Zaandam is a middle sized city just north of the Dutch capital of Amsterdam. It is just a short journey from Amsterdam. Zaandam is part of the municipality of Zaanstad (consisting of 7 towns of which Zaandam is the biggest), in the region that is called the Zaanstreek (Zaan area).
Directly outside the train station Zaandam there is a shopping esplanade (currently being completely rebuilt), a bike rental, taxi's and a hotel. It takes a ten minutes walk through the rather dull shopping esplanade (called Gedempte Gracht) to get to the slightly more atmospheric area where you can find the pubs and restaurants. That area, with streets like the Zuiddijk and Prins Hendrikkade, is located at the waterfront of the river Zaan.
In all honesty, the centre of Zaandam is not very special, except for a few nice pubs and a venue with live music. So...
Explore the typical Dutch landscape with completely flat meadows and windmills around the city. The region (Zaanstreek) is possibly the oldest industrial area in the world (it was not driven by steam but by wind), and it shows in many old buildings.
Direct trains to Zaandam run twice every hour from Schiphol Airport. (These trains have destination Hoorn). In all other cases you can take any train with destination Amsterdam Centraal that stops at Amsterdam Sloterdijk and change there for Zaandam.
Zaandam is just two stops from Amsterdam Central Station. You pass through station Amsterdam Sloterdijk. Trains leave regularly 4-8 trains per hour) until 1 am.
If you are on to visit the Zaanse Schans open air museum, take the "Sprinter" train with destination Uitgeest (runs 4x per hour on weekdays, half-hourly on Saturdays and Sundays) and get off at Koog-Zaandijk railway station (4th stop). From here it is about 10 min.walk to the Zaanse Schans.
Take from the northern part of the circular road of Amsterdam (Ringweg A10) the A8 to Zaanstad/Zaandam, and just follow the signs.
Connexxion bus lines 92 and 94 run at least 4x per hour to Zaandam Centre (Peperstraat Bus Station) and Zaandam Railway Station. Bus line 91 runs from Amsterdam Central station to the Zaanse Schans open air museum.
If you are into culture, do visit the Zaanse Schans.