喀山

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喀山 (Каза́нь, Казан) 是俄罗斯鞑靼斯坦共和国首府。

历史[编辑]

有长期运行的争论至由是窩瓦-保加利亚人在中世纪创立喀山,或金帳汗國之塔塔尔族在早期15世纪建立的,因为文字记录在那后期间是稀稀落落的。如果有保加利亚市在那站点,它的创立时期大概估计是从早期11世纪到晚13世纪范围中。 最古老的村庄可能是建于11世纪的喀山克里姆林宫。11世紀時,保加爾汗國接受伊斯蘭教信仰。

在11和12世纪,喀山可能有保护从斯堪的那维亚到伊朗的窩瓦商船航线。当时喀山是个商业中心。 在13世纪,许多邻舍来自“Bolğar”地区,移居到喀山来避难蒙古的征略,本市后来成为金帐汗国的喀山公国附庸中心。

到了1438年时,金帐汗国解體,本市就便成为喀山汗國的首都。城市义卖市场在这个区域成为十分重要的商业中心,特别是家具商业。城堡渠道被重建,给城市强力的防御容量。虽然俄国人数次有占领本城市,但他们必须撤离。

1552年时,喀山终于被俄国王伊凡四世征取,大量人口遭屠杀。在总督亚历山大・郭尔巴提-述伊斯吉之职位期间,大多数喀山汗國的塔塔族居民被强迫转信基督教或被迫害和杀戮,清真寺与宫殿都被破坏。


到达[编辑]

Kazan train station

Kazan is easiest to reach by train, as it is a major station stop for several west-east trains. Depending on the train, travel from Moscow's Kazan Station can be as short as 11 hours. A direct train from St. Petersburg's Moscow Station takes 25 hours. Kazan's train station is located close to the city center, with several hotels, restaurants, and the Kremlin within walking distance of the train station. Note that the ticketing office is not in the main (historic red brick) building, but in the more modern building with a clock tower next door; as one faces the main building from the street, the ticket office is to the left.

The airport in Kazan (IATA: KZN) is the headquarters for Tatarstan Airlines, which serves several cities in Russia and flies some charter flights to destinations like Turkey and Egypt. In addition to Tatarstan Airlines, Aeroflot, S7, SkyExpress, and UTAir fly between Kazan and Moscow, and Rossiya Airlines also flies to Kazan from St. Petersburg. Lufthansa and Turkish Airlines are the two international carriers which currently have scheduled flights to Kazan.

Travelers should note that the international airport is southeast of the city and far from the city center. A taxi from the train station to the airport takes about 90 minutes and can cost 1000 Rubles or more. Public transportation to and from the airport is complicated, as there is no direct bus service between the airport and the city center. Public bus 97 runs from the airport via MEGA shopping mall to the "39 Kvartal" bus station in the Aviastroitelniy Rayon (north of the city center and across the Kazanka River). From 39 Kvartal, one must change buses to Bus 15 or 35a to reach the Kremlin, and then possibly make a third connection from there to travel elsewhere in the city.

Kazan also has a riverboat terminal on the Volga River and can be reached by river cruise as well.

乌法出发坐汽车到喀山需要10小时(返回9小时),票价750卢布(返回800+85卢布,税钱,不知道是什么税),两地间没有火车。

移动[编辑]

市中心的主要地区可不行,主要景区(喀山克里姆林宫和鲍曼大街)彼此临近且以步行街相连。

公共交通发达,且相对便宜(单程10-15卢布),但是没有行车路线的站牌,车上也没有报站系统,所以对于不会俄语的游客,乘坐公共汽车旅行时一种挑战。

出租车通常需要电话叫车,但在一些特殊地方,如火车站、汽车站、高级宾馆门口也会有出租车在那等。出租车没有统一价格,通常要先议好价再上车,以免引发纠纷。出租车的价格通常较贵,对于外国游客更是如此。

喀山建有地铁,但是只有6站,第7站正在建,不过已经覆盖城市主要旅游景区。地铁票价10卢布,进站时投入车票,出站时不需要检票。车站较昏暗,虽然不如国内地铁现代化程度高,不过两边墙壁贴满壁画,还是比较精美。

另外,在宾馆(包括小宾馆)可以得到免费地图。

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Kazan celebrated its 1000-year anniversary in 2005, for which the city got a major facelift. Visitors today will be able to see many of the reconstructed or newly-constructed sites from the anniversary celebration.

Kazan Kremlin

Kazan Kremlin喀山克里姆林宫

Once a Tatar fortress, it was largely destroyed by Ivan the Terrible. During the 16th and 17th Centuries, Russians reconstructed the Kremlin with new fortifications and Russian institutions (such as the Annunciation Cathedral). Many of the features of the Kremlin reflect Russian influence of that era, and the construction of the parapets and watchtowers is particularly reminiscent of other dominant Russian cities of the time, such as Pskov and Novgorod. Entry to the Kremlin is through the white clock tower (the Spasskaya Tower) at the end of Bauman Street. Entry costs 300 Rubles with a guided tour, or 20 Rubles to explore the grounds on one's own. There are several interesting things to see inside the Kremlin, including:

  • Suyumbike Tower

The legend of the Suyumbike Tower is that the Tatar Princess Suyumbike was betrothed to Ivan the Terrible, but she consented to marry him only if he could build the highest tower in Kazan in seven days. Ivan accomplished the task, but Suyumbike, rather than subjugating herself and the Tatar people to the Russian ruler, climbed to the top of the tower and jumped to her death. Locals do not seem to believe that the legend is true, but they appreciate the romanticism of it. At present, the tower is not open to climb the stairs.

Suyumbike Tower
  • Kul-Sharif Mosque库尔沙里夫清真寺

Named after the 16th-century Tatar imam who died defending Kazan from Ivan the Terrible's army, the Kul-Sharif Mosque was completed in 2005 after ten years of construction. It is located within the Kremlin walls, making the Kremlin facility now a symbol of multicultural harmony in multiethnic Tatarstan. Entry to the mosque is free, although visitors must pay 3 Rubles for plastic slip-covers for their shoes in order to keep the floors clean. Visitors who climb the stairs to the third floor observation balcony do not need to remove their shoes. The prayer hall on the ground floor is only open to men going to pray, and the second floor balcony is for Muslim women to pray. All women, though, should cover their heads in all parts of the mosque.

From the observation balcony, visitors can appreciate the beauty of the mosque, which is built in a modern design not unlike modern Turkish mosques. The dome in the shape of a lotus flower and the many windows give the prayer hall a bright and airy atmosphere. One uniquely local feature in the mosque is the malachite columns on the minbar (the free-standing pulpit). Some of the 99 names of God are inscribed on the inside of the upper dome and on the window glass, and the name Mohammed is written in a blue disk at the front of the prayer hall. Verses from the Koran, including an incantation against envy, are written on tile in the four corners of the hall, and the names on disks suspended lower in the hall are those of the four rightly-guided caliphs and some of the early prophets.

An interesting Museum of Islam is located below the ground floor of the mosque. Entrance is free, and a tour in English may be available if the English-speaking docent is on duty. The museum also has a booklet in English that explains the exhibits that can be helpful. Some of the exhibits include displays regarding the status of Tatar language in the Soviet era, some history of the building of the mosque (note the photo of prayers being held outdoors in the 1990s before the mosque was built), and on the lower sublevel is a history of Islam in Tatarstan which makes mention of Empress Elizabeth's attempt to convert Tatars to Christianity and Catherine the Great's edict allowing mosques to be constructed.

Kul Sharif Mosque
  • Annunciation Cathedral报喜大教堂
  • State Hermitage Museum in Kazan喀山国立博物馆

Affiliated with the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, this museum sometimes has special exhibits of interest.

  • State Museum of the Tatar State and the Republic of Tatarstan鞑靼斯坦国立博物馆

The museum was one of several projects completed for the 1000-year anniversary celebration, and it is located on the former site of the Tatar sultan's mosque, which was destroyed by Ivan's army and a residence (?) was built in its place. The building fell into disrepair over the years and a Turkish company completed the renovations for the 2005 museum opening. One must first enter on the ground floor (located just to the left of the Suyumbike Tower) and pay the 20-Ruble entry fee. A group of energetic and chatty old ladies staff the museum, although none speak much English. The ground floor section of the museum is filled with gifts to Tatarstan from foreign dignitaries on the occasion of the 1000-year anniversary, as well as a reproduction of the sultan's throne (note the gold dome of the Koran case, which is meant to hold the Koran higher than the sultan's chair) and a reproduction of the mausoleum of the sultans, the original of which is said to be underground nearby: a small square monument marks the spot in the square outside the museum. To reach the second story of the museum, one must go outside and around the corner and climb the stairs in the courtyard near the Suyumbike Tower. There is no cashier on the second floor, so visitors much go to the ground floor section first. The second floor includes a narrative history of Tatarstan, from the early settlement of the Volga-Bulgars to the early Tatar state to Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic to Tatarstan in the Russian Federation. The guide will insist that visitors also visit a small room on the side where medals and decorations given to the president are displayed.


Bauman Street鲍曼大街

The pedestrian zone that stretches between the Kremlin and Tokai Square and the Hotel Tatarstan. This is Kazan's Arbat, with boutiques, souvenir shops and kiosks, cafes, bars, and plenty of opportunities for people-watching. The statuary (such as a bronze carriage) is especially interesting.

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本地街头特色礼物不多,绝大多数疑为进口自义乌。建议可买一些印有当地著名景点照片的明信片,50-100卢布。

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Bauman Street has the largest collection of restaurants, cafes, and bars in the city. They range from acceptable to tourist traps. Places to eat off Bauman Street include:

  • Bilyar 一个提供鞑靼菜和俄罗斯菜的廉价饭店. 主食50-200 Rubles, chak-chak值得作为甜点尝试一下. 该城共有4家此餐厅: Ulitsa Butlerova 31 (在鞑靼斯坦宾馆后面的山上), Ulitsa Bolshaya Krasnaya 48 (国际图书馆后), Ulitsa Vishevskovo 15 和Prospekt Pobedi 50a (后两个离市中心有点远).
  • Priyut Kholostyaka A trendy restaurant with an eclectic menu of European and Russian dishes. Main courses 300-500 Rubles. Clean, quiet, and a bit off the tourist path, this is a good place for relaxing and having tea. Although its name means Bachelor's Refuge which makes it sound like a strip club or something, it is nothing of the sort. Ulitsa Chernishevskovo 27a.

Self-caterers can find a large supermarket (one of the Bakhetle chain) in the TsUM bulding across from the Mirage Hotel. The bakery across from the Milena Hotel on Tazi Gizzata Street has excellent bread and a few groceries.

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一些廉价的小旅店可能无法接待未注册的外国游客。

  • Suleiman Palace, Peterburgskaya Street 55, (843) 278-16-16 (), [4]. 性价比较高,距市中心较远,需要乘车到克里姆林 每间2500 Rubles起.  編輯
  • Milena Hotel, Tazi Gizzata Street 19 (火车站出来右转,过一个街区,左转,在加油站附近), (843) 292-99-92 (), [5]. 地理位置优越,可步行到主要景点及火车站,干净整洁,设备较新,没有电梯. 每间600 Rubles起.  編輯
  • Hotel Shushma, Narimanova Street 19, (843) 292-98-21, [6]. Milena hotel隔壁,与其类似.  編輯
  • Hotel Volga, 1 Said-Galeeva (火车站以北,可步行前往), (843) 292 14 69. 不要相信他们没有便宜房间! 单人间750 roubles起.  編輯

联系[编辑]

Internet cafes and restaurants with WiFi are found throughout the city. Probably the most useful internet cafe for travelers is a small one across from the train station. From the main station building, cross through the park and cross the main street. It is at the corner to one's left, but hidden behind a newspaper stand and some kiosks.

The post office in Kremlyovskaya St. has seven computers with internet access, for around 36 rub./hour. Pay in advance at the register. Your unspent minutes will be refunded.

离开[编辑]

The Raifa Monestary is about 30km outside the city and can be reached by bus, according to its website. [7].


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