Abkhazia (Abkhaz: Аҧсны, Russian: Абхазия) is a partially recognised state controlled by a separatist government on the eastern coast of the Black Sea and the south-western flank of the Caucasus. in the Caucasus and a very popular destination for Russian tourists. It considers itself an independent state, but is recognized by few countries. Despite its controversial status it is still a popular place to spend summer vacation among Russians. The state is situated on the eastern bank of the Black Sea, bordered on the northwest by Russia on the Psou River, near the city of Sochi, and on the east with Georgia at the Ingur River and with the Grand Caucasian Range of mountains on the north. A subtropical climate and snow covered mountains combined with beaches, caves, lakes and mountains as well as architectural and religious legacy of churches makes Abkhazia a wonder to a tourist.
After the war between Georgia and Russia in 1992-1993 and despite having most of its infrastructure destroyed, Abkhazia managed to redevelop its main economic pillars which are tourism and agriculture. Though many efforts were made to rehabilitate the territory after the war, this region is still occupied by Russia and destructions remains across the territory. The unresolved conflict between Georgia and Russia is a burden for the future development of the territory.
In August 2008, there was fighting again during the South Ossetia War, which was followed by the formal recognition of Abkhazia by Russia, the annulment of the 1994 ceasefire agreement and the termination of the UN and CIS missions.
Its status as an independent state is internationally recognized only by Nauru, Nicaragua, Russia and Venezuela. Abkhazia highly depends on Russian support and currency, and has an uncertain political situation similar to that of South Ossetia or Kosovo. From a travel perspective it is for all intents and purposes an independent territory.
Abkhaz, in the Northwest Caucasian linguistic family, is related to the Abkhaz-Adyghe language group in the same family. There are two official languages: Abkhaz and Russian. Russian is convenient for intercultural communication since Abkhazia is a multi-ethnic state. Russian is universally understood and likely the most convenient language for travelers. In the cities you can use English for basic communication.
As of 2014, there are two viable land crossings into Abkhazia: one is from Sochi in Russia, the other one is from Enguri bridge (near Zugdidi), Georgia. Entering is more "user-friendly" from Russia, as this border crossing is used by hundreds of Russian tourists every day, however, the need of a double-entry Russian visa makes it challenging for most westerners, no double entry issue for citizens of about 50 countries  who need no visa for Russia on a reciprocal treatment basis (see details below) . If you enter from Georgia, take a taxi from Zugdidi to Enguri bridge (GEL10),or a minibus for GEL1 (yes, there are). check your passport with the Georgian military checkpoint and walk across the several hundred metre long, dilapidated Enguri bridge to the Russian military checkpoint at the Abkhazian side. Alternatively, horse carriages also run between the two checkpoints (GEL1); at the Abkhazian side you find taxis, marshrutkas and coaches to Gal and Sokhumi.
Taxi prices: From border to Sukhumi or back: RUB1,500. Bus fare from border to Sukhumi Rbs 200.
A water border crossing point to Russia in Gagra was also opened in 2011 (see below).
Please note that after your trip you should go back where you came from: it is not allowed to transit through Abkhazia from Russia to Georgia or vice versa. While some travellers reported that visiting Abkhazia from Georgia and continuing the trip to Russia is viable, it's clearly not recommended. Visitors who go to Georgia after visiting Abkhazia through Russia may be subject to a punishment and fines by Georgian customs since they consider it a violation of the Georgian border regime.
Visa to Abkhazia
There are three types of visas for Abkhazia: Single-entry, Multi-entry and Transit visas; Tourists entering Abkhazia should fill out and send a Visa application form directly to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Abkhazia. A double entry Russian visa is mandatory for non-Russian citizens to be able to enter and exit the territory of Abkhazia from/to Russia. Citizens of Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan-(Commonwealth Independent States) and Nicaragua do not need visas to enter Abkhazia.
As of July 2017, it is possible to obtain a visa-on-arrival for short 'excursions' into the country at the Psou border crossing near Adler/Sochi in Russia. After going through the checkpoint on the Russian side of the border, you will be directed to an office on the Abkhaz side of the border where Russian guards will once again examine your passport and inquire as to why you are visiting Abkhazia. After a short time, Abkhaz authorities will take you to a small building where you pay for your Abkhaz visa. They will then hand you the visa without placing it into your passport and you are free to go. It should be noted that trying to mail your visa application form to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and/or calling the office will not result in a reply as the visa-on-arrival scheme has now been implemented. Additionally, as you have already obtained and paid for your visa, it is not necessary to visit the Consular Department of the MFA in Sukhumi (see below).
Once at the Consular Department of Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Sukhumi (Uliza Sakharova 33) you hand in your entry permit and pay the fee on the spot. Visa will be handed out immediately (July 2016 and also October 2017).
For those who travel to Abkhazia via Russia, a transit, double entry or multiple entry Russian visa is required in order to be eligible to re-enter the Russian Federation after visiting Abkhazia, except for citizens of about 50 countries who do not need a visa for Russia because of reciprocal agreements . The Russian guards do not stamp your passport at this border and sometimes questions about having already used up your double-entry visa can occur — so it helps to save the Abkhaz visa or any other piece of evidence about the length of your stay.
There are several trains (numbers 010, 479, and 306) between Moscow and Sukhumi with several daily departures in either direction in Summer and around two times a week during the winter. The 480С goes from Sukhumi to Saint Petersburg five times a week in summer and, and other trains can connect you throughout Russia from hubs that all above trains pass through, like Sochi or Rostov-on-Don. You can find the timetable on the official site of RZD[]or on the Yandex timetable sevice[]. No trains leave Abkhazia to rest of the Georgia.
Buses to Sukhumi run from Sochi and Rostov-on-the-Don, Russia daily. Buses and marshrutkas to Gali and Sukhumi also run from the Enguri bridge crossing, near the Georgian border; a trip to Sukhumi shouldn't cost more than RUB150, although drivers may try to charge you the double. Don't let them scam you.
If you are crossing the border on foot from Russia, prepare for long waits in summer touristic season (2-3 hours are not uncommon) and bring enough water. Entering from Georgia will involve at least 15 minutes walking between the two military checkpoints, but apart the paperwork which can be somewhat lengthy, this is a straightforward process. Avoid bringing wide baby carriages as the checkpoint is quite cramped.
Sukhumi Dranda Airport (IATA: SUI) is not operational yet though the Government has interests to launch flights in the near future but as for now the airport serves irregular flights to the Pskhu village and the United Nations Observer Mission flights. Abkhazian airspace is jointly controlled by the Russian Air Force, and the fledgling Abkhaz Air Force, so unauthorized aircraft entering it, especially from Georgia, may be shot down.
There are frequent buses and marshrutkas along the coastal road between Psou and Sukhumi. You will find a detailed bus timetable at the Sukhumi Bus Station(small cabine near the restored section of the destroyed railway terminal). As of July 2016 trips cost:
Sukhumi - Gagra: 200 Rubles Sukhumi - New Athos: 70 Rubles Gagra - Psou: 70 Rubles
Visitors may also use taxis for travel within the country. Many taxi companies provide special rates for sightseeing. There are a number of travel agencies providing excursions to the mountains using jeeps / four wheel drive cars.
By tour bus
Many local excursional companies making tours to the most of the famous sites of Abkhazia.The most popular are:lake Ritza,New Athos(Noviy Afon) cave and monastery,varios horse,jeeps and quad bikes tours. You can easily buy the excursion by the tour companies agents who are usually sitting behind the tables along the embarkments and beaches.Agent usually needs your adress and phone number,then he usually give an exursional ticket and add your name in a list.Next morning the tour minibus(usually Mersedes Sprinter) will stop near your apartments. The same operation you can do with your apartments owner who usually have contacts or even have his own tour company.
One interesting destination for travelers is to visit Novi Afon or New Athos (Новый Афон); a Christian Orthodox Cathedral, which is 20min drive from Sukhumi. It is famous not only as a cathedral and living legacy of Christianity but also as a cave; where there are 7-8 enormously large halls with thousands of wonderful stalagmites and stalagtites. A special train takes you to the depths. There are also historical places like the village of Moqua with its beautiful cathedral, and Ilor Church near Ochamchira.
Another attraction is Lake Ritsa, high in the mountains and about one hour's drive from the main road (M-27). On the other side of the lake Stalin's Dacha (summer cottage) can be found. The shortest way is by boat, but access is also possible by road (5km). The cottage is open for tourists in the peak season. Even further up in the mountains is Lake Msui, a bit more off the beaten track; some tour operators offer trips. Weekly local flights from Sukhum airport can take you to the remote village of Pskhu, where tourists may enjoy fantastic views of mountains and enjoy local produce such as honey and meat.
The city of Gagra and Pitsunda is the most popular tourist destination, offering a wide range of activities for a vacation.
Abkhazia offers a wide variety of activities, including ecotourism, gastro tourism, rafting and extreme sports, mountain jogging and snowboarding, diving and sky gliding, hunting, abandoned buildings and Soviet remains visits and cultural and religious tourism.
These are things a traveler should try before leaving Abkhazia:
ATMs are widespread in Abkhazia in recent times. Dollars and Euros are accepted in official exchange offices which can be easily found in most tourist areas. Sometimes, visitors may pay with dollars and euros directly, though at a lower rate.
Must try Abkhazian local dishes include Akud (bean sauce) and Abista (corn porridge with cheese) and a variety of meat and fresh greens, most dishes are usually spicy. Shashlik kebabs and another Caucasian dishes are popular in Abkhazia. Food is extremely cheap here but you need to be careful: wash fruits and vegetables, be careful with cheap street food; it is strongly recommended to buy food in shops and supermarkets instead of buying it on the streets and beaches.
Local wines are a must try; Apsny, Ashta, Buque, Dioskuria (ancient Greek name of Sukhumi), Gumsta, Lykhni, Psou, and Radeda.
In the past, before Russian occupation, Abkhazia has witnessed military confrontations between Georgian forces and the Russian military. For the common traveller the country is relatively safe, but you should make sure to avoid any place near the border to other part of Georgia. Some minor unregistered minefields are reported near the border, an additional reason to steer well clear of it. Keep in mind that Abkhazia is, in the view of international law, still a part of Georgia. Further military confrontations are unlikely but you should closely follow the international and independent news in case the situation changes. Travellers who have visited Abkhazia from Russia and intend to visit Georgia can be questioned, refused entry to Georgia or in the worst case be imprisoned by Georgian immigration officers, as entry to Abkhazia is seen as illegal immigration.
The basic precautions for travellers are those recommended in all tourist destinations:
Should the FSB security services suspect you are a foreigner, they may decide stop and question you. Keeping your passport or a copy of your passport with you is recommended in case they do stop and question you.
Abkhazia is a traditional and conservative country, so dress modestly. Clothing which exposes too much skin will give you a bad image from the local people, and you will thereby get unwelcome attention and less respect.