西伯利亞鐵路

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西伯利亞鐵路,莫斯科到海參崴

西伯利亞鐵路橫穿西伯利亞莫斯科,是以下三條之間的總稱:

西伯利亞鐵路是世界上最長的鐵路線。它興建與1891—1916年,連接俄羅斯首都莫斯科和遠東城市海參崴。途徑城市包括彼爾姆葉卡捷琳堡, 鄂木斯克, 新西伯利亞, 克拉斯諾雅茨克, 伊爾庫茨克, 赤塔哈巴羅夫斯科

到達[編輯]

Vladivostok station

西伯利亞鐵路上的三個重點站是莫斯科北京海參崴。每周還有一趟從莫斯科平壤的列車。

可以從歐洲的任何地方乘火車到達莫斯科,從倫敦始發的單程票價約為£200。Eurolines 運營歐洲長途汽車系統,從倫敦出發的價格約為£60。Aeroflot是最主要進出莫斯科的航空公司。

海參崴日本高崗市常年有渡船運營,行程約為2天。 可以在Business Intour Service預定,該公司辦公室位於東京和海參崴。到韓國束草市也有渡船。 Aeroflot(俄航) 和 Vladivostok Air [1]提供到達海參崴的航空客運服務。

到達北京有很多國際航班。也可乘坐火車從拉薩越南胡志明市到達,但沒有鐵路與泰國、緬甸和印度相連。

簽證信息[編輯]

Most travelers will need visas for all three countries.

China and Mongolia are fairly straightforward. The best way to obtain a visa is through your own embassy or consulate or in Hong Kong. Visas for British citizens cost £30. However, Mongolian visas can easily be obtained from the Mongolian consulate in Irkutsk (Russia), and Chinese visas in Ulaanbaatar(Note: For the moment it is not recommended to apply for Chinese visas in Mongolia, due to tightened regulations.) Americans (90 days) and Israelis (30 days) do not need Mongolian visas.

Russia is more problematic. Invitations are generally required, and they must be registered in the country within 72 hours of arrival. However, Russian transit visas issued in Beijing or Harbin last 10 days and require no invitation. This would be enough time to make the trip with no stops along the way and spend a couple of days in Moscow. The Beijing consulate is open from 9:00 to 11:00 but remember that many Chinese nationals are also trying to acquire visas with you, so show up early. The cost varies for each nationality, but Americans can expect to pay $250 for same-day service or $150 for the five-day service. Upon arrival in Moscow you have four nights valid on your transit visa, which allows for one or two nights in Moscow, an overnight train and one or two nights in St. Petersburg respectively, but you must be across the border before midnight on the final day of your visa. There are many exits from St. Petersburg, including buses to Helsinki, Tallinn, Riga, Kiev and various other places in Europe, but be wary that nearly all nationalities need a transit visa (or tourist visa) for Belarus (see here if unsure) so be sure to be prepared with a visa if your plans take you through Belarus. It is generally assumed that border police stationed at bus routes that exit the country are less likely to make a fuss versus the police on trains. A Russian transit visa cannot be extended under any circumstances. If you arrive from Beijing you can register your visa after arriving in Moscow. If you have a 10 day Transit Visa and do not stay in one place (i.e. go to Saint Petersburg) you do not have to register your visa. Unfortunately, if you encounter police officers they might not have the same opinion and you could be faced with a "fine." Have your ticket ready as proof that you've been unable to register sooner and keep all receipts from hotels and/or hostels from places where you haven't registered. Israelis do not need Russian visas (90 days).

購票[編輯]

Kupe-class passenger cabin on the Trans-Siberian

你可以在國內旅行社購買(只能買國內車站車票,無法買國外車站及返程票),通常需要預定,提前一星期或一個月。北京到莫斯科(單程)價格約為CNY2500(不包括火車上餐費、過境邊檢費及簽證費),時間7天。在北京,你可以在北京站福建的一個賓館中的旅行社買到該線路火車票。

通常你可以在俄羅斯任意車站買到,不一定要在其鐵路沿線的車站,有時這樣甚至更便宜。價格的差別不是在於車票本身,而是是否包含保險。你可以自己選擇要不要買保險:說bez strahovki (без страховки,不要保險)或者so strahovkoi (со страховкой,要保險)。車票印在一張雙層的橙色紙上,保險印在一張同樣大小的粉紅色紙上。

在一些車站,還有一些專門向外國人售票的窗口,雖然現在外國人與當地人的票價已經相同。購票時需出示護照。

車站代碼[編輯]

車站代碼用於俄羅斯鐵路內部計算機系統,但是他們同樣經常被打印在車票上。了解這些代碼有助於你在小站預定或在國外購票(你可以帶着這張紙指給他們看)。

火車用語


  • 我想買票- Ya hochu kupit bilyet - Я хочу купить билет
從 - iz - из
到 - vf - в
  • 一, 二, 三(個)人 - adyin, dva, tree chelavyeka - один, два, три человека
  • 今天 - sevodnya - сегодня
  • 明天 - zaftra - завтра
  • 星期一 - panedyelnik - понедельник
  • 星期二 - ftornik - вторник
  • 星期三 - sreda - среда
  • 星期四 - chetvyerk - четверг
  • 星期五 - pyatnitsa - пятница
  • 星期六 - subota - суббота
  • 星期日 - vaskresyene - воскресенье
  • (時間)出發- vy-ezd - выезд
早晨 - ootram - утром
中午 - dnyom - днем
晚上 - vyecherom - вечером
  • 車廂等級- vagon - вагон
三等 (3rd) - platskart - плацкарт
二等 (2nd) - kupe - купе
一等 (1st) - es ve - СВ
  • 我能...(嗎) - mne pozhaluista... - мне, пожалуйста...
上鋪- vyerhnyuyu polku - верхнюю полку
下鋪- nizhnyuyu polku - нижнюю полку
  • 護照號- nomer pasporta - номер паспорта

國際車站

以下車站按自西向東的順序列出

俄羅斯車站

以下車站按自西向東的順序列出

2004001 聖彼得堡 - 主火車站(Санкт-Петербург (Главный вокзал))
2004004 聖彼得堡 - 芬蘭火車站(Санкт-Петербург (Финляндский вокзал))
2000002 莫斯科 - 雅羅斯拉夫站 (Москва (Ярославский Вокзал))
2000003 莫斯科 - 喀山站(Москва (Казанский Вокзал))
2000006 莫斯科 - 白俄羅斯站(Москва (Белорусский Вокзал))

票價[編輯]

票價經常會變,很難預測。在俄羅斯票價會隨季節調整,旺季會漲價高至40%。

  • Moscow - Vladivostok $250/$500 (2nd/1st class, one-way)
  • Moscow - Beijing $200/$320
  • Moscow - Irkutsk $60/100
  • Irkutsk - Ulaanbaatar $30 (one-way)
  • Beijing - Moscow about $450 (2nd class)from China Travel Service (CITS) in Beijing

有報告稱政府最近漲價了。如果你不通過中介,直接購票,票價會便宜一些。但是這需要有一定的俄語水平。

列車時刻表[編輯]

The Trans-Siberian trains have varied schedules - some trains are daily while some go on even dates, some on odd dates and some trains depart only on a couple of days during a week. There are also passing-by trains (проходящие поезда), which are actually legs of longer train itineraries. E.g. a Ekaterinburg-Irkutsk leg of a Moscow-Vladivostok train. In this case not only schedule, but also availability is affected - such tickets are released for sale 24-48 hours before departure.

Russian Railways has all Russian train schedules[2], as well as some of the international trains departing from Russian destinations (e.g. Moscow - Beijing train). Only actual availability is shown, which is released 45 days prior to departure for all Russian trains except for the passing-by ones and 30 days for most international trains. You will need to use alternate spellings for some destinations. Beijing is called Pekin, Moscow is Moskva, Saint Petersburg is Sankt-Peterburg, Yekaterinburg is Ekaterinburg or Sverdlovsk (old name of the city), Ulan Ude is Ulan-ude, Ulaanbaatar is Ulan-Bator, and Khabarovsk is Habarovsk.

  • Russian Railways International Ticket Office (495) 266-8300 (Russian)

[編輯]

Coming from Beijing or Harbin, the last stop in China is Manzhouli. The food being sold there is quite expensive, but many Russians stock up on provisions (i.e. spirits and beer). Be aware that you can take a maximum of five beers (Harbin Beer, 0.3l) per person into Russia or you will have to pay a penalty (read: bakshish) to the customs. Get rid of all your Chinese Yuan here as they become virtually worthless once abroad, unless you want to take them as a souvenir. There are a couple of black market money changers in front of the station that change RMB to Roubles at rip-off rates. To get Roubles you have plenty of time on the Russian side of the border (Zhabaikalsk). Walk to the ATM located at the bank in town. Allow 30 minutes to go and come back. The train stops for several hours while the carriages are being changed, so you can do some shopping at the local food markets (bread, cheese, etc.).

Coming from Beijing via Mongolia into Russia there are still the same rip-off exchange touts, but most if not all platform vendors in Mongolia and Russia take US Dollars or Euros. However, they only take bills (or notes), so know the exchange rate and buy a lot if you are using a five Euro note. Always ask the attendant how much time is available before you rush off into a station to find a Bankomat (ATM) because the train will not wait for you. If you are not spending time in Mongolia, don't worry about acquiring Mongolian tögrög. They are worthless virtually everywhere else, and the export of tögrög is technically forbidden. Therefore, spend Dollars or Euro, but get Roubles ASAP because Russian vendors are more likely to fabricate exchange rates than Mongolian or Chinese platform vendors. Dont forget to buy a lot of vodka while in Russia!

[編輯]

Samovar aboard the train

在從 莫斯科- 海參崴 的路上,火車每隔3-4小時就會停20-30分鐘,任何人可以下車到站台購物,下面提供種類繁多的新鮮食物(雞蛋、魚、奶酪、麵包、水果、肉、蛋糕等)有時還有一些飲料。 價格通常較便宜,只接受盧布。

車上有餐車,不過如果不會俄語,點餐會有困難。

[編輯]

In every train car there is a pot with boiling water available for making hot drinks (bring your own tea, but the water is free). Carriage attendants also sell tea and coffee, and it's usually possible to buy soft drinks, beer and vodka in the restaurant carriage to bring back to your carriage.

[編輯]

All tickets for long journey trains are for sleeping places. Trains between Moscow and St. Petersburg have seating places. Most trains in Russia have 3 classes of cabins to choose from;

  • 1st Class (SV) Is the most comfortable, but also doubles the cost of the journey compared to a kupe. Each cabin consists of two sofas flanking each side of the compartment, which convert into beds for sleeping. On some trains - e.g. the Trans-Mongolian, the 1st class compartments has private bathrooms. Service on 1st class, actually somewhat resembles the service you would expect in Europe and North America, which is worth considering since the Russian Railways is notoriously bureaucratic, and not very service minded to say the least.
  • 2nd Class (Kupe) Somewhat compares to the standard on Western European sleeper trains, although with the Russian sense of knick-knack decoration. These carriages are compartmentalized, with each compartment holding 4 beds. One thing of note when buying tickets for 2nd class, is that you will have to share the two lower bunks during the day. There is one shared bathroom on each carriage, that is locked during stops at stations. Kupe is a good compromise between relative comfort, and the ability to meet and mingle with the Russians, in a situation where they are notably more open minded than what is usual in Russia.
  • 3rd Class (Platzkart) Bears some resemblance to the 'Hard sleeper' class on Chinese trains, many travelers find this class to be much better than its reputation. These carriages are in an open layout with two lower and two upper berths, and small, narrow corridor and another two berths that are located on the opposite side below and above the window. There is little in the way of privacy here, but women travelers might prefer this option - as the open layout means you won't get stuck with 3 men and a closed door. The provodnitizas - or carriage attendants are notorious for running the place as a boot camp. On the other hand it's a taste of real Russia, and the price is usually 40-50 percent lower than kupe.

Note that sometimes there is no shower in the train. Even in the 1st class on K19 (Trans-Manchurian). You can have an Asian-style hot shower though, if you bring along 2 jars. Fill one up at the hot water dispenser, go to the washroom and mix the water you get there in the second one.

準備[編輯]

下面為西伯利亞鐵路長途旅行推薦物品

  • 小刀 吃麵包用、果醬用。
  • 餐具
  • 濕巾
  • 頭燈 這種長途旅行共船員8個時區,經常會使人生物鐘錯亂,所以有必要帶着頭燈,等別人想睡覺的時候可以不打擾別人做自己想做的事。
  • 拖鞋
  • 紙牌或 或其他簡單的(方便通外國人解釋)小遊戲可以與通車的人一塊玩。

注意安全[編輯]

火車旅行相對安全,尤其是四人行,可以住在一個小包間里。

車廂內部有2把鎖,一個可以在外面用鑰匙打開,一個在外面打不開,當鎖上時,開門幅度不會超過5cm。

This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!




WikiPedia:Trans-Siberian_railway

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