindi area.
If you do any other activities in the park, the fee is $40.
The roads in Uganda are bad - you will redefine your idea of what is a 'good road' after a visit. Paved roads are few and far between. If you can rent a car, be prepared for a bumpy ride (and make sure you have a spare). You can hire a ride on a 'bodaboda' - a motorcycle with a passenger seat, but beware that many (fatal) traffic accidents involve bodabodas. You can also get a 'private hire' - which is often very expensive, or get a ride in the back of a pick-up - which you will have to share with enough people to make standing up the only option. On these roads, that is only fun for so long, but it is cheap and a common method of transportation. If you catch a ride on a bus, beware that because of bad roads, vomiting fellow passengers are more rule than exception: store your luggage safely. The roads to the park are impassable especially in rain season, therefore, a 4x4 car is recommended.
Gorilla tracking - the main activity here. It is expensive ($600). Still, it is worth it. There are several different groups of gorilla's, with group H being the largest. Inform yourself which of the groups are normally quiet close to the camp and which more far away. For the groups close to the camp is it normally quiet easy to get permits, the further away ones are more popular due to the nice walk through the rain forest.
Tracking can take from anywhere between 15 minutes to a full day, depending on where the gorillas are. They move often and far - one group of tourists can be back at the UWA camp within two hours on one day, while they next day, tracking the same group of gorillas can keep you walking until night falls. There is no way to say how easy or difficult it will be - elderly people should carefully consider how fit they are and how long they are willing to hike and climb: paths can be so steep you have to hold on to bushes and grass to prevent you from slipping, and climbing a hill can require hands and feet. There are no 'exits' while trekking, no shortcuts back home. Beware that refunds are only given in extraordinary circumstances (no gorillas seen, which is unusual), and are only partial refunds.
Registration for tracking starts at 8.30AM, briefing is at 9. The trackers leave before that, and will communicate with your guides to let them know if and where they have found the gorillas. After getting there, you will have a maximum of 1 hour near the gorillas. You can get up to several meters of them, but you can be instructed to move further away should the gorillas get restless. Considering the terrain, it is not always possible to get this close, so bring a camera with a zoomlens, and remember the use of flash is not allowed. While in the rainforest, you are also asked to keep your voices down.
Should you be ill or have a cold, do remember that you may be refused participation. Since gorillas are genetically so close to humans, they are susceptible to many of the same diseases. As there are only about 700 mountain gorillas left in the world, their safety comes first.
Hiking in the area. Walk from Buhoma to Nkuringo (5 hours walk, through Bwindi forest, guide required, and permits). Walk from Nkuringo to Lake Mutanda (3 hours walk)(one lodge to stay on the lake) (dug out canoe with boatman needed to cross the lake, 3 hours, gorgeous scenery, check the weather isn't stormy) to Kisoro (one hour from lakeside). No guide required for the walk from Nkoringo to Kisoro, plenty of people around to ask the way, porters available in Nkoringo village. Note: sadly the local trekking company does seem to be running a scam of overcharging customers for services and accommodation, doubling prices (observed November 2010), the guide is a superfluous 'middle man', whereas porter knows the way and offers a genuine service. From Kisoro you can take a transport to Mgahinga Gorilla National Park to climb any of the three volcanoes.
Stay inside the UGA quarters which offers 2 reasonable accommodation lodges, with hot water, decent breakfast and they prepare a nice lunch pack to take to the gorilla tracking. The whole point is leave the money in the community and preserve the region.
Though Bwindi is relatively safe, kidnappings are rare but do happen. For an idea of the risk of visiting places in Uganda (piratically by the ""Democratic Republic of Congo"" border), see the documentary about Mark Ross and his struggle against the Interhamwe on the Locked Up Abroad: Uganda episode.