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Ahsa (local pronunciation: Al-Hasa); it is a Saudi governorate located in the eastern region, 328 km from the capital, Riyadh. It covers an area of 379,000 km2, which is equivalent to 20% of the territory of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and covers the desert of the Empty Quarter about three quarters of the governorate, while the populated area and activities represent 18% of the total area, and is represented in the cities of Hofuf and Mubarraz, which are among the ten largest cities at the level Kingdom, in addition to four main cities and 22 villages. According to the statistics of 2017, Al-Ahsa topped the governorates of the eastern region in the population of about 1,041,863 people.
Al-Ahsa represents a renewed cultural scene through a history that spanned more than 6000 years, due to the abundance of water and the fertility of its lands, and the oldest inhabitants are the Canaanites who inhabited the region since 3000 BC, and from their lineage the Phoenician giants who were famous for irrigation and agriculture, which is appropriate for the conditions of the region. The Chaldeans followed them in the seventh century B.C. when they were displaced from the land of Babylon in 694 BC, and established the city of Jeraa'a - al-Jaraa ', where they were built from the ruins of Al-Hasa today, which includes a group of archaeological sites, and a group of destroyed cities such as Wasit, Nazerah, Gwatha.
In the Al-Ahsa Governorate, there is the largest oil field in the world, with a capacity of 280 by 30 km. It is located in the east of the city of Hofuf and the Al-Ahsa oasis. The field produces more than five million barrels (800,000 m3) of oil per day, equivalent to 6.25% of global production. Thanks to that, the size of the contribution of Al-Ahsa to the Kingdom's GDP is estimated at about 378 billion riyals.
Al-Ahsa is famous for its numerous palm trees that cover huge areas of its land and more than three million palm trees, and produces more than one hundred thousand tons of dates annually, which is equivalent to 10% of the Kingdom's production , which is originally a natural oasis, classified as the largest palm oasis in the world . Al-Ahsa has a 133-kilometer waterfront on the Arabian Gulf, and was once one of the kingdom's richest areas with groundwater, and the eyes that range between 60 and 70 springs, the oldest of which is a sniper in the city of El-Ayoun and dates back to 4,500 years BC, but it dried up and last dried up in 1996.
In June 2018, Al-Ahsa Governorate joined UNESCO's World Humanitarian List, as a major settlement over 500 years ago, which included palm groves, canals, springs, wells, archeological sites and a group of Omani heritage within its historical settlements, and in 2019 Al-Ahsa was chosen as the capital of Arab tourism, which is also Member of the UNESCO Network of Creative Cities in the field of handicrafts and folklore. Al-Ahsa includes a number of landmarks such as Al-Qaysariya Heritage Market, Al-Amiriya School, Historic Jwathi Mosque, Ibrahim Palace and Beit Al-Baya, in addition to the Al-Ahsa Nakheel Oasis that contains a number of heritage and natural buildings and sites.
The history of Al-Ahsa dates back to the beginning of the start of the human formation of the Gulf man, which was initiated by the Sami shepherds, and the subsequent migrations of the tribes. The Great Semites in the Arabian Peninsula in the north and east, and the Gulf region - which is located on the banks of the city of Al-Ahsa - is considered one of the stations of those tribes, and its waters serve as a crossing for them to the fertile crescent, and the reason for this is because it is an agricultural area due to the fertility of its lands and the abundance of its water, in addition to Its commercial importance as it is the crossroads of several trade routes linking the Arabian Peninsula with Persia and India through the port of Al-Aqeer and the port of Qatif. The Phoenician component was one of the clearest elements that formed the first batches of these migrations coming to Al-Ahsa,This opinion supports the many cemeteries that were found in this coast of Al-Ahsa and in the Bahrain Islands opposite him, as he sent what was found in those graves to the British Museum, and there it was decided that these graves are of Phoenician origin, and its history dates back to about five thousand years, and it is known that the Phoenicians They are one of the branches of the Canaanites. The Canaanites moved from the Gulf coast to the Mediterranean coast and settled in Lebanon, Syria and Palestine, bringing with them the names of their cities, such as Tire, Arwad, Jubail, and others. Following the migration of the Canaanites from the coast of Al-Ahsa, the place of the Chaldeans, a branch of the Chaldeans, settled in their place.
The Greek historian Polybius also described Al-Ahsa as an important commercial center, a market of active markets in the Arab countries and a meeting place for caravan routes from southern Arabia, the Levant, the Hijaz, Iraq and India, and that its inhabitants were among the wealthiest peoples of the island and the mainstay of their wealth was gold and silver,This stirred greed in the same Seleucid king Antiochus III, so he led his fleet in the year (205 BC), boycotting the Tigris and heading to it to seize its treasures, but its people, for fear of their city and love for peace and to preserve their freedom that they were proud of, sent to him a delegation carrying A great gift of gold and precious stones, and they carried with them their hope that he would not deprive them of the blessing of peace and freedom, so Antiochus accepted the gift and locked back to his country, and perhaps the arid desert and the bearing of the journey from the adventure of the main reason persuaded the Seleucid king to return from his resolve.
The importance of the Al-Ahsa Governorate site is that it links the kingdom in its eastern part with the Gulf Cooperation Council states, between latitude 21-25 north and longitude 25- 49 east in an area estimated at 379,000 km², bordered to the north by the Abqaiq Governorate and the Arabian Gulf, and from the south it borders it Sultanate of Oman, from the east by the Gulf of Salwa and from the west by the Dahna Desert.
The climate of Al-Ahsa is originally desert in general and mostly clear, as temperatures rise in summer and reach 48 degrees Celsius, the temperature drops in winter to 10 degrees Celsius, It rains in the fall
The city of Hofuf is located in the southwestern corner of the Al-Ahsa oasis, separated from the city of Al-Mubarraz by King Fahd Road, which cuts off the metropolis of Al-Ahsa Governorate from east to west. A fortified fortress since the end of the tenth century AH and for 400 years by the Ottoman governors in Al-Ahsa until its walls were removed in 1376 AH. Stammering I am Muhammad Pasha in 963 AH.
The city of Al-Mubarraz is located in the southwestern corner of the Al-Ahsa oasis, the date of the beginning of Al-Mubarraz dates back to the second half of the seventh century AH, it was surrounded by a wall 5 meters wide and 7 meters high and has eight gates. And the headquarters for the emergence and gathering of caravans before they set out for the Hajj, and from that came the designation of Al-Mubarraz.
The city of El-Ayoun is located to the north of Al-Ahsa Governorate, and it is 35 km away from the center of the governorate. This name was named for its many eyes, as it includes the site of a sniper that dates back to the year 4500 B.C.
Al-Ahsa in UNESCO
In July 2018, the General Authority for Tourism and National Heritage submitted a file for UNESCO under the title "Al-Ahsa developed cultural scene", and this was the first time that UNESCO received a file for an agricultural area of this size, with an area of Al-Ahsa Oasis of 160 km2, which is the largest irrigated agricultural oasis In the world, in addition to being steadfast, alive and renewed with all data, including cities, urban societies and water eyes, and overlooking the waters of the Arabian Gulf on one side and the desert of the Empty Quarter on the other hand.
The oasis contributed to highlighting the natural and heritage value in the region, especially in light of its preservation of the growing agricultural area and its dependence on a semi-traditional irrigation system, in addition to containing the eyes that help to pump them to the irrigation and drainage authority networks such as Ain Najm, Ain Umm Saba and Ain Al Hara, which are used from its water Sulfur is also used in the treatment of some diseases, cold water eyes such as intrinsic, cheeks and lichen.
The oasis includes more than three million palm trees that produce about 60 varieties of dates, and it is the main producer of dates in the Kingdom and the Arab Gulf states, which qualified them to participate in the international competitions of the Seven Wonders of the World and to get the sixth position among 277 sites around the world in a competition supervised by UNESCO.
The Al-Ahsa file included 12 components divided into three sections according to their nature, the first group includes sites with natural components, the eastern oasis and the northern oasis, Al-Seifah Oasis and Lake Al-Asfar, and the second group included the archaeological sites which are Ain Sniper and the site of Gwathi, while the third group included sites of heritage value, a palace Ibrahim, Qasr Sahoud, Gwathi Mosque, Khuzam Palace, Kayseri Market and the center of the ancient city of El-Ayoun.
- Alshebah Mountain - Alara'a mountain - cave qara mountain - ayen aljawharia (Traditional swimming pool) - ayen um sab'a (Traditional swimming pool) - Al-Ajeer Beach and 'Harbor' (70 KM from alahsa) - Yellow Lake - qayseria Bazaar - Pottery factory - Guatha Mosque (The second mosque in Islam) and guatha garden - Sahoud Palace - Ibrahim Palace - Khuzam Palace - hufuf old town - altaraf zoo - alhalila zoo - king abdullah park - Al-Ahsa National Park - alsyd cafe ( Traditional cafe ) - Al-Ahsa National Museum - otham mall - alahsa mall