Mon (stato): differenze tra le versioni
Versione delle 17:54, 3 ott 2006
Lo stato di Mon costituisce una divisione amministrativa di Myanmar.
It is sandwiched between Kayin State on the east, the Andaman Sea on the west, Bago Division on the north and Tanintharyi Division on the south. It has a short border with Thailand's Kanchanaburi Province at its south-eastern tip. The land area is 12,155 km². Mon State includes many small islands along its 566 km of coastline.
Si stima che la popolazione ammonti a 8,466,000 di abitanti appartenenti nella stragrande maggioranza all'etnia Mon. Vi sono comunque minoranze etniche soprattutto Bamar, Kayin e Pa-O. Parecchi di questi gruppi sono isolati e non capiscono il Birmano. Il Buddismo è la religione più diffusa.
Mon State has a cultivated area of nearly 4.5 million acres (18,000 km²), mostly under rice. The major secondary crop is rubber. Orchards and rubber plantations are found in the mountainous areas. Coastal fishing and related industries such as production of dried fish, fish sauce and agar-agar are important enterprises. Other industries include paper, sugar, rubber tires. Forests cover approximately half of the area and timber production is one of the major contributors to the economy. Minerals extracted from the area include salt, antimony, and granite.
Natural resources such as forest products, and onshore and offshore mineral resources, are exploited only by top Myanmar military leaders and foreign companies. At the present time one of the biggest foreign investments into Myanmar is for the exploitation of natural gas reserves in Mon State.
I Mon sono un popolo di antico insediamento nell'odierna Myanmar. Probabilmente vi si stanziarono nel 1500 a.C. Secondo la tradizione essi fondarono lo stato di Suwarnabhumi menzionato negli editti dell'imperatore Ashoka. La capitale del regno era Thaton nel 300 a.C. I Mon si convertirono al Buddismo Theravada nel VI secolo d.C. In seguito essi fondarono il regno di Dvaravati che prosperò intorno al 1.000 d.C., prima di essere saccheggiato dall'impero Khmer. Fu allora che i Mon fuggirono ad Ovest nell'odierna Myanmar, dove fondarono nuovi regni. These, too, eventually came under pressure from new ethnic groups arriving from the north. Successive waves of Burmese and Thai groups slowly eroded the Mon kingdoms, and the last independent Mon kingdom fell to the Burmese in 1757.
Lower Burma, including what is now Mon State, was conquered by Great Britain in 1824 after the Second Anglo-Burmese War. The Mon assisted the British in the war, in return for promises of their own leadership after the defeat of Burma. Hundreds of thousands of Mons who had migrated into Siam returned to their homeland when it came under British rule. However, British promises to restore the Mon Kingdom were never fulfilled. During colonial times, Moulmein had a substantial Anglo-Burmese population; an area of the city was known as 'Little England' due to the large Anglo-Burmese community, however nowadays this has dwindled to all but a handful of families as most have left for the UK or Australia.
In 1947, the Mon sought self-determination from the yet unformed Union of Burma; however Burmese Prime Minister U Nu refused, saying that no separate national rights for the Mon should be contemplated. The Burmese army moved into areas claimed by the Mon nationalists and imposed rule by force which resulted in a civil war. Mon separatists formed the Mon Peoples Front, which was later superseded by the New Mon State Party (NMSP) in 1962. Since 1949, the eastern hills of the state (as well as portions of Thaninthaya Division) have been under control of the NMSP, and its military arm, the Mon National Liberation Front (MNLF). In addition to fighting the central government, the MNLF has also fought the Karen over control of lucrative border crossings into Thailand.
In 1974, partially to assuage Mon separatist demands, the theoretically autonomous Mon State, was created out of portions of Thaninthayi Division, Bago Division, and Ayeyarwady Division. Resistance continued until 1995, when NMSP and SLORC agreed a cease-fire and in 1996, the Mon Unity League was founded. SLORC troops continued to operate in defiance of the agreement. The human rights situation in Mon State has not improved. International organizations have repeatedly accused the Myanmar government for massive human rights violations in Mon State, including forced labor, arbitrary detention, population transfer, property confiscation, rape, etc.