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Bosnië en Herzegovina

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Balkan : Bosnië en Herzegovina
Versie door 3wisemen (Overleg | bijdragen) op 19 mrt 2007 om 10:40

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250px
Vlag
Bk-flag.png
Beknopt
Hoofdstad Sarajevo
Regering federale democratische republiek in ontwikkeling
Munt marka (BAM)
Oppervlakte 51,129 sq km
Bevolking 4,498,976 (July 2006 est.)
Taal Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian
Religie Muslim 52%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, Protestant 3%
Elektriciteit 220V/50Hz (European plug)
Oproepcode +387
Internet TLD .ba
Tijdzone UTC+1

Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosna i Hercegovina) is a Balkan country in Southern Europe that was formerly part of Yugoslavia. It borders Croatia to the North, West and Southwest, Serbia and Montenegro to the East and a small portion of Adriatic Sea coastline on the South.

Regions

Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders, the country is divided into the Federation of Bosnia and Hercegovina with a Muslim/Croat majority population (about 51% of the territory) and the Republika Srpska or RS with a Serb majority population (about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Croatia and Serbia and Montenegro (Montenegro), and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority in the west and an ethnic Serb majority in the east.

Bestand:Srpska-sign.jpg
Entering Republika Srpska from Federation territory [Photo: RP]
Bestand:Brckosign.jpg
Entering Brcko from Croatia [Photo: RP]
Administrative divisions 
there are two first-order administrative divisions and one internationally supervised district* - Brcko district (Brcko Distrikt)*, the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska; note - Brcko district is in northeastern Bosnia and is an administrative unit under the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina; it is not part of either Republika Srpska or the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina; the district remains under international supervision.

Cities

Ports and harbors

Other destinations

  • Bosnian Pyramid of The Sun [1]
  • Neum - town on Adriatic sea
  • Srebrenica
  • Igman ski resort
  • Jahorina Ski Resort [2]
  • Bjelasnica Ski Resort [3]
  • Lukomir [4]

Understand

History

National holiday 
National Day, 25 November (1943)

Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in October 1991, was followed by a declaration of independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs.

Independence 
1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia; referendum for independence was completed 1 March 1992; independence was declared 3 March 1992)

The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a "greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties signed a peace agreement that brought to a halt the three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995).

Constitution 
the Dayton Agreement, signed 14 December 1995, included a new constitution now in force; note - each of the entities also has its own constitution.

The Dayton Agreement retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a joint multi-ethnic and democratic government. This national government was charged with conducting foreign, economic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government comprised of two entities roughly equal in size: the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments were charged with overseeing internal functions.

In 1995-96, a NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops served in Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects of the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) whose mission is to deter renewed hostilities. SFOR remains in place although troop levels were reduced to approximately 12,000 by the close of 2002.



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