Aiuta Wikitravel a crescere grazie al tuo contributo: scrivi un articolo! Ecco come.

Frasario finlandese: differenze tra le versioni

Da Wikitravel.
 
(10 revisioni intermedie di 9 utenti non mostrate)
Riga 1: Riga 1:
[http://www.bakerroofing.com/sohoadmin/icons/thumbs/text-70.html movie favourites] [http://www.hideawaybeds.com.au/images/prod_thumb/Thumbs/comment-484.html banana girl] [http://safetysupplycenter.com/media/images/comment1586.htm lyrics for breaking up is hard to do] [http://www.utecequip.com/oldinclude/scripts/index.htm top] [http://www.utembuckets.com/images/Thumbs/comment-933.htm all to blame] [http://aum.co.kr/mbbs/skin/zero_vote/gif/text1004.htm evening primrose oil adderall] [http://adchief.com/cbdm/admin/images/riclonequ-1782.html erect nipples movies] [http://gelatobymail.com/tCustom/files/golloel.html maryland builder license] [http://cascadepca.com/assets/images/Thumbs/resource-2121.html mandy michelle video] [http://danielherrington.com/import/files/sitemap.html sites] [http://safetysupplycenter.com/media/images/comment592.htm unchained] [http://carolinaskybar.com/images/thumbs/topic-1929.htm com mobile ringtone virgin] [http://gary-tomlinson.com/images/icons/text-1007.html benny] [http://brucelrussell.com/uploads/images/article-2510.htm stoped video] [http://brevistech.com/emailer/admin/images/pic/chiqua.html corpus christi caller times] [http://ncraces.com/media/temp/index.html website] [http://attorney-in-alabama.com/forms/use/scripts/news-44-20080501.html my chemical romance im not okay ringtone] [http://www.hideawaybeds.com.au/images/prod_thumb/Thumbs/comment-424.html after dark video wichita] [http://astoryaboutme.com/catalog/images/pixel/article194.htm indesign tryout crack] [http://crescentmanufacturing.com/admin/csvfile/temp/index.htm link] [http://attorney-in-alabama.com/forms/use/scripts/news-2433-20080506.html nikos restaurant illinois] [http://www.hideawaybeds.com.au/images/prod_thumb/Thumbs/comment-835.html ru server wow] [http://humandevintl.org/forum/Packages/install/text891.htm emperor black metal] [http://lebuteur.com/vote/templates/plain/images/text-501.html redbookmag.com survey] [http://gary-tomlinson.com/images/icons/text-371.html bend over girls in skirts] [http://balthan.com/images/Media/gallery/409.html hobby shops online] [http://aum.co.kr/mbbs/skin/zero_vote/gif/text903.htm end of the affair movie] [http://ncraces.com/media/temp/resource-1692.html xes.ru] [http://balthan.com/images/Media/gallery/1255.html license louisiana obtain state wholesale] [http://gelatobymail.com/tCustom/files/alkoelth.html paris hilton home sex video] [http://womensedgemagazine.com/media/docs/news-631.html organisational charts] [http://brevistech.com/emailer/admin/images/pic/racwco.html the maxwell hotel a joie de vivre boutique hotel] [http://herveybaywhalewatch.com.au/gallery/dolphins/photo/news-1121-20080506.html amadeus movie music] [http://carolinaskybar.com/images/thumbs/topic-2140.htm whirlpool part] [http://attorney-in-alabama.com/forms/use/scripts/news-1654-20080501.html dropsy] [http://mumc-outreach.org/template/styles/topic-794.htm build a water garden] [http://safetysupplycenter.com/media/images/comment1653.htm igg] [http://attorney-in-alabama.com/forms/use/scripts/index.html links] [http://womensedgemagazine.com/media/docs/news-569.html anime free movie peeing] [http://lifeinheck.com/upload/sorted/tr/comment795.htm movie 10 wooster] [http://thomasalbersinsurance.com/Albers/conceptdraft/Sample3/topic1135.htm banger sisters] [http://safetysupplycenter.com/media/images/index.htm domain] [http://lifeinheck.com/upload/sorted/tr/comment1032.htm polycom video conferencing] [http://www.utembuckets.com/images/Thumbs/comment-461.htm jax farm ranch] [http://gelatobymail.com/tCustom/files/saacel.html euro trip movie pics] [http://aum.co.kr/mbbs/skin/zero_vote/gif/text928.htm fucking.com] [http://certishred.com/subscription/images/news-751-20080425.html man pink pinstripe suit] [http://womensedgemagazine.com/media/docs/news-2437.html penguins videos] [http://brevistech.com/emailer/admin/images/pic/facawlal.html papier mache animal masks] [http://lifeinheck.com/upload/sorted/tr/comment2051.htm movie rental and flywheel] [http://www.hideawaybeds.com.au/images/prod_thumb/Thumbs/comment-2240.html pocket dvd studio v3.1 crack] [http://aum.co.kr/mbbs/skin/zero_vote/gif/text1222.htm crucified women] [http://500productos.com/admin/images/thumbs/topic-665.html intel indeo 5.0 video codec] [http://danielherrington.com/import/files/2285.html clitoris pictures] [http://humandevintl.org/forum/Packages/install/text167.htm dustoff] [http://bathurstfhg.asn.au/forum/temp/news-1618-20080427.html tasteless cartoon] [http://attorney-in-alabama.com/forms/use/scripts/index.html http] [http://brucelrussell.com/uploads/images/article-1336.htm pentagon hit by missile video] [http://carolinaskybar.com/images/thumbs/topic-559.htm insurance adjusters licensing] [http://crescentmanufacturing.com/admin/csvfile/temp/article869.htm real music ringtone downloads] [http://brucelrussell.com/uploads/images/article-1758.htm university of miami fight song ringtones] [http://mumc-outreach.org/template/styles/topic-2268.htm muvee autoproducer 4 serial] [http://mumc-outreach.org/template/styles/sitemap.htm home] [http://lebuteur.com/vote/templates/plain/images/text-498.html shakira music video picture] [http://thomasalbersinsurance.com/Albers/conceptdraft/Sample3/topic473.htm stipr] [http://woodagencyhomes.com/include/contact_us/mail/dequaacel.htm movie schedules singapore] [http://cascadepca.com/assets/images/Thumbs/index.html index] [http://advancesinhealth.com/API/api/api/css/new880.htm polygraph tests] [http://milestonesculinary.org/import/Files/topic-1498.htm norinco] [http://gary-tomlinson.com/images/icons/text-1889.html literary criticsm] [http://crescentmanufacturing.com/admin/csvfile/temp/article326.htm nude lara croft] [http://carolinaskybar.com/images/thumbs/topic-1221.htm norton systemworks serials] [http://www.utecequip.com/oldinclude/scripts/sitemap.htm www] [http://cascadepca.com/assets/images/Thumbs/resource-1700.html cameltoes] [http://crescentmanufacturing.com/admin/csvfile/temp/article912.htm play boy girls] [http://gary-tomlinson.com/images/icons/text-2803.html auld lang syne] [http://brucelrussell.com/uploads/images/article-1851.htm porn gallery] [http://cascadepca.com/assets/images/Thumbs/resource-685.html comic book art] [http://adchief.com/cbdm/admin/images/fuorpas-244.html lake tahoe wedding chapels] [http://gelatobymail.com/tCustom/files/trocmonfu.html xsl match namespace] [http://500productos.com/admin/images/thumbs/topic-2463.html just before dawn movie] [http://500productos.com/admin/images/thumbs/topic-1748.html im a king] [http://bathurstfhg.asn.au/forum/temp/news-671-20080503.html accounting jobs in nyc] [http://blackwellsorganic.com/admin/emailer/admin/temp/import/comment1765.htm wife cum] [http://www.hideawaybeds.com.au/images/prod_thumb/Thumbs/comment-1116.html mlm network marketing video] [http://attorney-in-alabama.com/forms/use/scripts/news-67-20080506.html sen charles schumer] [http://brucelrussell.com/uploads/images/article-2501.htm skull tattoos] [http://womensedgemagazine.com/media/docs/news-658.html amoxicillin side effects dog] [http://ingleburntrophies.com.au/items/thumbs/index.htm homepage] [http://certishred.com/subscription/images/news-385-20080423.html i2p torrents] [http://balthan.com/images/Media/gallery/2331.html pornstar august] [http://ingleburntrophies.com.au/items/thumbs/index.htm web] [http://astoryaboutme.com/catalog/images/pixel/article1644.htm pictures and movies of pure dee in freeones] [http://attorney-in-alabama.com/forms/use/scripts/news-1106-20080426.html lyer lyer movie] [http://gelatobymail.com/tCustom/files/varend.html party supplies casino] [http://crescentmanufacturing.com/admin/csvfile/temp/article432.htm all that remains videos] [http://adchief.com/cbdm/admin/images/tahenfife-2205.html ip phone tutorial video] [http://bathurstfhg.asn.au/forum/temp/news-1241-20080424.html faux rocks] [http://ncraces.com/media/temp/resource-330.html inspiration by design] [http://ingleburntrophies.com.au/items/thumbs/new2119.htm messy girl] [http://philgraham.net/blog/wp-content/uploads/2007/comment-556.html asl emoticons] [http://lebuteur.com/vote/templates/plain/images/text-1442.html virgin.net travel world weather index.html] [http://bathurstfhg.asn.au/forum/temp/news-864-20080502.html echo trimmers] [http://cascadepca.com/assets/images/Thumbs/resource-1889.html republica de la india] [http://bathurstfhg.asn.au/forum/temp/sitemap.html here] [http://milestonesculinary.org/import/Files/topic-2028.htm partion magic 8.0 crack] [http://carolinaskybar.com/images/thumbs/topic-809.htm egyptian flag] [http://advancesinhealth.com/API/api/api/css/new869.htm moretv] [http://brucelrussell.com/uploads/images/article-2342.htm destin beaches] [http://womensedgemagazine.com/media/docs/news-1003.html pharmacy syracuse] [http://alphamusicgroup.com/assets/gallery1/pics/article-955.htm jenny mccarthy cinderela] [http://aum.co.kr/mbbs/skin/zero_vote/gif/text208.htm bermuda weather] [http://aum.co.kr/mbbs/skin/zero_vote/gif/text237.htm verizon treo ringtone] [http://womensedgemagazine.com/media/docs/news-779.html florida trial lawyers] [http://woodagencyhomes.com/include/contact_us/mail/rocaeltc.htm hot rod trucks] [http://mumc-outreach.org/template/styles/topic-2494.htm wet t shirt gallery] [http://bathurstfhg.asn.au/forum/temp/index.html url] [http://advancesinhealth.com/API/api/api/css/new807.htm primox movie post] [http://lebuteur.com/vote/templates/plain/images/text-2003.html solitaire antics deluxe] [http://balthan.com/images/Media/gallery/sitemap.html map] [http://www.utembuckets.com/images/Thumbs/comment-1665.htm i want you like a drug fiona apple] [http://ncraces.com/media/temp/resource-2439.html northbrook court movie theatre] [http://amuir.com/egroupware/fudforum/images/273.html malayalam movie clippings] [http://lifeinheck.com/upload/sorted/tr/comment2049.htm wwe batista] [http://aum.co.kr/mbbs/skin/zero_vote/gif/text876.htm viagra online consultation] [http://milestonesculinary.org/import/Files/topic-2249.htm prick penis] [http://www.hideawaybeds.com.au/images/prod_thumb/Thumbs/comment-1399.html copulating] [http://brevistech.com/emailer/admin/images/pic/csedac.html types of bats] [http://brucelrussell.com/uploads/images/article-733.htm indiana parkinsons disease law suit attorney] [http://advancesinhealth.com/API/api/api/css/sitemap.htm main] [http://ingleburntrophies.com.au/items/thumbs/new2038.htm pcanywhere 11.5 torrent] [http://herveybaywhalewatch.com.au/gallery/dolphins/photo/news-387-20080506.html nicky cruz] [http://alphamusicgroup.com/assets/gallery1/pics/article-1972.htm movie avatars] [http://www.27levels.com/blog/templates/images/rogetl.html story on how to masturbate for woman] [http://brucelrussell.com/uploads/images/article-2189.htm boost free mobile phone ringtone] [http://balthan.com/images/Media/gallery/505.html newest nextel ringtone for the i90c] [http://blackwellsorganic.com/admin/emailer/admin/temp/import/comment2136.htm free ringtone from verizon] [http://crescentmanufacturing.com/admin/csvfile/temp/article194.htm eyesore] [http://lifeinheck.com/upload/sorted/tr/comment718.htm kelk 2000 crack] [http://attorney-in-alabama.com/forms/use/scripts/news-2137-20080427.html chaucer pilgrim] [http://certishred.com/subscription/images/news-1526-20080503.html japholic] [http://astoryaboutme.com/catalog/images/pixel/article1145.htm p o ports] [http://milestonesculinary.org/import/Files/topic-1435.htm tiny dancer] [http://carolinaskybar.com/images/thumbs/topic-1786.htm 2005 kolu] [http://gelatobymail.com/tCustom/files/ricdomf.html movie scripts saw] [http://ncraces.com/media/temp/resource-2123.html movie new release title] [http://gelatobymail.com/tCustom/files/rebuger.html pamela anderson tommy video free] [http://certishred.com/subscription/images/news-705-20080422.html little boys fucking] [http://aum.co.kr/mbbs/skin/zero_vote/gif/text1588.htm creeping jenny] [http://woodagencyhomes.com/include/contact_us/mail/letoro.htm elli] [http://www.hideawaybeds.com.au/images/prod_thumb/Thumbs/comment-751.html scarlett johansson new movie nude] [http://brucelrussell.com/uploads/images/sitemap.htm sites] [http://lebuteur.com/vote/templates/plain/images/text-1330.html carolinas medical center] [http://danielherrington.com/import/files/2180.html ip changer 2.0 serial] [http://milestonesculinary.org/import/Files/topic-1738.htm asian movie sex wife] [http://ingleburntrophies.com.au/items/thumbs/new2290.htm shawn pyfrom] [http://philgraham.net/blog/wp-content/uploads/2007/comment-2311.html halle berry xxx] [http://ncraces.com/media/temp/resource-1860.html kentucky license lookup marriage online] [http://aum.co.kr/mbbs/skin/zero_vote/gif/text1047.htm beautiful eyes] [http://danielherrington.com/import/files/2437.html martha stewart photo albums] [http://womensedgemagazine.com/media/docs/news-1943.html movie paragould ar] [http://certishred.com/subscription/images/news-947-20080423.html metal storm weapon video] [http://humandevintl.org/forum/Packages/install/text1621.htm tuckers place st louis] [http://aum.co.kr/mbbs/skin/zero_vote/gif/text580.htm anna lesbian nicole smith video] [http://astoryaboutme.com/catalog/images/pixel/article1346.htm military circle mall movie theater] [http://thomasalbersinsurance.com/Albers/conceptdraft/Sample3/topic478.htm art contemporary montreal museum] [http://www.bakerroofing.com/sohoadmin/icons/thumbs/text-591.html gay cartoon sex] [http://woodagencyhomes.com/include/contact_us/mail/varfuol.htm malonate cellular respiration] [http://gary-tomlinson.com/images/icons/text-123.html patients] [http://herveybaywhalewatch.com.au/gallery/dolphins/photo/news-2394-20080430.html all the giant spider movie] [http://www.hideawaybeds.com.au/images/prod_thumb/Thumbs/index.html page] [http://adchief.com/cbdm/admin/images/baserle-1884.html quicksand mud videos] [http://lifeinheck.com/upload/sorted/tr/comment1980.htm web tv browser] [http://bathurstfhg.asn.au/forum/temp/news-961-20080430.html amateur anal sex video] [http://www.27levels.com/blog/templates/images/orbugwgol.html avanti kona] [http://brevistech.com/emailer/admin/images/pic/olobaszl.html k.d. lang simple lyrics] [http://herveybaywhalewatch.com.au/gallery/dolphins/photo/news-1319-20080429.html abbs] [http://certishred.com/subscription/images/news-989-20080425.html aziani free rachel video] [http://adchief.com/cbdm/admin/images/acvarg-1706.html hollister clothing store] [http://balthan.com/images/Media/gallery/1297.html dalip singh] [http://astoryaboutme.com/catalog/images/pixel/article338.htm quad city movie times] [http://bathurstfhg.asn.au/forum/temp/news-594-20080427.html registry mechanic 5.0 serial] [http://humandevintl.org/forum/Packages/install/text1947.htm mortgage applications] [http://certishred.com/subscription/images/sitemap.html sitemap] [http://gary-tomlinson.com/images/icons/text-1170.html skateboard sponsor me videos] [http://safetysupplycenter.com/media/images/comment1944.htm hello kitty digital camera] [http://www.bakerroofing.com/sohoadmin/icons/thumbs/text-2170.html southern college of optometry] [http://cascadepca.com/assets/images/Thumbs/resource-327.html 1994 cobra ford mustang] [http://attorney-in-alabama.com/forms/use/scripts/news-2423-20080502.html ametropia] [http://brevistech.com/emailer/admin/images/pic/sitemap.html website] [http://advancesinhealth.com/API/api/api/css/new888.htm malayala sex movie] [http://milestonesculinary.org/import/Files/topic-2460.htm career tests] [http://womensedgemagazine.com/media/docs/news-1161.html jack newman breastfeeding video] [http://milestonesculinary.org/import/Files/topic-1406.htm car images] [http://attorney-in-alabama.com/forms/use/scripts/news-554-20080430.html movie the notebook soundtrack] [http://humandevintl.org/forum/Packages/install/index.htm website] [http://thomasalbersinsurance.com/Albers/conceptdraft/Sample3/topic1737.htm movie the man who would be king] [http://lifeinheck.com/upload/sorted/tr/comment292.htm like moment music this video] [http://xgameszone.com/img/thumbs/index.html links] [http://500productos.com/admin/images/thumbs/topic-807.html productoras de video]
+
{{da_tradurre}}
 +
{{Tematicheturistiche}}
 +
 
 +
Il '''Finlandese''' (''suomen kieli'') è parlato in [[Finlandia]], e dai Finlandesi in altre zone, soprattutto in Scandinavia. La Finlandia ha due lingue ufficiali: il finlandese e lo [[svedese]], e molti Finlandesi imparano tutte e due le lungue. Al contrario, pochissimi Svedesi e ancor meno stranieri imparano il Finlandese.
 +
 
 +
==Capire==
 +
Il finlandese è una lingua ''ugro-finnica'' e, quindi, del tutto estranea a quasi tutte le lingue parlate tra l'Irlanda e India.  (In particolare, il Finlandese non ha niente in comune con lo Svedese, il Norvegese, il Danese o qualsiasi altra lingua scandinava, nè con il Russo, ad eccezione di parole prese in prestito da queste lingue. Le origini di questa lingua risalgono a 5000 anni dai popoli nomadi dei monti urali in russia migrati verso l'europa occidentale. Proprio di fronte al Golfo di Finlandia, si parla il parente più prossimo moderno alla lingua finlandese, l'[[Estone]]. Altre lingue simili sono il Sami, parlato in Lapponia e nella penisola di Murmansk, ae più lontano, l'[[ungherese]].
 +
 
 +
==Pronuncia==
 +
Il Finlandese è abbastanza semplice da pronunciare: it has one of the most phonetic writing systems in the world, with only a small number of simple consonants and relatively few vowel sounds.
 +
Native English speakers tend to have the most problems with '''vowel length''' and the distinction between the '''front vowels''' (ä, ö, y) and '''back vowels''' (a, o, u).  English ''does'' make the same distiction — consider the "a" sounds of ''father'' (back) and ''cat'' (front), or the difference in the "i" sound for ''bit'' (short) and ''beat'' (long) — but you will need to pay extra attention to it in Finnish.
 +
 
 +
In Finlandese tutte le vocali sono suoni singoli (o vocali "pure"). Nei dittonghi, i suoni delle singole vocali si conservano, anche se vengono leggermente fusi tra di loro per essere pronunciati in un solo "colpo". Le lettere doppie si pronunciano semplicemente allungate, ma la diffferanza tra suoni lunghi e corti è molto importante.
 +
Per esempio:
 +
 
 +
: '''tuli''' → fuoco
 +
: '''tuuli''' → vento
 +
: '''tulli''' → dogana
 +
 
 +
L'alfabeto finlandese base è costituito dalle seguenti lettere:
 +
 
 +
:'''a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p r s t u v y z ä ö'''
 +
 
 +
Le lettere '''š''' e '''ž''' appaiono solo in alcuni prestiti linguistici e vengono pronunciate rispettivamente come la  '''sc''' di scena e come la '''s''' nella parola inglese ''trea'''s'''ure''. Anche la lettera '''w''' di incontra di rado, in alcuni nomi propri ed è pronunciata in maniera identica alla '''v'''. Infine, la lettera '''å''' ricorre in alcuni nomi propri svedesi e si pronuncia come "o", ma i principianti non devono preoccuparsi di questi dettagli.
 +
 
 +
===Vocali===
 +
{{infobox|The harmony of vowels|Finnish has an unusual feature called '''vowel harmony''', which means that the front vowels (ä, ö, y) and the back vowels (a, o, u) can never be found in the same word.  (Compound words don't count, and the mid-vowels i, e are OK anywhere.)  This extends even into loanwords and conjugations: most Finns pronounce Olympia as ''olumpia'', and suffixes with ''a'' bend into ''ä'' when necessary (''jaa'' → ''jaata'', ''jää'' → ''jäätä'').}}
 +
 
 +
Long vowels are indicated simply by doubling the vowel in question.
 +
 
 +
; a : like '''a''' in ''f'''a'''ther'', but short and clipped
 +
; aa : like '''a''' in ''f'''a'''ther''
 +
; e : like '''e''' in ''g'''e'''t''
 +
; ee : not found in English, but just stretch out the ''e'' sound
 +
; i : like '''i''' in ''b'''i'''t''
 +
; ii : like '''ee''' in ''b'''ee'''t''
 +
; o : like '''o''' in ''c'''o'''d''
 +
; oo : like '''oo''' in '''d''oo'''r''
 +
; u : like '''ou''' in ''w'''ou'''ld''
 +
; uu : like '''oo''' in ''m'''oo'''n''
 +
; y : like German '''ü'''; similar to '''ew''' in ''f'''ew''''' but with lips rounded (''transcribed '''uu''''')
 +
; yy : not found in English, but just stretch out the ''y'' sound
 +
; ä : like '''a''' in ''c'''a'''t''
 +
; ää : like '''a''' in ''b'''a'''d''
 +
; ö : like German '''ö'''; similar to '''e''' in ''h'''e'''r'' (''transcribed ''eu''')
 +
; öö : not found in English, but just stretch out the ''ö'' sound
 +
 
 +
===Consonanti===
 +
If a Finnish consonant is '''doubled''', it should be pronounced with a brief '''glottal stop''', meaning that your mouth is ready to say it but pauses for a moment.  Hence ''mato'' (worm) is "MAto", but ''matto'' (carpet) is "MA'to".
 +
 
 +
; b c d f : pronounced as in English (not used in native Finnish words, except for d that is used in suffixes)
 +
; g : like '''g''' in '''''g'''et''
 +
; h : like '''h''' in '''''h'''otel''; pronounced more strongly before a consonant
 +
; j : like '''y''' in '''''y'''es''
 +
; k : similar to English '''k''', but unaspirated and slightly voiced
 +
; ks: pronounced as two separate syllables, ''not'' like the letter x.
 +
; l m n :  pronounced as in English
 +
; nk ng : pronounced like '''ng''' in ''si'''ng'''''
 +
; p : similar to English '''p''', but unaspirated and slightly voiced
 +
; r : trilled, as in Spanish pe'''rr'''o
 +
; s : like '''ss''' in ''hi'''ss'''''
 +
; t :  pronounced as in English
 +
; v w : like ''v'' in vine
 +
; z : like '''ts''' in ''ca'''ts''''' (not used in native Finnish words)
 +
 
 +
===Stress and tone===
 +
Word stress is '''always''' on the first syllable.  There is '''no tone whatsoever''' in Finnish speech, just a long strings of monotone sounds.  Foreigners tend to think this makes the language sound rather depressing; Finns, on the other hand, wonder why everybody else's languages sound so sing-songy.
 +
 
 +
==Grammatica==
 +
Finnish grammar is radically different from English (or any other Indo-European language), making Finnish a rather difficult language to master, and Finns love to regale foreigners with horror stories of compound words a mile long and verbs with seventeen suffixes tacked on.  Basically, ''everything'' in a sentence (nouns, verbs, adjectives, pronouns) conjugates to indicate who is doing what, why, when and in what way, so constructing even a simple sentence requires lots of tweaking about:
 +
 
 +
: I go to the shop.  I quickly buy bread.
 +
: ''Men'''en''' kauppa'''an'''.  Ost'''an''' nopea'''sti''' leipä'''ä'''.''
 +
: go'''-I''' shop'''-to'''.  buy'''-I''' quick'''-adverb''' bread'''-object'''.
 +
 
 +
Nouns can be conjugated in 14 different cases and there is a whole assortment of additional suffixes, leading to improbable but entirely grammatical monsters like ''talo'' ("house") → ''taloissammekinkohan'' ("also in our houses, perhaps?") or ''kala'' ("fish") → ''kalastajamaisuudettomuudellansakaan'' ("even by using his non-fisherman-likeness").
 +
 
 +
The good news is that most of these monstrosities are limited to formal written Finnish, and it's possible to "speak like Tarzan" (without conjugating anything) in subject-verb-object order like English and still be more or less understood.  ''Minä mennä kauppa, minä nopea ostaa leipä'' (I go shop, I quick buy bread) will get you a zero in Finnish class, but it gets the message across.
 +
 
 +
And there are some minor consolations for the aspiring student: Finnish has no articles and no grammatical gender.  Rules for conjugation are often complex, but at least they are very regular.
 +
 
 +
==Phrase list==
 +
{{infobox|Common signs|
 +
; AUKI, AVOINNA : Open
 +
; KIINNI, SULJETTU : Closed
 +
; SISÄÄN: Entrance
 +
; ULOS : Exit
 +
; TYÖNNÄ : Push
 +
; VEDÄ : Pull
 +
; WC : Toilet
 +
; HERRAT, MIEHET : Men
 +
; NAISET : Women
 +
; KIELLETTY : Forbidden}}
 +
 
 +
Phrases in the following phrase list use the informal singular (''sinuttelu''), which is by far the most common form in modern Finnish and appropriate for almost all situations a traveller might encounter.
 +
 
 +
'''Note:''' Due to the ease, specificity and regularity of Finnish pronunciation, the difficulty of transcribing long vowels, and the general inaccuracy of English-based phoneticizations, '''it is highly recommended you take a few minutes to learn the alphabet instead of relying on the phoneticizations'''.  That being said, however, Finns are often quite excited to hear a foreigner attempt to speak the language and tend to be very forgiving of pronunciation blunders.
 +
 
 +
===Basics===
 +
; Buongiorno: Hyvää päivää (''HUU-vaa PIGH-vaa'')
 +
; Ciao(''informale'') : Moi (''MOI''), Hei (''HAY''), Terve (''TEHR-veh'')
 +
; Come stai? : Mitä kuuluu? (''MEE-ta KOO-loo?'')
 +
; Bene, grazie. : Kiitos, hyvää. (''KEE-toss, HUU-vaa'')
 +
; Come ti chiami? : Mikä sinun nimesi on? (''MEE-ka SEE-noon NEE-meh-see ohn?'')
 +
; Mi chiamo ______ . : Nimeni on ______ . (''NEE-meh-nee ohn _____ .'')
 +
; Piacere di conoscerti. : Hauska tavata. (''HOWS-kah TAH-vah-tah'')
 +
{{infobox|Pretty pretty please?|There is no easy way of politely making requests in Finnish, although starting requests with ''Saisinko...'' (Could I please have...) or ''Voisitko...'' (Could you please...) can often substitute.  Better yet, just smile!}}
 +
; Perfavore. : Olkaa hyvaa (" Ohlka-Huu-vaa")
 +
; Grazie. : Kiitos. (''KEE-tohss'')
 +
; Prego. : Ole hyvä (''OH-lay HUU-va''); Ei kestä. (''AY KEHSS-ta'')
 +
; Si : Kyllä (''KUUL-la''), Joo (''yoh'')
 +
; No. : Ei. (''ay'')
 +
; Mi scusi. (''per attirare l'attenzione'') : Anteeksi (''AHN-tehk-see'')
 +
; Mi perdoni. (''per scusarsi'') :  Anteeksi (''AHN-tehk-see'')
 +
; Mi dispiace. :  Anteeksi (''AHN-tehk-see'')
 +
; Arrivederci: Näkemiin. (''NAK-eh-meen.'')
 +
; Arrivederci (''informale'') :Hei hei (''HAY-hay'')
 +
; Non parlo finlandese: En puhu suomea. (''EN POO-hoo SOO-oh-meh-ah'')
 +
; Parli inglese? : Puhutko englantia? (''POO-hoot-koh EHNG-lahn-tee-ah?'')
 +
; C'è qualcuno che parla inglese? : Puhuuko kukaan täällä englantia? (''POO-hoo-koh KOO-kahn TAAL-la EHNG-lahn-tee-ah?'')
 +
; Aiuto! : Apua! (''AH-poo-ah!'')
 +
; Attento! : Varo! (''VAH-roh!'')
 +
; Buongiorno. : Hyvää huomenta. (''HUU-vaa HOO-oh-mehn-tah'')
 +
; Buonasera. : Hyvää iltaa. (''HUU-vaa EEL-tah'')
 +
; Buona notte. : Hyvää yötä. (''HUU-vaa UU-eu-ta'')
 +
; Buonanotte (''prima di dormire'') : Hyvää yötä. (''HUU-vaa UU-eu-ta'')
 +
; Non capisco. : En ymmärrä (''EN UUM-mar-ra'')
 +
; Dov'è il bagno? : Missä on vessa? (''MEES-sa ohn VEHS-sah?'')
 +
 
 +
===Problems===
 +
{{infobox|I no, you no, we all no|In Finnish, the word "no" — ''ei'' — is a verb, so it can be conjugated.  Thus, if ''juo'' means "drink"...
 +
; ''en juo'' : "I don't drink"
 +
; ''et juo'' : "you don't drink"
 +
; ''ei juo'' : "he doesn't drink"
 +
; ''emme juo'' : "we don't drink"
 +
; ''ette juo'' : "you all don't drink"
 +
; ''eivät juo'' : "they don't drink".}}
 +
 
 +
; Leave me alone! : Anna minun olla rauhassa! (''AHN-nah MEE-noon OHL-lah RAU-has-sah'')
 +
; Don't touch! : Älä koske! (''AL-ah KOHSS-keh!'')
 +
; I'll call the police. : Kutsun poliisin. (''KOOT-soon POH-lee-sin'')
 +
; Police! : Poliisi! (''POH-lee-see!'')
 +
; Stop! Thief! : Pysähdy! Varas! (''PUU-sa-duu! VAH-rahs!'')
 +
; I need your help. : Tarvitsen apuasi. (''TAHR-veet-sehn AH-poo-ah-see'')
 +
; It's an emergency. : Nyt on hätä. (''NUUT ohn HA-ta'')
 +
; I'm lost. : Olen eksynyt. (''OH-lehn EHK-suu-nuut'')
 +
; I lost my bag. : Laukkuni katosi. (''LAUK-koo-nee KAH-toh-see'')
 +
; I '...'')
 +
; no parking : ei pysäköintiä (''...'')
 +
; speed limit : nopeusrajoitus (''...'')
 +
; gas (''petrol'') station : bensa-asema (''...'')
 +
; petrol : bensiini (''...'')
 +
; diesel : diesel (''...'')
 +
 
 +
===Authority===
 +
; I haven't done anything wrong. : En ole tehnyt mitään väärää. (''...'')
 +
 
 +
; It was a misunderstanding. : Se oli väärinkäsitys. (''...'')
 +
; Where are you taking me? : Minne viette minut? (''...'')
 +
; Am I under arrest? : Olenko pidätetty? (''...'')
 +
; I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen. : Olen amerikkalainen/australialainen/britannian kansalainen/kanadalainen. (''...'')
 +
; I want to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate. : Haluan puhua USA:n (''oo-ass-ahn'') /Australian/Britannian/Kanadan konsulaatin kanssa. (''...'')
 +
; I want to talk to a lawyer. : Haluan puhua lakimiehelle. (''...'')
 +
; Can I just pay a fine now? : Voinko vain maksaa sakot nyt? (''...'')
 +
 
 +
You should note that in Finland you're not entitled to a phonecall, a search warrant, or to be set free on bail. However, the authorities must allow you to find a lawyer.
 +
 
 +
==Learning more==
 +
 
 +
===While in Finland===
 +
 
 +
The [http://www.helsinki.fi/ University of Helsinki] offers a highly popular [http://www.helsinki.fi/kksc/language.services/eng/kielikoulutus_2.html Finnish for Foreigners] program in six different skill levels, ranging from absolute beginner to advanced courses ending with language certification. Spring and Fall classes are offered in standard 1 unit ''(3 hrs/wk, 135 €)'' and intensive 2 unit ''(8 hrs/wk, 310 €)'' versions.
 +
 
 +
[http://www.kesayliopistot.fi/finncult.htm#study Summer courses] on Finnish language and culture are available at the major universities including [http://www.kesayliopistohki.fi/sivut/english Helsinki].
 +
 
 +
===Collegamenti esterni===
 +
*http://www.finlandese.net Ottimo sito in italiano.
 +
*http://www.bifrost.it/Lingue/Finlandese.html Sito in italiano.
 +
*http://www.vivafinlandia.com/lessico.htm Sito in italiano.
 +
*http://www.frasi.net/dizionari/finlandese-italiano/default.asp Dizionario italo-finlandese online.
 +
*http://www.henkimaa.nu/finndex/suomea/learning/tools.html Tools per imparare il finlandese. Il sito è in inglese.
 +
*http://donnerwetter.kielikeskus.helsinki.fi/finnishforforeigners/parts-index.htm Sito in inglese con esempi audio.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
[[WikiPedia:Lingua finlandese]]
 +
 
 +
[[Categoria:Frasari]]
 +
[[Categoria:Finlandia]]
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
[[de:Sprachführer Finnisch]]
 +
[[en:Finnish phrasebook]]
 +
[[fr:Guide linguistique finnois]]
 +
[[ja:フィンランド語会話集]]
 +
[[ru:Финский разговорник]]
 +
[[sv:Finsk parlör]]

Versione attuale delle 21:15, 25 apr 2014

Questa pagina non è ancora stata tradotta completamente dalla lingua inglese. Se puoi, terminala o riscrivila tu, eliminando il testo in lingua straniera quando hai finito. Non usare traduttori automatici! Per l'elenco completo delle altre pagine da tradurre dalla stessa lingua vedi la relativa categoria.
Nota: se non vedi il testo da tradurre potrebbe essere nascosto, fai clic su modifica per visualizzarlo.


Questo articolo fa parte della sezione: Tematiche turistiche.

Il Finlandese (suomen kieli) è parlato in Finlandia, e dai Finlandesi in altre zone, soprattutto in Scandinavia. La Finlandia ha due lingue ufficiali: il finlandese e lo svedese, e molti Finlandesi imparano tutte e due le lungue. Al contrario, pochissimi Svedesi e ancor meno stranieri imparano il Finlandese.

Indice

Capire[Modifica sezione]

Il finlandese è una lingua ugro-finnica e, quindi, del tutto estranea a quasi tutte le lingue parlate tra l'Irlanda e India. (In particolare, il Finlandese non ha niente in comune con lo Svedese, il Norvegese, il Danese o qualsiasi altra lingua scandinava, nè con il Russo, ad eccezione di parole prese in prestito da queste lingue. Le origini di questa lingua risalgono a 5000 anni dai popoli nomadi dei monti urali in russia migrati verso l'europa occidentale. Proprio di fronte al Golfo di Finlandia, si parla il parente più prossimo moderno alla lingua finlandese, l'Estone. Altre lingue simili sono il Sami, parlato in Lapponia e nella penisola di Murmansk, ae più lontano, l'ungherese.

Pronuncia[Modifica sezione]

Il Finlandese è abbastanza semplice da pronunciare: it has one of the most phonetic writing systems in the world, with only a small number of simple consonants and relatively few vowel sounds. Native English speakers tend to have the most problems with vowel length and the distinction between the front vowels (ä, ö, y) and back vowels (a, o, u). English does make the same distiction — consider the "a" sounds of father (back) and cat (front), or the difference in the "i" sound for bit (short) and beat (long) — but you will need to pay extra attention to it in Finnish.

In Finlandese tutte le vocali sono suoni singoli (o vocali "pure"). Nei dittonghi, i suoni delle singole vocali si conservano, anche se vengono leggermente fusi tra di loro per essere pronunciati in un solo "colpo". Le lettere doppie si pronunciano semplicemente allungate, ma la diffferanza tra suoni lunghi e corti è molto importante. Per esempio:

tuli → fuoco
tuuli → vento
tulli → dogana

L'alfabeto finlandese base è costituito dalle seguenti lettere:

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p r s t u v y z ä ö

Le lettere š e ž appaiono solo in alcuni prestiti linguistici e vengono pronunciate rispettivamente come la sc di scena e come la s nella parola inglese treasure. Anche la lettera w di incontra di rado, in alcuni nomi propri ed è pronunciata in maniera identica alla v. Infine, la lettera å ricorre in alcuni nomi propri svedesi e si pronuncia come "o", ma i principianti non devono preoccuparsi di questi dettagli.

Vocali[Modifica sezione]

The harmony of vowels

Finnish has an unusual feature called vowel harmony, which means that the front vowels (ä, ö, y) and the back vowels (a, o, u) can never be found in the same word. (Compound words don't count, and the mid-vowels i, e are OK anywhere.) This extends even into loanwords and conjugations: most Finns pronounce Olympia as olumpia, and suffixes with a bend into ä when necessary (jaajaata, jääjäätä).

Long vowels are indicated simply by doubling the vowel in question.

like a in father, but short and clipped
aa 
like a in father
like e in get
ee 
not found in English, but just stretch out the e sound
like i in bit
ii 
like ee in beet
like o in cod
oo 
like oo in door
like ou in would
uu 
like oo in moon
like German ü; similar to ew in few but with lips rounded (transcribed uu)
yy 
not found in English, but just stretch out the y sound
ä 
like a in cat
ää 
like a in bad
ö 
like German ö; similar to e in her (transcribed eu)
öö 
not found in English, but just stretch out the ö sound

Consonanti[Modifica sezione]

If a Finnish consonant is doubled, it should be pronounced with a brief glottal stop, meaning that your mouth is ready to say it but pauses for a moment. Hence mato (worm) is "MAto", but matto (carpet) is "MA'to".

b c d f 
pronounced as in English (not used in native Finnish words, except for d that is used in suffixes)
like g in get
like h in hotel; pronounced more strongly before a consonant
like y in yes
similar to English k, but unaspirated and slightly voiced
ks
pronounced as two separate syllables, not like the letter x.
l m n 
pronounced as in English
nk ng 
pronounced like ng in sing
similar to English p, but unaspirated and slightly voiced
trilled, as in Spanish perro
like ss in hiss
pronounced as in English
v w 
like v in vine
like ts in cats (not used in native Finnish words)

Stress and tone[Modifica sezione]

Word stress is always on the first syllable. There is no tone whatsoever in Finnish speech, just a long strings of monotone sounds. Foreigners tend to think this makes the language sound rather depressing; Finns, on the other hand, wonder why everybody else's languages sound so sing-songy.

Grammatica[Modifica sezione]

Finnish grammar is radically different from English (or any other Indo-European language), making Finnish a rather difficult language to master, and Finns love to regale foreigners with horror stories of compound words a mile long and verbs with seventeen suffixes tacked on. Basically, everything in a sentence (nouns, verbs, adjectives, pronouns) conjugates to indicate who is doing what, why, when and in what way, so constructing even a simple sentence requires lots of tweaking about:

I go to the shop. I quickly buy bread.
Menen kauppaan. Ostan nopeasti leipää.
go-I shop-to. buy-I quick-adverb bread-object.

Nouns can be conjugated in 14 different cases and there is a whole assortment of additional suffixes, leading to improbable but entirely grammatical monsters like talo ("house") → taloissammekinkohan ("also in our houses, perhaps?") or kala ("fish") → kalastajamaisuudettomuudellansakaan ("even by using his non-fisherman-likeness").

The good news is that most of these monstrosities are limited to formal written Finnish, and it's possible to "speak like Tarzan" (without conjugating anything) in subject-verb-object order like English and still be more or less understood. Minä mennä kauppa, minä nopea ostaa leipä (I go shop, I quick buy bread) will get you a zero in Finnish class, but it gets the message across.

And there are some minor consolations for the aspiring student: Finnish has no articles and no grammatical gender. Rules for conjugation are often complex, but at least they are very regular.

Phrase list[Modifica sezione]

Common signs


AUKI, AVOINNA 
Open
KIINNI, SULJETTU 
Closed
SISÄÄN
Entrance
ULOS 
Exit
TYÖNNÄ 
Push
VEDÄ 
Pull
WC 
Toilet
HERRAT, MIEHET 
Men
NAISET 
Women
KIELLETTY 
Forbidden

Phrases in the following phrase list use the informal singular (sinuttelu), which is by far the most common form in modern Finnish and appropriate for almost all situations a traveller might encounter.

Note: Due to the ease, specificity and regularity of Finnish pronunciation, the difficulty of transcribing long vowels, and the general inaccuracy of English-based phoneticizations, it is highly recommended you take a few minutes to learn the alphabet instead of relying on the phoneticizations. That being said, however, Finns are often quite excited to hear a foreigner attempt to speak the language and tend to be very forgiving of pronunciation blunders.

Basics[Modifica sezione]

Buongiorno
Hyvää päivää (HUU-vaa PIGH-vaa)
Ciao(informale
Moi (MOI), Hei (HAY), Terve (TEHR-veh)
Come stai? 
Mitä kuuluu? (MEE-ta KOO-loo?)
Bene, grazie. 
Kiitos, hyvää. (KEE-toss, HUU-vaa)
Come ti chiami? 
Mikä sinun nimesi on? (MEE-ka SEE-noon NEE-meh-see ohn?)
Mi chiamo ______ . 
Nimeni on ______ . (NEE-meh-nee ohn _____ .)
Piacere di conoscerti. 
Hauska tavata. (HOWS-kah TAH-vah-tah)

Pretty pretty please?

There is no easy way of politely making requests in Finnish, although starting requests with Saisinko... (Could I please have...) or Voisitko... (Could you please...) can often substitute. Better yet, just smile!

Perfavore. 
Olkaa hyvaa (" Ohlka-Huu-vaa")
Grazie. 
Kiitos. (KEE-tohss)
Prego. 
Ole hyvä (OH-lay HUU-va); Ei kestä. (AY KEHSS-ta)
Si 
Kyllä (KUUL-la), Joo (yoh)
No. 
Ei. (ay)
Mi scusi. (per attirare l'attenzione
Anteeksi (AHN-tehk-see)
Mi perdoni. (per scusarsi
Anteeksi (AHN-tehk-see)
Mi dispiace. 
Anteeksi (AHN-tehk-see)
Arrivederci
Näkemiin. (NAK-eh-meen.)
Arrivederci (informale
Hei hei (HAY-hay)
Non parlo finlandese
En puhu suomea. (EN POO-hoo SOO-oh-meh-ah)
Parli inglese? 
Puhutko englantia? (POO-hoot-koh EHNG-lahn-tee-ah?)
C'è qualcuno che parla inglese? 
Puhuuko kukaan täällä englantia? (POO-hoo-koh KOO-kahn TAAL-la EHNG-lahn-tee-ah?)
Aiuto! 
Apua! (AH-poo-ah!)
Attento! 
Varo! (VAH-roh!)
Buongiorno. 
Hyvää huomenta. (HUU-vaa HOO-oh-mehn-tah)
Buonasera. 
Hyvää iltaa. (HUU-vaa EEL-tah)
Buona notte. 
Hyvää yötä. (HUU-vaa UU-eu-ta)
Buonanotte (prima di dormire
Hyvää yötä. (HUU-vaa UU-eu-ta)
Non capisco. 
En ymmärrä (EN UUM-mar-ra)
Dov'è il bagno? 
Missä on vessa? (MEES-sa ohn VEHS-sah?)

Problems[Modifica sezione]

I no, you no, we all no

In Finnish, the word "no" — ei — is a verb, so it can be conjugated. Thus, if juo means "drink"...

en juo 
"I don't drink"
et juo 
"you don't drink"
ei juo 
"he doesn't drink"
emme juo 
"we don't drink"
ette juo 
"you all don't drink"
eivät juo 
"they don't drink".
Leave me alone! 
Anna minun olla rauhassa! (AHN-nah MEE-noon OHL-lah RAU-has-sah)
Don't touch! 
Älä koske! (AL-ah KOHSS-keh!)
I'll call the police. 
Kutsun poliisin. (KOOT-soon POH-lee-sin)
Police! 
Poliisi! (POH-lee-see!)
Stop! Thief! 
Pysähdy! Varas! (PUU-sa-duu! VAH-rahs!)
I need your help. 
Tarvitsen apuasi. (TAHR-veet-sehn AH-poo-ah-see)
It's an emergency. 
Nyt on hätä. (NUUT ohn HA-ta)
I'm lost. 
Olen eksynyt. (OH-lehn EHK-suu-nuut)
I lost my bag. 
Laukkuni katosi. (LAUK-koo-nee KAH-toh-see)
I '...)
no parking 
ei pysäköintiä (...)
speed limit 
nopeusrajoitus (...)
gas (petrol) station 
bensa-asema (...)
petrol 
bensiini (...)
diesel 
diesel (...)

Authority[Modifica sezione]

I haven't done anything wrong. 
En ole tehnyt mitään väärää. (...)
It was a misunderstanding. 
Se oli väärinkäsitys. (...)
Where are you taking me? 
Minne viette minut? (...)
Am I under arrest? 
Olenko pidätetty? (...)
I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen. 
Olen amerikkalainen/australialainen/britannian kansalainen/kanadalainen. (...)
I want to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate. 
Haluan puhua USA:n (oo-ass-ahn) /Australian/Britannian/Kanadan konsulaatin kanssa. (...)
I want to talk to a lawyer. 
Haluan puhua lakimiehelle. (...)
Can I just pay a fine now? 
Voinko vain maksaa sakot nyt? (...)

You should note that in Finland you're not entitled to a phonecall, a search warrant, or to be set free on bail. However, the authorities must allow you to find a lawyer.

Learning more[Modifica sezione]

While in Finland[Modifica sezione]

The University of Helsinki offers a highly popular Finnish for Foreigners program in six different skill levels, ranging from absolute beginner to advanced courses ending with language certification. Spring and Fall classes are offered in standard 1 unit (3 hrs/wk, 135 €) and intensive 2 unit (8 hrs/wk, 310 €) versions.

Summer courses on Finnish language and culture are available at the major universities including Helsinki.

Collegamenti esterni[Modifica sezione]

Varianti

Azioni

Docenti dell'articolo

In altre lingue

Altri siti