Arizona , also known as the Grand Canyon State, is located in the American Southwest. Admitted as the 48th State of the Union in 1912, Arizona is home to the Grand Canyon as well as a variety of terrain, climates and cultures. To the west is California and Nevada, to the north is Utah, to the east is New Mexico, to the northeast is Colorado, and to the south is the Mexican state of Sonora. It is one of the Four Corners states.
Other cities are listed in their regions.
National Conservation Areas
National Historic Parks
National Historic Sites
National Historic Trails
National Recreation Areas
The Arizona State Parks  offer an array of options for outdoor enthusiasts:
Arizona covers 113,909 square miles, with about 350 square miles of water surface including Lake Havasu, Lake Powell, Lake Mead and the Colorado River. The state consists of three primary topographical features: a high plateau in the northeast of the state, averaging between 5,000 and 7,000 feet in elevation; a mountainous region which runs from the southeast to the northwest with peak elevations between 9,000 and 12,000 feet; and low mountain ranges and desert valleys in the southwestern of the state.
The state is defined by the Grand Canyon in the north, the Mogollon (pronounced MO-gee-yon) Rim in the central mountainous region and the Sonoran Desert to the south. Scattered among these regions, features such as the red rocks of Sedona, the tall, wind-swept towers of Monument Valley and the saguaro-filled desert valleys around Phoenix and Tucson add depth and character to the landscape of Arizona.
Another prominent feature of the Arizona landscape, a Ponderosa Pine forest stretches across the state from the White Mountain region around Greer and Alpine across the Mogollon Rim to the San Francisco Peaks north of Flagstaff. This strip of pine also extends beyond the Grand Canyon onto the Kaibab Plateau and into Southern Utah.
Humphreys Peak, part of the San Francisco Peaks, is the highest point in Arizona with an elevation of 12,611 feet. Baldy Peak, located in the White Mountains, is the second highest point with an elevation of 11,490 feet. In the southwest of the state, the Sonoran Desert stretches out of Mexico and into Arizona with elevations as low as about 100 feet above sea level in the Lower Colorado River Valley.
The Grand Canyon
One of the Seven Natural Wonders of the World, the Grand Canyon dominates the Northern Arizona landscape. Stretching 277 miles across the high plateaus and plunging up to 6,000 feet into the arid plateau, the canyon was shaped and carved by the constant motion of the Colorado River. The Grand Canyon features three or four eras of geological time as well several layers of fossil records, several variety rock types, numerous caves and several major ecosystems.
During the summer months, temperatures in the low desert regions can reach well above 100 degrees F, however the climate at higher elevations, as in Flagstaff, stays mild and allows for enjoyable outdoor activities as well as a break from the summer heat.
High temperatures near or above 100-110 degrees F are common throughout the summer months at the lower elevations. During the winter, cold fronts can bring temperatures well below zero in the higher areas of central and northern Arizona, with lows averaging between 15 and 20 degrees F.
During drier portions of the year (traditionally the winter months), temperatures can differ greatly from day to night, sometimes as much as 40 to 50 degrees F. In the low desert valleys during the winter, temperatures during the day could average 70 degrees F, with night temperatures dropping to around 40 degrees F. During the summer, the central portion of the state along with the lower elevations can can experience temperature changes up to 30-40 degrees F from day to night.
Rainfall in Arizona is primarily determined by season and elevation. In the mountainous region, that runs from the southeast to the northwest, rainfall amounts will average between 25 and 30 inches (including melted snow) annually, while the low-lying desert region averages only three or four inches annually. The high plateau region in the northeast of the state averages 10 inches of rainfall annually.
During winter months, November through March, storms occur regularly at the higher elevations in central and northern Arizona and can produce heavy snowfall. Summer months, particularly early July through mid-September, bring the monsoon season to the desert region. Monsoons are strong thunderstorms, typically lasting a short time in certain area, that produce powerful winds and brief periods of blowing dust prior to the storm's arrival. Almost all of these storms occur roughly between mid-afternoon and the middle of the night.
The average number of days with measurable rainfall per year ranges from around 70 in the northern part of the state to 15 in the desert regions. The air is usually dry and clear, with low relative humidity and a high percentage of sunshine. April, May and June usually produce the most clear days, while July and August (in lower elevations), as well as December, January and February (in higher elevations) have the cloudiest weather due to thunderstorms. Humidity, is low in comparison to other states, however it is typically higher during the monsoon season.
Despite the common perception of Arizona as a warm state, snowfall does occur annually in high altitude areas such as Flagstaff.
Native American Culture
Arizona is home to 22 Native American Tribes that contribute to the history, culture and economy of the state. While most tribes welcome visitors to experience their proud history and culture, each tribe does have its own guidelines for visitors. In addition, the 22 reservations operate under their own governmental structure. Tribal laws should be viewed in the same manner as U.S. laws and regulations. Before visiting a tribe, you should consult or contact the individual tribe for additional visitor information.
When visiting a Native American Tribe or reservation, you should be aware that:
Arizona has it's own time zone and does not observe daylight saving time, except for the Navajo Nation. This means that during the summer months, Arizona is a hour behind the rest of the Mountain Time Zone (or equivalent to the Pacific Time Zone). During the winter months Arizona has the same time as the rest of the Mountain Time Zone. An easy way to remember this rule is: Colorado in wintertime, California in summertime. It is one of two states that does not observe daylight time, the other being Hawaii.
As with all states in the U.S., the primary spoken language in Arizona is English. However, due to the state's history and its proximity to Mexico, Arizona is home to a large population of Mexicans & Mexican Americans as well as populations from several other Latin American countries who typically speak Spanish, in addition to English. Most of the 22 Native American Tribes also have their own distinct language, however it is usually spoken between tribal members.
Arizona's main entry point by air is Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport  (IATA: PHX, ICAO: KPHX). Located between downtown Phoenix and Tempe, Sky Harbor is served by most major airlines and provides non-stop service to over 100 cities worldwide. Airport shuttles service to/from PHX is available via SKOOT  with discounted shared ride fares within a 30 mile radius from the airport.
The Tucson International Airport  (IATA: TUS, ICAO: KTUS), located south of downtown Tucson, is Arizona's second busiest airport. Served by several major airlines, TIA current provides non-stop service to 18 cities.
In addition to Sky Harbor and TIA, several regional airports are located throughout Arizona including Flagstaff Pulliam Airport  (IATA: FLG, ICAO: KFLG) in Flagstaff, Lake Havasu City Airport in Lake Havasu City,Laughlin/Bullhead International Airport  (IATA: IFP, ICAO: KIFP, FAA LID: IFP), in Bullhead City and Yuma International Airport  (IATA: YUM, ICAO: KYUM) in Yuma.
All parts of Arizona are accessible by federal or state highways as well as 22 'Ports of Entry' from surrounding states and Sonora, Mexico. The speed limit on most interstate freeways is 75 miles per hour, however this typically drops to 65 or 55 miles per hour near metropolitan areas. The speed limit on most state highways and U.S. routes in rural Arizona is 65 miles per hour.
Arizona law does require that each front-seat occupant wear a seat belt in a car is designed to carry ten or fewer passengers (i.e. not a bus). In addition, children under the age of five must be properly restrained as well.
Bus service to Arizona is available via Greyhound with several stops available including Flagstaff, Glendale, Phoenix, Tucson and Yuma. In addition several companies catering to the large Mexican population in Arizona such as Autobuses Americanos and Tufesa run buses from both Phoenix and Tucson into Mexico going as far south as Mazatlan and Guadalajara.
Amtrak, +1 800 USA-RAIL (+1 800 872-7245),  offer two routes through Arizona:
As with most western states, the easiest way to get around Arizona is via car. The federal and state highway system offers travelers easy access around Arizona whether you are driving your personal car or a rental car. While most major cities in Arizona do offer public transportation, including Greater Phoenix, Tucson, Flagstaff, and Sedona, state-wide public transportation is very limited.
Nearly all major attractions and tourist destinations in Arizona are accessible via car.
Renting A Car
Renting a car in Arizona is very similar to any other state. Rental cars are available at most major airports, especially the main entry points of Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport and Tucson International Airport.
Arizona is an outdoor enthusiast's playground, with great hiking, backpacking hunting, fishing, and rock climbing within an hour's drive of all of the major city centers.
Arizona is known for its fantastic Sonoran food, including everything from Mexican fusion dishes to street-side burrito stands. The chimichanga, a deep fried burrito was first created here. Cactus (nopales in Spanish) is also edible and can be eaten fried or in salads.
The legal drinking/purchasing age of alcoholic beverages is 21. Under age drinking is taken very seriously so if you are in a club or bar and appear to be under 30 you should be ready to present identification showing your age. The exceptions to allow the under age consumption of alcoholic beverages are for religious and medical purposes.
Bottled Water and Lemonade are popular drinks.
Like many western states, Arizona has had cases of hantaviral pulmonary syndrome, 62 confirmed cases in the state since 1993. Realistically, however, hantavirus is of very little concern to the traveler; but sensible precautions should be applied. Do NOT venture in a wild animal's den or handle any dead animals; particularly rodents, as rodents seem to be the primary vector of the illness. There is no cure for the disease, treatment mainly consists of supportive therapies. The main defense against the virus is prevention.
For more information on prevention and transmission, visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention  website on hantaviruses.
Policing in Arizona
The Arizona DPS controls and have jurisdiction in the entire state. They do traffic division but can also help out local law enforcement agencies. The Arizona DPS usually wears a tan uniform with a rangers hat on top. Arizona DPS can be identifed by a white car with blue stripings and Arizona DPS on both sides. Newer cars can be identified by a gray vehicle with black striping with Arizona DPS logo on side. Phoenix Police patrols phoenix. They utilities all white cars with blue and yellow striping. Officers wear blue uniforms Tempe Police utilizes black and white patrol cars
Arizona / Mexico Border
Due to Arizona's proximity to the International Boundary with Mexico, visitors should be cautious while in areas near the border.
Crossing The Border
Thousands of U.S citizens visit the state of Sonora, Mexico from Arizona every year with the majority of travelers returning from an enjoyable experience. However, a minority of travelers do experience difficulties and serious inconveniences while traveling to Mexico. It is illegal to transport any guns or ammunition into Mexico and you can immediately get thrown in a Mexican jail for doing so. Before traveling to Mexico, ensure that you have the proper documentation and are familiar with the recommendations for foreign travel from the U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs
Residents of Arizona are allowed to conceal carry firearms after a thorough out extensive background check and training. Be aware it is illegal to bring any weapons into the country of Mexico. Bringing guns and weapons into Mexico will result in fines, detained by Mexican authority and a trip straight to a Mexican Jail.
A large portion of Arizona's land area consists of extensive desert landscapes, many of which are very remote and can easily become disorienting to a tourist who is unfamiliar with these locations. It is not at all uncommon for temperatures in the Arizona desert to reach 115-120 degrees Fahrenheit during the summer months, which have the potential to impose deadly consequences to anyone who should become lost or stranded in these areas.
If are planning on traveling or hiking into these locations, follow desert survival guidelines. Be sure to take plenty of water (at least one gallon per person, per day), sunscreen and wear light clothing. Let someone know where you are going and when you expect to get return.
Also, it is best to hike during the earlier part of the day, as thunderstorms tend to develop suddenly during the afternoon. In the event you encounter inclement weather conditions, seek high ground immediately! Thunderstorms can cause flash flooding in canyons and other low laying areas.
Drivers in Arizona should follow the same rules and regulations that apply throughout the U.S. Drivers in Southern Arizona are notoriously bad, especially in the Phoenix and Tucson areas, which were recently ranked among the worst in the country for aggressive driving. Most of the year, however, visitors will experience little problem. The worst time to drive in southern Arizona is the winter, when colleges are in session, and all the snowbirds (older part-time residents who often don't know the roads as well as they should) are in the cities. 
For information on road conditions or traffic information dial *511 from any phone. Road conditions and traffic information is also available online from the Arizona Department of Transportation or the Federal Highway Administration.
Be aware that Arizona Highway Patrol can and do close I-40, I-17 and other major roads due to high winds or severe snow storms. During extremely severe weather, it may not be possible to send traffic back to a town, so travelers should plan accordingly.
Dust storms (locally known as haboobs) are caused by high winds blowing dust onto highways. Usually brief, dust storms should be taken seriously because they can quickly decrease visibility. If you see a dust storm while driving:
Typically during the summer monsoon season, Arizona does experience heavy rainstorms or monsoons. While these storms are usually brief, the heavy rain can cause flooding in low-lying areas. If you find yourself driving during one of these storms:
In the event of an emergency, dial 911. For non-emergency police or fire assistance, contact the local police or fire department directly.
Summer temperatures in some areas of Arizona nearly can surpass 100 F (38 C) and visitors should take extra precautions while visiting the state. In Phoenix, record temperatures of 118 F and 116 F (48 & 47C) have been approached with greater regularity in recent years. Frequent hydration is extremely important.
Avoid heat-related illness:
Abandoned Mine Shafts
These are very numerous in Arizona, and many remain unmarked. Many mine shafts are as deep as a skyscraper is tall, creating an extremely dangerous hazard. Do not travel along unknown trails and primitive dirt roads by ATV, motorcycle, horseback, etc. or deviate (even by a few feet) from existing well-used ones. For more information, including safety tips, visit the Arizona State Mine Inspector website.
Although Arizona allows the purchasing and use of consumer fireworks, Arizona is currently the only state to only allow the purchase and possession of only Novelty fireworks. So if you wish to use more explosive fireworks or sparklers, it's best to go to a neighboring state to purchase and use them. Fortunately, all neighboring states allows the possession and purchase of more explosive fireworks and sparklers. Do not bring your purchased non-legal fireworks back into Arizona, that qualifies as smuggling as you(the consumer) is in possession of fireworks. And punishments for smuggling fireworks in Indianalead to serious jail time. Lighting them in the countryside isn't recomended as you'll never know if there's someone nearby watching. This also goes for anyone who is just driving through the state with a vehicle full of non-legal fireworks.
Snakes are very common in the state of Arizona including dry rural areas including deserts. Some of the snakes that live in Arizona are venomous snakes. Never try to pick up any snakes if you don't know the species. Harassing or provoking a snake is illegal and dangerous. Rattlesnakes are common in the state of Arizona in rural areas. All rattlesnakes are considered extremely venomous. A coral snake also lives in the state of Arizona. Pit vipers also live in Arizona. If you are bitten by a snake call emergency services and seek emergency attention. A good way to determine if a snake is venomous is to see if they have pits between the snake eyes and nostrils. If they have no pits then the snake is safe. If they have pits then watch out, the snake is poisonous. Thick snakes is also a concern as most non venomous snakes are thin.
Residents in Arizona are permitted to conceal and open carry a firearm after a through background check and intensive training. Bringing guns or ammunition into the country of Mexico is illegal. Doing so will result in being detained by the Mexican Authorities and going to jail.
Many Arizonans especially in Greater Phoenix are socially and politically conservative and have strong Catholic or Christian beliefs, so be careful when discussing religion and politics. As with the rest of the country sensitive and divided topics are race, religion, politics and gay rights.
Arizona's geographic location and the interstate system allow easy access to California, Nevada, Utah, New Mexico, Colorado (via Utah or New Mexico) and the state of Sonora in Mexico. One Warning; The legal drinking age in Sonora is 18, and many that are not yet 21 travel to the state to indulge in drinking. Those living close to the border with Mexico also travel there to indulge in prostitution, since it's legal in the state. While those in Northern Arizona travel to Nevada to indulge in prostitution, since it's legal in the state.