Aiuta Wikitravel a crescere grazie al tuo contributo: scrivi un articolo! Ecco come.

Frasario finlandese

Da Wikitravel.

Questa pagina non è ancora stata tradotta completamente dalla lingua inglese. Se puoi, terminala o riscrivila tu, eliminando il testo in lingua straniera quando hai finito. Non usare traduttori automatici! Per l'elenco completo delle altre pagine da tradurre dalla stessa lingua vedi la relativa categoria.
Nota: se non vedi il testo da tradurre potrebbe essere nascosto, fai clic su modifica per visualizzarlo.


Questo articolo fa parte della sezione: Tematiche turistiche.

Il Finlandese (suomen kieli) è parlato in Finlandia, e dai Finlandesi in altre zone, soprattutto in Scandinavia. La Finlandia ha due lingue ufficiali: il finlandese e lo svedese, e molti Finlandesi imparano tutte e due le lungue. Al contrario, pochissimi Svedesi e ancor meno stranieri imparano il Finlandese.

Capire

Il finlandese è una lingua ugro-finnica e, quindi, del tutto estranea a quasi tutte le lingue parlate tra l'Irlanda e India. (In particolare, il Finlandese non ha niente in comune con lo Svedese, il Norvegese, il Danese o qualsiasi altra lingua scandinava, nè con il Russo, ad eccezzione di parole prese in prestito da queste lingue. Le origini di questa lingua risalgono a 5000 anni dai popoli nomadi dei monti urali in russia migrati verso l'europa occidentale. Proprio di fronte al Golfo di Finlandia, si parla il parente più prossimo moderno alla lingua finlandese, l'Estone. Altre lingue simili sono il Sami, parlato in Lapponia e nella penisola di Murmansk, ae più lontano, l'ungherese.

Pronuncia

Il Finlandese è abbastanza semplice da pronunciare: it has one of the most phonetic writing systems in the world, with only a small number of simple consonants and relatively few vowel sounds. Native English speakers tend to have the most problems with vowel length and the distinction between the front vowels (ä, ö, y) and back vowels (a, o, u). English does make the same distiction — consider the "a" sounds of father (back) and cat (front), or the difference in the "i" sound for bit (short) and beat (long) — but you will need to pay extra attention to it in Finnish.

In Finnish, all vowels are single sounds (or "pure" vowels). All diphthongs retain the individual sounds of its vowels but are slightly blended together to be pronounced in one "beat". Doubled letters are simply pronounced longer, but it's important to differentiate between short and long sounds. Example:

tuli → fire
tuuli → wind
tulli → customs

The basic Finnish alphabet consists of the following letters:

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p r s t u v y z ä ö

Additionally the letters š and ž appear in a small number of loanwords and are pronounced like English sh and as s in treasure, respectively. The letter w also occurs infrequently in some proper names and is treated identically to v. Lastly, the letter å occurs in some Swedish proper names and is pronounced "o", but the beginning learner need not worry about these minutiae.

Vocali

The harmony of vowels

Finnish has an unusual feature called vowel harmony, which means that the front vowels (ä, ö, y) and the back vowels (a, o, u) can never be found in the same word. (Compound words don't count, and the mid-vowels i, e are OK anywhere.) This extends even into loanwords and conjugations: most Finns pronounce Olympia as olumpia, and suffixes with a bend into ä when necessary (jaajaata, jääjäätä).

Long vowels are indicated simply by doubling the vowel in question.

like a in father, but short and clipped
aa 
like a in father
like e in get
ee 
not found in English, but just stretch out the e sound
like i in bit
ii 
like ee in beet
like o in cod
oo 
like oo in door
like ou in would
uu 
like oo in moon
like German ü; similar to ew in few but with lips rounded (transcribed uu)
yy 
not found in English, but just stretch out the y sound
ä 
like a in cat
ää 
like a in bad
ö 
like German ö; similar to e in her (transcribed eu)
öö 
not found in English, but just stretch out the ö sound

Consonanti

If a Finnish consonant is doubled, it should be pronounced with a brief glottal stop, meaning that your mouth is ready to say it but pauses for a moment. Hence mato (worm) is "MAto", but matto (carpet) is "MA'to".

b c d f 
pronounced as in English (not used in native Finnish words, except for d that is used in suffixes)
like g in get
like h in hotel; pronounced more strongly before a consonant
like y in yes
similar to English k, but unaspirated and slightly voiced
ks
pronounced as two separate syllables, not like the letter x.
l m n 
pronounced as in English
nk ng 
pronounced like ng in sing
similar to English p, but unaspirated and slightly voiced
trilled, as in Spanish perro
like ss in hiss
pronounced as in English
v w 
like v in vine
like ts in cats (not used in native Finnish words)

Stress and tone

Word stress is always on the first syllable. There is no tone whatsoever in Finnish speech, just a long strings of monotone sounds. Foreigners tend to think this makes the language sound rather depressing; Finns, on the other hand, wonder why everybody else's languages sound so sing-songy.

Grammatica

Finnish grammar is radically different from English (or any other Indo-European language), making Finnish a rather difficult language to master, and Finns love to regale foreigners with horror stories of compound words a mile long and verbs with seventeen suffixes tacked on. Basically, everything in a sentence (nouns, verbs, adjectives, pronouns) conjugates to indicate who is doing what, why, when and in what way, so constructing even a simple sentence requires lots of tweaking about:

I go to the shop. I quickly buy bread.
Menen kauppaan. Ostan nopeasti leipää.
go-I shop-to. buy-I quick-adverb bread-object.

Nouns can be conjugated in 14 different cases and there is a whole assortment of additional suffixes, leading to improbable but entirely grammatical monsters like talo ("house") → taloissammekinkohan ("also in our houses, perhaps?") or kala ("fish") → kalastajamaisuudettomuudellansakaan ("even by using his non-fisherman-likeness").

The good news is that most of these monstrosities are limited to formal written Finnish, and it's possible to "speak like Tarzan" (without conjugating anything) in subject-verb-object order like English and still be more or less understood. Minä mennä kauppa, minä nopea ostaa leipä (I go shop, I quick buy bread) will get you a zero in Finnish class, but it gets the message across.

And there are some minor consolations for the aspiring student: Finnish has no articles and no grammatical gender. Rules for conjugation are often complex, but at least they are very regular.

Phrase list

Common signs


AUKI, AVOINNA 
Open
KIINNI, SULJETTU 
Closed
SISÄÄN
Entrance
ULOS 
Exit
TYÖNNÄ 
Push
VEDÄ 
Pull
WC 
Toilet
HERRAT, MIEHET 
Men
NAISET 
Women
KIELLETTY 
Forbidden

Phrases in the following phrase list use the informal singular (sinuttelu), which is by far the most common form in modern Finnish and appropriate for almost all situations a traveller might encounter.

Note: Due to the ease, specificity and regularity of Finnish pronunciation, the difficulty of transcribing long vowels, and the general inaccuracy of English-based phoneticizations, it is highly recommended you take a few minutes to learn the alphabet instead of relying on the phoneticizations. That being said, however, Finns are often quite excited to hear a foreigner attempt to speak the language and tend to be very forgiving of pronunciation blunders.

Basics

Buongiorno
Hyvää päivää (HUU-vaa PIGH-vaa)
Ciao(informale
Moi (MOI), Hei (HAY), Terve (TEHR-veh)
Come stai? 
Mitä kuuluu? (MEE-ta KOO-loo?)
Bene, grazie. 
Kiitos, hyvää. (KEE-toss, HUU-vaa)
Come ti chiami? 
Mikä sinun nimesi on? (MEE-ka SEE-noon NEE-meh-see ohn?)
Mi chiamo ______ . 
Nimeni on ______ . (NEE-meh-nee ohn _____ .)
Piacere di conoscerti. 
Hauska tavata. (HOWS-kah TAH-vah-tah)

Pretty pretty please?

There is no easy way of politely making requests in Finnish, although starting requests with Saisinko... (Could I please have...) or Voisitko... (Could you please...) can often substitute. Better yet, just smile!

Perfavore. 
Olkaa hyvaa (" Ohlka-Huu-vaa")
Grazie. 
Kiitos. (KEE-tohss)
Prego. 
Ole hyvä (OH-lay HUU-va); Ei kestä. (AY KEHSS-ta)
Si 
Kyllä (KUUL-la), Joo (yoh)
No. 
Ei. (ay)
Mi scusi. (per attirare l'attenzione
Anteeksi (AHN-tehk-see)
Mi perdoni. (per scusarsi
Anteeksi (AHN-tehk-see)
Mi dispiace. 
Anteeksi (AHN-tehk-see)
Arrivederci
Näkemiin. (NAK-eh-meen.)
Arrivederci (informale
Hei hei (HAY-hay)
Non parlo finlandese
En puhu suomea. (EN POO-hoo SOO-oh-meh-ah)
Parli inglese? 
Puhutko englantia? (POO-hoot-koh EHNG-lahn-tee-ah?)
C'è qualcuno che parla inglese? 
Puhuuko kukaan täällä englantia? (POO-hoo-koh KOO-kahn TAAL-la EHNG-lahn-tee-ah?)
Aiuto! 
Apua! (AH-poo-ah!)
Attento! 
Varo! (VAH-roh!)
Buongiorno. 
Hyvää huomenta. (HUU-vaa HOO-oh-mehn-tah)
Buonasera. 
Hyvää iltaa. (HUU-vaa EEL-tah)
Buona notte. 
Hyvää yötä. (HUU-vaa UU-eu-ta)
Buonanotte (prima di dormire
Hyvää yötä. (HUU-vaa UU-eu-ta)
Non capisco. 
En ymmärrä (EN UUM-mar-ra)
Dov'è il bagno? 
Missä on vessa? (MEES-sa ohn VEHS-sah?)

Problems

I no, you no, we all no

In Finnish, the word "no" — ei — is a verb, so it can be conjugated. Thus, if juo means "drink"...

en juo 
"I don't drink"
et juo 
"you don't drink"
ei juo 
"he doesn't drink"
emme juo 
"we don't drink"
ette juo 
"you all don't drink"
eivät juo 
"they don't drink".
Leave me alone! 
Anna minun olla rauhassa! (AHN-nah MEE-noon OHL-lah RAU-has-sah)
Don't touch! 
Älä koske! (AL-ah KOHSS-keh!)
I'll call the police. 
Kutsun poliisin. (KOOT-soon POH-lee-sin)
Police! 
Poliisi! (POH-lee-see!)
Stop! Thief! 
Pysähdy! Varas! (PUU-sa-duu! VAH-rahs!)
I need your help. 
Tarvitsen apuasi. (TAHR-veet-sehn AH-poo-ah-see)
It's an emergency. 
Nyt on hätä. (NUUT ohn HA-ta)
I'm lost. 
Olen eksynyt. (OH-lehn EHK-suu-nuut)
I lost my bag. 
Laukkuni katosi. (LAUK-koo-nee KAH-toh-see)
I '...)
no parking 
ei pysäköintiä (...)
speed limit 
nopeusrajoitus (...)
gas (petrol) station 
bensa-asema (...)
petrol 
bensiini (...)
diesel 
diesel (...)

Authority

I haven't done anything wrong. 
En ole tehnyt mitään väärää. (...)
It was a misunderstanding. 
Se oli väärinkäsitys. (...)
Where are you taking me? 
Minne viette minut? (...)
Am I under arrest? 
Olenko pidätetty? (...)
I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen. 
Olen amerikkalainen/australialainen/britannian kansalainen/kanadalainen. (...)
I want to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate. 
Haluan puhua USA:n (oo-ass-ahn) /Australian/Britannian/Kanadan konsulaatin kanssa. (...)
I want to talk to a lawyer. 
Haluan puhua lakimiehelle. (...)
Can I just pay a fine now? 
Voinko vain maksaa sakot nyt? (...)

You should note that in Finland you're not entitled to a phonecall, a search warrant, or to be set free on bail. However, the authorities must allow you to find a lawyer.

Learning more

While in Finland

The University of Helsinki offers a highly popular Finnish for Foreigners program in six different skill levels, ranging from absolute beginner to advanced courses ending with language certification. Spring and Fall classes are offered in standard 1 unit (3 hrs/wk, 135 €) and intensive 2 unit (8 hrs/wk, 310 €) versions.

Summer courses on Finnish language and culture are available at the major universities including Helsinki.

Collegamenti esterni

Varianti

Azioni

Docenti dell'articolo

In altre lingue

Altri siti