西伯利亚铁路

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西伯利亚铁路,莫斯科到海参崴

西伯利亚铁路横穿西伯利亚莫斯科,是以下三条之间的总称:

西伯利亚铁路是世界上最长的铁路线。它兴建与1891—1916年,连接俄罗斯首都莫斯科和远东城市海参崴。途径城市包括彼尔姆叶卡捷琳堡, 鄂木斯克, 新西伯利亚, 克拉斯诺雅茨克, 伊尔库茨克, 赤塔哈巴罗夫斯科

到达[编辑]

Vladivostok station

西伯利亚铁路上的三个重点站是莫斯科北京海参崴。每周还有一趟从莫斯科平壤的列车。

可以从欧洲的任何地方乘火车到达莫斯科,从伦敦始发的单程票价约为£200。Eurolines 运营欧洲长途汽车系统,从伦敦出发的价格约为£60。Aeroflot是最主要进出莫斯科的航空公司。

海参崴日本高岗市常年有渡船运营,行程约为2天。 可以在Business Intour Service预定,该公司办公室位于东京和海参崴。到韩国束草市也有渡船。 Aeroflot(俄航) 和 Vladivostok Air [1]提供到达海参崴的航空客运服务。

到达北京有很多国际航班。也可乘坐火车从拉萨越南胡志明市到达,但没有铁路与泰国、缅甸和印度相连。

签证信息[编辑]

Most travelers will need visas for all three countries.

China and Mongolia are fairly straightforward. The best way to obtain a visa is through your own embassy or consulate or in Hong Kong. Visas for British citizens cost £30. However, Mongolian visas can easily be obtained from the Mongolian consulate in Irkutsk (Russia), and Chinese visas in Ulaanbaatar(Note: For the moment it is not recommended to apply for Chinese visas in Mongolia, due to tightened regulations.) Americans (90 days) and Israelis (30 days) do not need Mongolian visas.

Russia is more problematic. Invitations are generally required, and they must be registered in the country within 72 hours of arrival. However, Russian transit visas issued in Beijing or Harbin last 10 days and require no invitation. This would be enough time to make the trip with no stops along the way and spend a couple of days in Moscow. The Beijing consulate is open from 9:00 to 11:00 but remember that many Chinese nationals are also trying to acquire visas with you, so show up early. The cost varies for each nationality, but Americans can expect to pay $250 for same-day service or $150 for the five-day service. Upon arrival in Moscow you have four nights valid on your transit visa, which allows for one or two nights in Moscow, an overnight train and one or two nights in St. Petersburg respectively, but you must be across the border before midnight on the final day of your visa. There are many exits from St. Petersburg, including buses to Helsinki, Tallinn, Riga, Kiev and various other places in Europe, but be wary that nearly all nationalities need a transit visa (or tourist visa) for Belarus (see here if unsure) so be sure to be prepared with a visa if your plans take you through Belarus. It is generally assumed that border police stationed at bus routes that exit the country are less likely to make a fuss versus the police on trains. A Russian transit visa cannot be extended under any circumstances. If you arrive from Beijing you can register your visa after arriving in Moscow. If you have a 10 day Transit Visa and do not stay in one place (i.e. go to Saint Petersburg) you do not have to register your visa. Unfortunately, if you encounter police officers they might not have the same opinion and you could be faced with a "fine." Have your ticket ready as proof that you've been unable to register sooner and keep all receipts from hotels and/or hostels from places where you haven't registered. Israelis do not need Russian visas (90 days).

购票[编辑]

Kupe-class passenger cabin on the Trans-Siberian

你可以在国内旅行社购买(只能买国内车站车票,无法买国外车站及返程票),通常需要预定,提前一星期或一个月。北京到莫斯科(单程)价格约为CNY2500(不包括火车上餐费、过境边检费及签证费),时间7天。在北京,你可以在北京站福建的一个宾馆中的旅行社买到该线路火车票。

通常你可以在俄罗斯任意车站买到,不一定要在其铁路沿线的车站,有时这样甚至更便宜。价格的差别不是在于车票本身,而是是否包含保险。你可以自己选择要不要买保险:说bez strahovki (без страховки,不要保险)或者so strahovkoi (со страховкой,要保险)。车票印在一张双层的橙色纸上,保险印在一张同样大小的粉红色纸上。

在一些车站,还有一些专门向外国人售票的窗口,虽然现在外国人与当地人的票价已经相同。购票时需出示护照。

车站代码[编辑]

车站代码用于俄罗斯铁路内部计算机系统,但是他们同样经常被打印在车票上。了解这些代码有助于你在小站预定或在国外购票(你可以带着这张纸指给他们看)。

火车用语


  • 我想买票- Ya hochu kupit bilyet - Я хочу купить билет
从 - iz - из
到 - vf - в
  • 一, 二, 三(个)人 - adyin, dva, tree chelavyeka - один, два, три человека
  • 今天 - sevodnya - сегодня
  • 明天 - zaftra - завтра
  • 星期一 - panedyelnik - понедельник
  • 星期二 - ftornik - вторник
  • 星期三 - sreda - среда
  • 星期四 - chetvyerk - четверг
  • 星期五 - pyatnitsa - пятница
  • 星期六 - subota - суббота
  • 星期日 - vaskresyene - воскресенье
  • (时间)出发- vy-ezd - выезд
早晨 - ootram - утром
中午 - dnyom - днем
晚上 - vyecherom - вечером
  • 车厢等级- vagon - вагон
三等 (3rd) - platskart - плацкарт
二等 (2nd) - kupe - купе
一等 (1st) - es ve - СВ
  • 我能...(吗) - mne pozhaluista... - мне, пожалуйста...
上铺- vyerhnyuyu polku - верхнюю полку
下铺- nizhnyuyu polku - нижнюю полку
  • 护照号- nomer pasporta - номер паспорта

国际车站

以下车站按自西向东的顺序列出

俄罗斯车站

以下车站按自西向东的顺序列出

2004001 圣彼得堡 - 主火车站(Санкт-Петербург (Главный вокзал))
2004004 圣彼得堡 - 芬兰火车站(Санкт-Петербург (Финляндский вокзал))
2000002 莫斯科 - 雅罗斯拉夫站 (Москва (Ярославский Вокзал))
2000003 莫斯科 - 喀山站(Москва (Казанский Вокзал))
2000006 莫斯科 - 白俄罗斯站(Москва (Белорусский Вокзал))

票价[编辑]

票价经常会变,很难预测。在俄罗斯票价会随季节调整,旺季会涨价高至40%。

  • Moscow - Vladivostok $250/$500 (2nd/1st class, one-way)
  • Moscow - Beijing $200/$320
  • Moscow - Irkutsk $60/100
  • Irkutsk - Ulaanbaatar $30 (one-way)
  • Beijing - Moscow about $450 (2nd class)from China Travel Service (CITS) in Beijing

有报告称政府最近涨价了。如果你不通过中介,直接购票,票价会便宜一些。但是这需要有一定的俄语水平。

列车时刻表[编辑]

The Trans-Siberian trains have varied schedules - some trains are daily while some go on even dates, some on odd dates and some trains depart only on a couple of days during a week. There are also passing-by trains (проходящие поезда), which are actually legs of longer train itineraries. E.g. a Ekaterinburg-Irkutsk leg of a Moscow-Vladivostok train. In this case not only schedule, but also availability is affected - such tickets are released for sale 24-48 hours before departure.

Russian Railways has all Russian train schedules[2], as well as some of the international trains departing from Russian destinations (e.g. Moscow - Beijing train). Only actual availability is shown, which is released 45 days prior to departure for all Russian trains except for the passing-by ones and 30 days for most international trains. You will need to use alternate spellings for some destinations. Beijing is called Pekin, Moscow is Moskva, Saint Petersburg is Sankt-Peterburg, Yekaterinburg is Ekaterinburg or Sverdlovsk (old name of the city), Ulan Ude is Ulan-ude, Ulaanbaatar is Ulan-Bator, and Khabarovsk is Habarovsk.

  • Russian Railways International Ticket Office (495) 266-8300 (Russian)

[编辑]

Coming from Beijing or Harbin, the last stop in China is Manzhouli. The food being sold there is quite expensive, but many Russians stock up on provisions (i.e. spirits and beer). Be aware that you can take a maximum of five beers (Harbin Beer, 0.3l) per person into Russia or you will have to pay a penalty (read: bakshish) to the customs. Get rid of all your Chinese Yuan here as they become virtually worthless once abroad, unless you want to take them as a souvenir. There are a couple of black market money changers in front of the station that change RMB to Roubles at rip-off rates. To get Roubles you have plenty of time on the Russian side of the border (Zhabaikalsk). Walk to the ATM located at the bank in town. Allow 30 minutes to go and come back. The train stops for several hours while the carriages are being changed, so you can do some shopping at the local food markets (bread, cheese, etc.).

Coming from Beijing via Mongolia into Russia there are still the same rip-off exchange touts, but most if not all platform vendors in Mongolia and Russia take US Dollars or Euros. However, they only take bills (or notes), so know the exchange rate and buy a lot if you are using a five Euro note. Always ask the attendant how much time is available before you rush off into a station to find a Bankomat (ATM) because the train will not wait for you. If you are not spending time in Mongolia, don't worry about acquiring Mongolian tögrög. They are worthless virtually everywhere else, and the export of tögrög is technically forbidden. Therefore, spend Dollars or Euro, but get Roubles ASAP because Russian vendors are more likely to fabricate exchange rates than Mongolian or Chinese platform vendors. Dont forget to buy a lot of vodka while in Russia!

[编辑]

Samovar aboard the train

在从 莫斯科- 海参崴 的路上,火车每隔3-4小时就会停20-30分钟,任何人可以下车到站台购物,下面提供种类繁多的新鲜食物(鸡蛋、鱼、奶酪、面包、水果、肉、蛋糕等)有时还有一些饮料。 价格通常较便宜,只接受卢布。

车上有餐车,不过如果不会俄语,点餐会有困难。

[编辑]

In every train car there is a pot with boiling water available for making hot drinks (bring your own tea, but the water is free). Carriage attendants also sell tea and coffee, and it's usually possible to buy soft drinks, beer and vodka in the restaurant carriage to bring back to your carriage.

[编辑]

All tickets for long journey trains are for sleeping places. Trains between Moscow and St. Petersburg have seating places. Most trains in Russia have 3 classes of cabins to choose from;

  • 1st Class (SV) Is the most comfortable, but also doubles the cost of the journey compared to a kupe. Each cabin consists of two sofas flanking each side of the compartment, which convert into beds for sleeping. On some trains - e.g. the Trans-Mongolian, the 1st class compartments has private bathrooms. Service on 1st class, actually somewhat resembles the service you would expect in Europe and North America, which is worth considering since the Russian Railways is notoriously bureaucratic, and not very service minded to say the least.
  • 2nd Class (Kupe) Somewhat compares to the standard on Western European sleeper trains, although with the Russian sense of knick-knack decoration. These carriages are compartmentalized, with each compartment holding 4 beds. One thing of note when buying tickets for 2nd class, is that you will have to share the two lower bunks during the day. There is one shared bathroom on each carriage, that is locked during stops at stations. Kupe is a good compromise between relative comfort, and the ability to meet and mingle with the Russians, in a situation where they are notably more open minded than what is usual in Russia.
  • 3rd Class (Platzkart) Bears some resemblance to the 'Hard sleeper' class on Chinese trains, many travelers find this class to be much better than its reputation. These carriages are in an open layout with two lower and two upper berths, and small, narrow corridor and another two berths that are located on the opposite side below and above the window. There is little in the way of privacy here, but women travelers might prefer this option - as the open layout means you won't get stuck with 3 men and a closed door. The provodnitizas - or carriage attendants are notorious for running the place as a boot camp. On the other hand it's a taste of real Russia, and the price is usually 40-50 percent lower than kupe.

Note that sometimes there is no shower in the train. Even in the 1st class on K19 (Trans-Manchurian). You can have an Asian-style hot shower though, if you bring along 2 jars. Fill one up at the hot water dispenser, go to the washroom and mix the water you get there in the second one.

准备[编辑]

下面为西伯利亚铁路长途旅行推荐物品

  • 小刀 吃面包用、果酱用。
  • 餐具
  • 湿巾
  • 头灯 这种长途旅行共船员8个时区,经常会使人生物钟错乱,所以有必要带着头灯,等别人想睡觉的时候可以不打扰别人做自己想做的事。
  • 拖鞋
  • 纸牌或 或其他简单的(方便通外国人解释)小游戏可以与通车的人一块玩。

注意安全[编辑]

火车旅行相对安全,尤其是四人行,可以住在一个小包间里。

车厢内部有2把锁,一个可以在外面用钥匙打开,一个在外面打不开,当锁上时,开门幅度不会超过5cm。

This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!




WikiPedia:Trans-Siberian_railway

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