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India: differenze tra le versioni

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*Packaged goods show the '''Maximum retail price''' right on the package. This includes taxes. Retailers are not supposed to charge more than this. Though this rule is adhered to at most places, at tourist destinations or remote places, you may be charged more. Also, keep in mind that a surprising number of things do not come in packaged form.
 
*Packaged goods show the '''Maximum retail price''' right on the package. This includes taxes. Retailers are not supposed to charge more than this. Though this rule is adhered to at most places, at tourist destinations or remote places, you may be charged more. Also, keep in mind that a surprising number of things do not come in packaged form.
  
*The shops outside the big brand shops are better for as you can get good stuff at a low ra
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*The shops outside the big brand shops are better for as you can get good stuff at a low rate. But watch out for the quality of the things you buy.-->
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===Cosa acquistare===
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<!--*'''Wood Carvings''': India produces a striking variety of carved wood products that can be bought at very low prices. Examples include decorative wooden plates, bowls, artwork, furniture, and miscellaneous items that will surprise you.
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*'''Clothing''': Women's salwar kameez, saris. Traditional men's clothing such as kurta and pyjama. Brilliantly patterned scarves and shawls can be bought for less than Rs. 100. On the other hand, it may be worth spending more for a soft and warm 100% silk shawl. You can also find more modern style clothing at low cost. Modern clothing tends to have loud patterns. You will probably need clothing one size larger than would fit you in a Western country.
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*'''Paintings''': Paintings come on a wide variety of media, such as cotton, silk, or with frame included. Gemstone paintings incorporate semi-precious stone dust, so they have a glittering appearance to them.
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*'''Marble & Stone Carvings''': Common carved items include elephants, Indian gods/goddesses, etc.
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*'''Jewelry''': Beautiful necklaces, bracelets, and other jewelry are very inexpensive in India.
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*'''Pillow Covers, Bed Sets''': Striking and rich designs are common for pillows and bed covers.-->
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==Cibi==
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===Cucina indiana===
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<!--Indian cuisine is superb, and has recently begun to take its place among the great cuisines of the world. However, it would be incorrect to classify the cuisine of the Subcontinent under one culinary banner. The varied geography of the country has evolved a rich cuisine reflected in the diversity of ingredients. Indian bread (roti, naan) is the staple in most of the wheat growing plains of Northern India, while the wetter South and East are the domain of rice farming. The rich, mughal style of cooking favored in the North is vastly different from the spicy fish curries of the coastal South. Yet there is a common base to the diverse cooking styles that coexist in the country. Like most Asian cuisines, the ingredients range from exotic (lotus roots, rose petals) to completely unfamiliar tropical offerings. And like other Asian cuisines, Indian food relies heavily on spices to flavor everything from eggs to eggplant.
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While Indian food has a reputation for being hot -- owing to the Indian penchant for potent green chilies that will bring tears to the eyes of the uninitiated -- this is a largely incomplete description. Aromatic spices such as nutmeg, cinnamon, cardamom, and cloves are equally important as the astonishing variety of red and green chillies, and peppercorns. If you want to enjoy the local food, start slowly. Don't try everything at once. After a few weeks, you can get accustomed to spicy food. If you would like to order your dish not spicy, ask for "no chili, no black pepper and no white pepper". Most visitors are tempted to try at least some of the spicy concoctions, and most discover that the sting is worth the trouble.
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Indians like their dishes very spicy, you can even find sweet cornflakes with a spicy edge and Indian candies with a piece of chili inside.-->
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===Cibi vegetariani===
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<!--Owing to a large number of vegetarian Hindus, Indian cuisine has evolved an astonishingly rich menu that uses no meat or eggs. At least half the menus of most restaurants are devoted to vegetarian dishes. Visiting vegetarians will discover a culinary treasure that is found nowhere else in the world.-->
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===Pietanze più diffuse===
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<!--*''Aloo Gobi'' - Potatoes and cauliflower in a spicy gravy.
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*''Gulab Jamoon'' - Small balls from dough in a sugar sauce.
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*''Idly'' - Dumplings of steamed ground rice.
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*''Kashmiri Pulao'' - Rice with vegetables, fruits and dried fruits. Sweet and not spicy.
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*''Masala Dosa'' - Thin rice pancake with (spicy) vegetables
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*''Onion Uthappa'' - Like a pancake made out of rice with onion topping, served with spicy sauce. The dish itself is not spicy but some places add green chili to it.
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*''Palak Paneer'' - Cheese chunks in a spinach gravy. Order with plain rice or Chapatti/Roti.
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*''Upma'' - made with upma rawwa
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*''Vada'' - made with urad dal
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*''Alu bajji'' - Aloo with gram poweder soaked and dried in vegetable oil
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*''dhokla''- try this a very energetic vegetarian dish-->
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===Dizionario culinario===
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<!--*''Aloo'' - Potatoes.
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*''Chapathi'' - also called Roti, Indian thin bread, similar to a soft Mexican tortilla.
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*''Chutney'' - Paste of coconut garnished with herbs and spices mostly served in southern India as an accompaniment with Idli, Dosa, Vada or Thali.
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*''Dosa''- Savoury rice pancake.  Many variations are available - try the enormous Masala Dosa, rolled up and filled with spicy potatoes. 
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*''Phool Gobi'' - Cauliflower.
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*''Patha Gobi'' - Cabbage.
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*''Idli'' - Light, bland patty made from rice dough, often served with sambar for breakfast.
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*''Naan'' - Indian bread made in a tandoor (Indian oven).
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*''Palak'' - Spinach.
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*''Paneer'' - Indian cottage cheese.
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*''Papad'' - Crispy spicy thin dough circle fried in deep oil.
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*''Paratha'' - Crispy, flaky fried flat bread, usually stuffed with vegetables or Indian cottage cheese.
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*''Puri'' - Crispy puffed dough, looks like a ball, fried in deep oil. Can be served in different sizes. If you find "puri something" it means a few small puris accompanied by different kinds of curries, sauce and curd.
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*''Roti'' - Indian thin bread.
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*''Sambar'' - Spicy lentil mixture, similar to a 'soup', but more often eaten over rice or with idlis or vadas.
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*''Thali'' - Plain rice served with different sauces and vegetables usually served with chapatti, pappad or puri. most places serve this dish on an "eat as you can" basis. In the south this dish is called 'meals'. You might also find Chinese Thali.
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*''Uthappam'' - A thicker version of a dosa, often with vegetables and chillis mixed in. 
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*''Vada'' - Savoury Indian donut.  Often served with sambar.-->
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===Ristoranti===
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<!--Some restaurants - especially those where buses stop after hours and hours of driving - can be very dirty. In this case it might be good to check if there's another one on the opposite side of the street. Fruits that can be peeled such as apples and bananas, as well as packaged snacks are always a safe option. Do not eat grapes.
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In Southern India, "Hotel" means a local restaurant serving south Indian food, mostly Thali -- a full plate of food that usually includes a kind of bread and an assortment of meat or vegetarian dishes -- and prepared meals.
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Like everything in India, the English names of dishes are spelled differently in different places (sometimes in two neighboring restaurants) owing to the various ways in which Indian names can be transliterated into English. Not so different from the multiple spellings of Chinese dishes in restaurants all over the Western hemisphere.
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Although you might get a big menu, most dishes are served only in specific hours.-->
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===Mangiare con le mani===
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<!--In India eating with your hand (instead of utensils like forks and spoons) is very common.  There's one basic rule of etiquette to observe: '''Use only your right hand''', as the left hand is used to clean yourself in the bathroom.  Don't stick either hand into communal serving dishes: instead, use the left hand to serve yourself with utensils and then dig in.  Needless to say, it's wise to wash your hands well before and after eating.
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For breads for all types, the basic technique is to hold down the item with your forefinger and use your thumb to tear off pieces.  The pieces can then be dipped in sauce or used to pick up bits before you stuff them in your mouth.  Rice is more challenging, but the basic idea is to use four fingers to pack a little ball, which can then be dipped into curry before you pop it in your mouth by pushing it with your thumb.
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Most of the restaurants do provide cutlery and its pretty safe to use them instead of your hand.
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Eating by hand is frowned on in some "classier" places.  If you are provided with cutlery and nobody else around you seems to be doing it, then take the hint.-->
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==Bevande==
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<!--One of the sweetest and safest beverages you can get is tender coconut water. You can almost always find it in any beach or other tourist destinations in the south. In summer (March to July), you can get fresh sugarcane juice in many places and even a lot of fresh fruit juice varieties. Be careful as fresh juice may contain many germs besides unhygienic ice! The juice waalas do not always clean their equipment properly and do not wash the fruits either.
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Everywhere you can get tea (''chai'') of one variety or another. Most common is the "railway tea" type: cheap (2-5 Rs.), sweet and uniquely refreshing once you get the taste for it. It's made by brewing up tea leaves, milk, sugar and spices altogether in a pot and keeping it hot until it's all sold.
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You can also get "masala tea": black tea with a blend of spices. That takes some getting used to.
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Drinking alcohol can either be frowned upon or openly accepted, depending on the region and religion of the area within which you are drinking. For example, as you can imagine, [[Goa]] tends to be more free-wheeling (and has low taxes on alcohol), while southern areas like [[Chennai]] are less kind to alcohol, and may even charge excessive taxes on it. Some states such as Gujarat are legally "dry"  and alcohol cannot be bought openly there. Alcohol is officially banned, but there is a substantial bootlegging industry, and all types of liquor can be obtained in Gujarat. If you have a non-Indian passport, you can obtain a 'liquor permit'. This allows you to buy alcohol at state-licensed shops, of which there are fourteen or so in all of Gujarat.-->
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==Alloggi==
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<!--Choices vary wildly depending on your budget and location. Cheap travellers' hotels are numerous in big cities where you can get a room for less than Rs. 100. If your wallet allows it, you can try staying in former maharaja's residence in [[Udaipur]] or modern five-star hotels in New Delhi and Bombay. The top-end of Indian luxury rests with the Oberoi, Taj, and Welcomgroup hotel chains, who operate hotels in all the major cities and throughout Rajasthan. A number of international chains including Mariott, and Hyatt also run major 5-star hotels in most Indian metropolises.
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Two important factors to keep in mind when choosing a place to stay are 1) safety, and 2) cleanliness. Malaria is alive and well in certain areas of India - one of the best ways to combat malaria is to choose lodgings with air conditioning and sealed windows. An insect-repellent spray containing DEET will also help.
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''Dak bungalows'' exist in many areas. These were built by the British to accommodate travelling officials and are now used by the Indian and state governments for the same purpose. If they have room, most will take tourists at a moderate fee. They are plain &mdash; ceiling fans rather than air conditioning, shower but no tub, etc. &mdash;  but clean, comfortable and usually in good locations. Typically the staff includes a pensioned-off soldier as night watchman and perhaps another as gardener; often the gardens are lovely. Sometimes there is a cook. You meet interesting Indian travellers this way: engineers building a bridge in the area, a team of doctors vaccinating the villagers, whatever.-->
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==Apprendere==
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<!--Yoga, ayurvedic massage and language are the courses most often looked for by foreigners. For example, [[Haridwar]] and [[Rishikesh]] are popular places for yoga courses. [[Varanasi]] has a famous university with Hindi classes.-->
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==Lavorare==
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<!--Foreigners need a work permit to be employed in India. A work permit is granted if an application is made to the local Indian embassy along with proof of potential employment and supporting documents. There are many expatriates working in India, mostly for multinational Fortune 1000 firms. India has always had an expatriate community of reasonable size, and there are many avenues for finding employment, including popular job hunting websites like monster.com!
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There are many volunteer opportunities around the country including teaching. India has a reasonable presence of foreign Christian missionaries, who for the most part form the non-local religious workers, since the other major religions of the world either grew out of India or have had a long term presence.
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Unless you are a professional or want to live in a polluted city the work options are pretty slim. This is not a country to make money in unless you are very imaginative and somewhat of an entrepreneur. A living can be made in the traveler scenes by providing some kind of service such as baking Western cakes, tattooing or massage.-->
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==Sicurezza personale==
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<!--As a rule India is quite safe for foreigners.  However, check with your embassy and ask for local advice before heading to [[Kashmir]] or northeast India ([[Assam]], [[Nagaland]], [[Tripura]], [[Meghalaya]] and [[Manipur]]), as both areas have long-running insurgencies.
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Unfortunately thefts are quite common in places visited by tourists, but violent thefts hardly ever occur. More likely a thief will pick your pocket (see [[pickpockets]]) or break into your room. There is little culture of muggings in India.
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When travelling by autorickshaw, never ever get into the vehicle if there is another person accompanying the driver. This always spells trouble for unwary travellers.
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Westerners, particularly women, attract the attention of beggars, frauds and touts. Beggars will often go as far as touching you, and following you tugging on your sleeve. It does little good to get angry or to say "No" loudly. The best response is to look unconcerned and ignore the behavior. The more attention you pay to a beggar or a tout -- positive or negative -- the longer they will follow you hoping for a payback. As always in India, patience is required.
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Westerners should not trust strangers offering assistance or services. Be particularly wary of frauds at tourist attractions such as the temples of Kanchipuram, where they prey on those unfamiliar with local and religious customs. See [[Common scams]].-->
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===Female travellers in India===
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<!--India is a conservative country and some western habits are perceived as dishonorable for a woman in this culture.
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* Outside of the larger cities, it is unusual for people of the opposite sex to touch each other in public. Even couples (married or otherwise) refrain from public displays of affection. Therefore, it is advised that you do not shake hands with a person of the opposite sex unless the other person extends his/her hand first. The greeting among Hindus is to bring your palms together in front of your chest, or simply saying 'Namaste', or 'Vanakkam' in Tamil Nadu. Both forms are equally polite and correct, if a little formal. Almost all the people (even if they don't know English) do understand a "hi" or a "hello".
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* Except in major cities (and only in trendy places or in high society) women do not smoke. A woman who smokes/drinks is associated with loose moral character in much of the rest of the country's growing middle class.
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* Places such as Discos/Dance clubs are less conservative areas. It is good to leave your things at a hotel and head down there for a drink and some light conversation.
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* People are fully clothed even at the beach. So, be sure to find out what the appropriate attire is for the beach you are visiting. (In some rare places like Goa, where the visitors to beach are predominantly foreigners, it is permissible to wear bikinies on the beach but it is still offensive to go about dressed in western swim wear away from the beach).
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* In local trains, there are usually cars reserved only for women and designated as such on their front.
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* In most buses (private and public) a few seats at the front of the bus are reserved for women, although it can be difficult to get men to vacate them even when the seat is clearly marked.
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* Street parties for holidays are usually devoid of women but filled with crowds of inebriated men partying. During festivals such as Holi, New Year's Eve, and even Christmas Eve, women  can be subjected to groping and sexually aggressive behaviour from these crowds. It is unsafe for women to attend these festivities alone.
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* Friendly conversation with men you meet on trains, etc. is often confused with flirtation/availability. In some scenarios, this can lead to unexpected sexual advances (this happens to Indian women as well, not just Westerners). Befriending Indian women, however, can be a wonderful experience for female travellers, though you might have to initiate conversation.
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* Dressing in traditional Indian clothes, such as ''salwaar kameez'' (comfortable and good in) or ''saree'' (more formal and difficult to wear) will generally garner Western women more respect in the eyes of locals. Show some enthusiasm for the traditional Indian way of life and you may find that men will treat you more like a 'lady' than an object.
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*"Eve Teasing" is a term used in Indian English to refer to anything from unwanted verbal advances to physical sexual assault.-->
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==Precauzioni igieniche==
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<!--Going to India, you have to adapt to a new climate and new food. '''Most travellers to India will become at least slightly ill during their stay there''' - even Indians returning from abroad. However, with precautions the chance and severity of any illness can be minimized. Don't stress yourself too much at the beginning of your journey to allow your body to acclimatize to the country. For example, take a day of rest upon arrival, at least on your first visit. Many travellers get ill for wanting to do too much in too little time. Be careful with spicy food if it is not your daily diet.
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No '''vaccinations''' are required for entry to India, except for yellow fever if you are coming from an infected area such as [[Africa]]. However, Hepatitis (both A and B, depending on your individual circumstances), meningitis and typhoid shots are recommended, as is a booster shot for tetanus.
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Tap water is generally not safe for drinking. However, some establishments have water filters/purifiers installed, in which case the water is safe to drink. Packed drinking water (normally called mineral water) is a better choice. But if the seal has been tampered, it could be purified tap water. So always make sure that seal is intact before buying. At some places, you will have to pay extra to get "chilled" bottle of water.
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[[Diarrhea]] is common, and can have many different causes. Bring a standard first-aid kit, plus extra over-the-counter medicine for diarrhea and stomach upset. A rehydration kit can also be helpful. At the least, remember the salt/sugar/water ratio for oral rehydration: 1 tsp salt, 8 tsp sugar, for 1 litre of water. Most Indians will happily share their own advice for treatment of illnesses and other problems. A commonly recommended cure-all is to eat boiled rice and curd (yoghurt) together for 3 meals a day until you're better. ''Keep in mind that this is usually not sound medical advice''. Indians have resistance to native bacteria and parasites that visitors do not have. If you have serious diarrhea for more than a day or two, it is best to visit a private hospital. Parasites are a common cause of diarrhea, and may not get better without treatment.
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[[Malaria]] is endemic throughout India. [http://www.cdc.gov/travel/regionalmalaria/indianrg.htm CDC] states that risk exists in all areas, including the cities of Delhi and Bombay, and at altitudes of less than 2000 metres in Himachal Pradesh, Jammu, Kashmir, and Sikkim. Get expert advice on malaria preventatives, and take adequate precautions to prevent [[mosquito]] bites.
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If you need to visit a hospital in India, '''avoid government hospitals'''. The quality of treatment is poor. Private hospitals provide better service.-->
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==Rispettare==
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<!--* Whereas Indian men can be really eager to talk to travellers, women in India often refrain from contact with men. It is an unfortunate fact that  if you are a man and you approach a woman in India for even an innocuous purpose like asking for directions, you are putting her on the defensive. It is better to ask a man if available, or be extra respectful if he is not. 
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* It's not disrespectful for a woman to tell a man eager to talk to her that she doesn't want to talk - so if a man's behaviour makes you uncomfortable, say so firmly.
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* In mosques and temples it is obligatory to take off your shoes. It may also be customary to take off your footwear while  entering into homes, follow other people's lead.
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* It is disrespectful to touch people with your feet. If done accidentally, you will find that Indians will make a quick gesture of apology that involves touching the offended person with the right hand, and then moving the hand to the chest and to the eyes. It is a good idea to emulate that.
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* Books and written material are treated with respect, as they are considered the concrete form of the Goddess of Learning. So a book should not be touched with the feet and if accidentally touched, the same gesture of apology as is made to people (see above) is performed.
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* The same goes with currency, or anything associated with wealth (especially gold). They are treated as Goddess Lakshmi (of Wealth) in human form, and ought not to be disrespected.
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* Any give or take of anything important should be done with the right hand only, or with the right hand supported with the left. This includes giving and taking of presents, and any transfer of a large amount of money.
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* Travellers should be aware of the fact that Indians generally dress conservatively and should do the same. Shorts, short skirts (knee-length or above) and sleeveless shirts are not appropriate off the beach.
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* Keep in mind that Indians will consider themselves obliged to go out of the way to fulfill a guest's request and will insist very strongly that it is no inconvenience to do so, even if it is not true. This of course means that there is a reciprocal obligation on you as a guest to take extra care not to be a burden.
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* It is customary to put up a token '''friendly fight''' when paying bills at restaurant or while making purchases. The etiquette for this is somewhat complicated.
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** In a '''business lunch or dinner''', it is usually clear upfront who is supposed to pay, and there is no need to fight. But if you are someone's personal guest and they take you out to a restaurant, you should offer to pay anyway, and you should insist a lot. Sometimes these fights get physical, with each side trying to snatch the bill away from the other, all the time laughing politely. If you don't have experience in these things, chances are, you will lose the fight the first time, but in that case, make sure that you pay the next time. (and try to make sure that there is a next time.)  Unless the bill amount is very large do not offer to share it, and only as a second resort after they have refused to let you pay it all.
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** The same rule applies when you are making a purchase. If you are purchasing something for yourself, your hosts might still offer to pay for it if the amount is not very high, and sometimes, even if it is. In this situation, unless the amount is very low, you should never lose the fight. (If the amount is in fact ridiculously low, say less than 10 rupees, then don't insult your hosts by putting up a fight.)  Even if by chance you lose the fight to pay the shopkeeper, it is customary to practically thrust (in a nice way, of course) the money into your host's hands.
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** These rules do not apply if the host has made it clear beforehand that it is his or her treat, especially for some specific occasion.-->
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==Comunicazioni==
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<!--The country code for India is '''91'''. India is then divided into '''city codes'''. See individual city guides for the city codes.
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Local phone numbers could be anywhere from 5 to 8 digits long. But when the area code is included, all phone numbers in India are 10 digits long. Most cellphone numbers start with "9" are 10 digits in length, except the WLL ones, which are just like "landline" numbers. You do not have to dial an area code to call a 10 digit cell number. But if you are making a call to a landline from a cellphone, you have to use the area code, even if you are in the same city.
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When calling long distance within India, prefix a '0' to the city code. While calling from outside India, omit the leading zero. For example, [[Bombay]] has the city code of ''22''. So to call within India , you dial ''022 number'' and to call from outside India, you dial ''+ 91 22 number''. To dial outside the country, prefix the country code with 00. E.g a US number would be dialed as 00 1 555 555 5555
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As a traveller, you will find many long distance public phones, called ''STD/ISD Booths'' (Subscriber Trunk Dialing/International Subscriber Dialing), an Indian jargon for national and international long distance respectively. These are booths with an attendant. You dial yourself but pay to the attendant after the call is over. Metering is done as per pulse and a service charge of Rs 2 is added to the bill.
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Calling the USA/Canada/UK over the normal telephone line (referred to as ISD) will cost you about Rs. 7.20 per minute. Other countries are more expensive.
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Internet kiosks are everywhere nowadays. Calling overseas is also very cheap if you use the many booths that advertise 'Net2Phone' service. Basically it is calling over the Internet. The quality ranges from tolerable to excellent, and the price is very good, with calls to the USA ranging from Rs. 2 to Rs. 5 per minute.
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Skype or GoogleTalk is also widely available in the many Internet Cafes.
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Wi-fi hotspots are a rarity in India except in some coffee shops in the metros.-->
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====Voltaggio elettrico====
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<!--Electricity in India runs at 220V and 50Hz. The power plugs are different from most of the west and you will need ''adapters'' [http://delhigate.com/services/qinfo.htm#electric] for the plugs. -->
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{{Asia}}
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{{Da tradurre}}
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[[de:Indien]]
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[[en:India]]
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[[es:India]]
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[[fr:Inde]]
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[[ja:インド]]
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[[pl:Indie]]
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[[WikiPedia:India]]
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[[Categoria:India]]
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[[Categoria:da tradurre]]

Versione delle 19:10, 25 gen 2007

noframe
Localizzazione
LocationIndia.png
Bandiera
In-flag.png
In breve
Capitale New Delhi
Governo Repubblica federale
Valuta Rupia Nazionale Indiana (INR)
Superficie totale: 3,287,590 km2
terra: 2,973,190 km2
acque: 314,400 km2
Abitanti 1,103,600,000 (stima del luglio 2005)
Lingua ufficiale Inglese, Hindi oltre a 21 linguaggi riconosciuti come ufficiali
Religione Induista 81.3%, Musulmana 12%, Cristiana 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, altri gruppi (Inclusi Buddisti, Jainisti e Parsi): 2.5% (2000)
Elettricità 230V/50Hz
Presa  
Prefisso +91
Internet TLD .in
Visitatori 2,726,000 (anno 2003)
3,457,000 (anno 2004)
Sito web [1]
Mappa dell'India.
Regioni dell'India

L'India è la più grande nazione del subcontinente indiano; è al 7° posto per superficie e seconda solo alla Cina per numero di abitanti. L'India si vanta di essere la più grande repubblica democratica del mondo. E' anche un paese assai diversificato non solo dal punto di vista geografico e climatico ma anche da quello etnico e culturale

Indice

Regioni

L'India è divisa in 28 stati e 7 territori. Gli stati sono stati creati in base a criteri linguistici e non geografici. Alcuni hanno un'estensione rilevante paragonabile a quella di uno stato europeo medio grande, altri invece sono piccolissimi e godono di minor autonomia.

Per convenzione questi stati sono raggruppati entro le seguenti regioni.

  • L'Himalaya settentrionale -- Questa regione montuosa è una destinazione ambita da turisti in cerca di avventura e spiritualità. Lungo le pendici boscose dell'Himalaya si incontrano numerosi monasteri. Anche il Dalai Lama si è rifugiato pochi anni dopo l'invasione del suo paese, il Tibet da parte delle truppe della Repubblica Popolare Cinese. Qui si trova anche lo stato di Jammu e Kashmir, da sempre oggetto di contesa fra India e Pakistan
  • Le Pianure -- è la zona dell'India dove viene parlato l'Hindi, una delle lingue ufficiali dello stato. Qui si trova la capitale federale, [Delhi]]. I fiumi Gange, Yamuna attraversano la pianura. Molti dei fatti che hanno inciso maggiormente sul corso storico del paese hanno avuto luogo qui.
  • L'Ovest -- deserti e belle città come Jaipur, Jodhpur, Udaipur, Bikaner, Goa, metropoli brulicanti di vita come Bombay (oggi nota come Mumbai), bellissime spiagge e un'industria cinematografica nota come Bollywood caratterizzano questa regione che più delle altre ha subito l'influsso e lo stile di vita europeo
  • Il Sud -- Templi Induisti spettacolari, foreste tropicali, estese lagune caratterizzano il sud dell'India.
  • L'Est -- Una regione a carattere prevalentemente rurale cosparsa di templi che però comprende metropoli del calibro di Calcutta , vero formicaio umano
  • Il Nord-Est -- remota e di difficile accesso, questa regione che si incunea profondamente tra la Cina e il Myanmar, è collegata al resto del paese da uno stretto corridoio tra il Bhutan e il Bangladesh. E' una regione di importanza strategica per l'India divisa in sette stati in alcuni dei quali serpeggia il malcontento nei confronti del governo centrale di Nuova Delhi. Per questi motivi l'accesso dei turisti stranieri ad alcuni di questi stati è sottoposto a restrizioni e al rilascio di permessi particolari Il Nord-Est è famoso per i suoi paesaggi lussureggianti inframezzati da vaste piantagioni di tè note come Tea Gardens.

Città

Tra le grandi città dell'India, quelle che esercitano un maggior richiamo turistico sono le seguenti:

  • Delhi -- la capitale dell'Unione Indiana
  • Bangalore -- città del sud, nota con vari appellativi tra cui quello di "Silicon Valley dell'India" grazie alla presenza industrie legate all'informatica in continua espansione.
  • Chennai' (Madras) -- capitale dello stato del Tamil Nadu con magnifici templi.
  • Bombay (Mumbai) -- capitale finanziaria dell'India, sede di un'industria cinematografica di tutto rispetto, "Bollywood"
  • Calcutta (Kolkata) - capitale del Bengala occidentale.
  • Hyderabad -- capitale dello stato di Anhra Pradesh e città affascinante per via delle sue moschee e dei suoi pittoreschi bazars intorno al "Char Minar", un arco di trionfo del XVI secolo che commemora la fine di un'epidemia di peste.
  • Pune - Pune, non lontana da Bombay, precedente capitale dello stato di Maharashtra.
  • Ahmedabad, la più importante città del Gujarat sulle rive del fiume Sabarmati, sede di un'importante industria tessile che prima della dominazione inglese esportava in Europa preziosi tessuti in seta riccamente ricamati alcuni dei quali sono ancora visibili presso il museo Calico.

Mete turistiche

  • Agra -- la città che accoglie il Taj Mahal, un celeberrimo tempio dedicato all'"Amore" di un principe moghul per la sua perduta sposa.
  • Ajanta ed Ellora -- due località a non eccessiva distanza l'una dall'altra nello stato di Maharashtra con complessi di templi scavati nella roccia e grotte decorate con magnifici affreschi . Entrambi i luoghi sono stati dichiarati dall'UNESCO Patrimonio Mondiale dell'Umanità.
  • Goa -- piccolo stato affacciato sul mar Arabico con bellissime spiagge e incredibili tramonti. Goa è una meta tradizionale del turismo giovanile dal tempo in cui fu scoperta da gruppi di Hippies.
  • Kerala -- Un vero "Paradiso sulla terra", con spiagge tropicali lungo la costa meridionale del Mare Arabico e stazioni climatiche sui fianchi dei Ghati occidentali tra una lussureggiante vegetazione. Kovalam beach, Munnar, Thekkady, Thiruvananthapuram (aka Trivandrum) e Cochin sono tra le mete turistiche più note
  • Madhurai -- la "Città dei Templi" nello stato di Tamil Nadu.
  • Konark -- tempio sulla costa orientale famoso per le sculture a carattere erotico che lo adornano.
  • Nalanda -- un centro monastico nello stato del Bihar legato ai primi anni del Buddismo.
  • Pondicherry -- ex colonia francese, oggi territorio dell'Unione Indiana.
  • Rajasthan Uno stato il cui territorio è occupato in parte dal fascinoso deserto di Thar con molti palazzi principeschi oggi tramutatati in alberghi di lusso. Tra le sue destinazioni più interessanti troviamo le città di Jaipur, Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, Udaipur e Pushka
  • Hampi -- antica capitale di un regno indù, incredibilmente prospera, distrutta nel 1585 dai musulmani che ne riportarono un'enorme bottino. Hampi è un vasto museo a cielo aperto nello stato di Karnataka.
  • Pattadakal -- Un'eccezionale gruppo di templi indù nella zona centrale del Karnataka
  • Belur e Halebidu -- Monumenti dell'epoca Hoysala fra cui il tempio di Chennakeshava eretto alla fine del XIV secolo.
  • Sanchi, località nello stato di Madhya Pradesh dove si trova una grande stupa buddista.
  • Shimla - The summer capital of former British India is a small jewel in the lush Himalayan foothills.
  • Srinagar - una città dell'Himalaya settentrionale, adagiata sulle rive del lago Dal, in un grandioso scenario alpestre

Luoghi sacri

L'India è stata la culla di grandi religioni ed è ancora un paese di mistici. Abbondano perciò i luoghi sacri visitati da centinaia di migliaia di pellegrini in occasione di festività religiose:

  • Amritsar - città del Punjab (India) che ospita il tempio d'oro, luogo venerato dai Sikh
  • Bodh Gaya, nello stato del Bihar è il luogo dove il Budda Shakyamuni ricevette l'illuminazione.
  • Madurai, città nello stato del Tamil Nadu sacra ai seguaci di Shiva per via di un tempio dedicato alla dea Meenakshi e a Sri Sundareswara.
  • Mathura- Vrindavan, Uttar Pradesh - il luogo dove nacque Krishna
  • Sarnath -- località a 10 km da Varanasi nello stato dell'Uttar Pradesh dove il Buddha Shakyamuni, dopo aver ricevuto l'illuminazione, concepì la dottrina del Dharmachackra.
  • Tirupati e Tirumala, Andhra Pradesh - dove si trova il tempio di Sri Venkateshvara Perumal (Il signore supremo della Montagna), dedicato a Visnù
  • Gokarna, Udupi e Shringeri -- tre località nello stato di Karnataka nel Sud dell'India dove si può apprendere il Sanscrito e la filosofia indù.
  • Shravanabelagola in Karnataka, one of the most sacred places for Jains.
  • Varanasi - Una delle città sacre lungo le rive del Gange.
  • Kumbakonam,città nello stato di Tamil Nadu meta di pellegrinaggi.
  • Tiruchirapalli,Tamilnadu - altra città nel profondo sud dell'India, sede di un santuario dedicato a Swami Ranganatha che si erge su un isolotto del fiume Kaveri (Cauvery).

Altre mete turistiche

Altri

Vedi anche: Foreste dell'India

Da sapere

L'India di oggi è una Babele linguistica: le lingue ufficiali sono 22 ma oltre queste si parlano ancora oggi 200 fra linguaggi non ufficiali e dialetti. Questa semplice statistica è la prova del mosaico etnico del paese nonchè il risultato delle diverse civiltà che si sono avvicendate sul suo territorio. L'India odierna è anche un paese di forti contrasti; è un paese ancora in gran parte rurale fatto di piccoli villaggi dove la vita scorre come ai tempi del neolitico ma anche un paese di grandi industrie di innovazione tecnologica con città come Calcutta che sono dei veri formicai umani

La storia

Gli Indiani fanno iniziare la loro storia dal periodo vedico compreso tra il 2000 e il 1000 a.C. E' questo he il periodo in cui furono compilati i Veda, i più antichi testi sacri della religione induista. Le più remote tracce di civilizzazione pervenuteci appartengono alla cosiddetta civiltà di Harappa che fiorì nella valle dell'Indo nel XIX secolo a.C. per poi sparire tre secoli più tardi per cause ignote, presubilmente per un mutamento climatico che portò ad una prolungata siccità oppure per mano di bellicosi invasori barbari. Gli scavi hanno dimostrato che questa civiltà era estremamente sviluppata con centri urbani dotati di progrediti sistemi di condutture d'acqua e fognature. Gli scavi hanno anche dimostrato che le città erano prive di fortificazioni ed erano in rapporti commerciali con gli stati del golfo di Oman. Secondo la maggioranza degli storici i popoli che abitavano queste raffinate città perirono sotto i colpi del popolo vedico di razza ariana. Secondo una minoranza invece, i popoli della civiltà di Harappa erano già gli indoarii che avrebbero più tardi elaborato i Veda.

Geografia

Clima

Cultura

"Atithi Devo Bhavah"

Il Ministero del turismo indiano ha lanciato un programma per sensibilizzare ed educare gli operatori turistici a mostrare più cortesia ed attenzione ai bisogni dei turisti. L'iniziativa è denominata Atithi Devo Bhavah, un antico detto indiano che significa "L'ospite è un Dio". Questo verrà usato come marchio, per certificare che un operatore turistico assicuri un livello minimo di qualità nel servizio. Cercate la tessera o l'adesivo con queste parole quando volete prendere un taxi, consultare un'agenzia viaggi, eccetera. [2].

Festività

Turismo

Incredible India - India Tourism Ministry official website

Letture suggerite

In lingua inglese

  • The age of kali  : Indian Travels and encounters, William Dalrymple; A fine travelogue actually a collection of essays published over time in the media.
  • INDIA: A History, John Keay; "A superb one-volume history of a land that defies reduction into simple narrative... Without peer among general studies, a history that is intelligent, incisive, and eminently readable." -- Kirkus Review (starred review)
  • INDIA A Million Mutinies Now , V.S. Naipaul; "With this book he may well have written his own enduring monument, in prose at once stirring and intensely personal, distinguished both by style and critical acumen" -- K. Natwar-Singh, Financial Times
  • No Full Stops In India, Mark Tully; "India's Westernized elite, cut off from local traditions, want to write a full stop in a land where there are no full stops. From that striking insight Mark Tully has woven a superb series of stories which explore everything from communal conflict in Ahmedabad to communism in Calcutta, from the Kumbh Mela in Allahabad (probably the biggest religious festival in the world) to the televising of a Hindu epic."

Arrivare

In aereo

vedi anche: Compagnie aeree low cost asiatiche

In nave

In treno

In auto

In autobus

Spostarsi

Indirizzi e numeri civici

In aereo

Compagnie aeree

File:Airindia.jpg
Air India B747 at Chicago O'Hare

Tariffe

Come prenotare

Procedure d'imbarco

Il check negli aeroporti indiano differanzia alquanto da quello praticato nel resto del mondo.

In treno

File:Indian train.jpg
A passage through India

Classi

Orari ferroviari

Biglietti

Pasti

Piccoli suggerimenti

In autobus

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Farsi capire

Buy

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Valuta

Changing Money

Acquisti

Cosa acquistare

Cibi

Cucina indiana

Cibi vegetariani

Pietanze più diffuse

Dizionario culinario

Ristoranti

Mangiare con le mani

Bevande

Alloggi

Apprendere

Lavorare

Sicurezza personale

Female travellers in India

Precauzioni igieniche

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Asia
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