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Difference between revisions of "Yiddish phrasebook"

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Yiddish is spoken as a daily language in some parts of [[United States of America|America]], mostly in [[New York (city)|New York City]], and in some parts of [[Eastern Europe]]and [[South America]],as well as in [[Israel]]. It is slightly higher than standard [[German]], with a large admixture of words of Hebrew, Slavic, or unknown origin. German speakers can understand a large part of it.
+
'''Yiddish''' is spoken as a daily language in some parts of [[United States of America|America]], mostly in [[New York City]], and in some parts of [[Europe]], particularly [[Europe|Eastern Europe]], and [[South America]], as well as in [[Israel]]. It is slightly higher than standard [[German]], with a large admixture of words of Hebrew, Slavic, or other origin. As Yiddish is roughly 75% Germanic in origin, German speakers can understand a large part of it.
  
Yiddish is written with the same alphabet as Hebrew, and is written from right to left.
+
Yiddish is written with the same alphabet as Hebrew, with a few additional letters, and is written from right to left.
 
<!-- The following characters are used to make the question mark go at the end of the question:
 
<!-- The following characters are used to make the question mark go at the end of the question:
 
8234 0x202a left-to-right embedding
 
8234 0x202a left-to-right embedding
Line 9: Line 9:
  
 
==Pronunciation guide==
 
==Pronunciation guide==
The Hebrew alphabet consists entirely of consonants, though some are used as vowels in Yiddish. Hebrew words in which these are consonants are spelled with them as consonants in Yiddish. A few of the vowel points are used in Yiddish to distinguish e.g. ''a'' and ''o''.
+
Yiddish has several dialects which differ in their vowel sounds and certain vocabulary items.  Words of European origin are spelled out phonemically. On the other hand, words of Semitic (Hebrew and Aramaic) origin are written just as in the original Hebrew or Aramaic, without vowels.  In many cases, you must learn how to pronounce these words in Yiddish on a word-by-word basis; you cannot necessarily work it out from their spelling, and they are mostly pronounced differently from Israeli Hebrew.
  
Yiddish and Ashkenazi Hebrew have some differences from Sephardi and Israeli Hebrew: some ''a'' became ''o'' (German as well as Hebrew words, e.g. ''vos'' "what", ''olom'' "world, age"), and ''th'' became ''t'' in Sephardi, but ''s'' in Ashkenazi (''beys'' "house").
+
; א shtumer alef : silent; used before ו ''vov'' and י ''yud'' when they are vowels; e.g. '''א'''יר (ir) ''you'' subj.
 
+
; אַ pasekh alef : f'''a'''ther
In contrast to Hebrew which indicates the ''stop'' allophone of בגדכפת with a dot, Yiddish indicates the ''fricative'' allophone with a horizontal line.
+
; אָ komets aleph : '''o'''range
 
+
; ב beys : like '''b'''ear
Five letters (מנצפכ) have a different form at the end of a word (םןץףך, respectively). These are named by adding סופית (''sow-FEET'') "final" to the name of the letter, e.g. נון סופית.
+
; בֿ veys : like '''v'''olume; only used in words of Hebrew or Aramaic origin
 
+
; ג giml : like '''g'''one
; א aleph : f'''a'''ther, s'''o'''rt, or silent
+
; ד daled : like '''d'''og
; ב beth : like '''b'''ear or ma'''v'''en
+
; ה hey : like '''h'''arp
; ג gimel : like '''g'''one
+
; ו vov : like '''o'''r or t'''u'''ne
; ד daleth : like '''d'''u'''d'''e
+
; וּ melupm vov : used in place of ו ''vov'' when it appears beside װ ''tsvey vovn''
; ה he : like '''h'''arp; silent at the end of a word, unless it has a dot in it
+
; װ tsvey vovn : like '''v'''iolin
; ו vav : like '''v'''iolin; also '''o'''r or t'''u'''ne when used as a vowel
+
; ױ vov yud : like b'''oy'''
; ז zayin : like '''z'''any
+
; ז zayin : like '''z'''ebra
; ח cheth : voiceless gargle, i.e. like the scotish lo'''ch'''  
+
; ח khes : like the Scottish Gaelic lo'''ch''', German a'''ch''', or as in '''ח'''נוכּה ('''kh'''anuke); used only in words of Hebraic or Aramaic origin
; ט teth : like '''t'''uck
+
; ט tes : like '''t'''uck
; י yod : like '''y'''et; also s'''ay''' or hon'''ey''' when used as a vowel
+
; י yud : like '''y'''et (as a consonant) or '''i'''nternet (as a vowel)
; כ ך kaph : like '''k'''eep, or halfway between '''k'''eep and '''h'''eap
+
; יִ khirek yud : used beside another vowel instead of י ''yud'', to show that it is to be pronounced separately; e.g. י'''יִ'''דיש (yidish) ''Yiddish''
; ל lamedh : like '''l'''eave
+
; ײ tsvey yudn : like b'''ay'''
 +
; ײַ pasekh tsvey yudn : like p'''ie'''
 +
; כּ kof : like '''k'''eep; used only in words of Hebraic or Aramaic origin
 +
; כ ך khof : like lo'''ch'''
 +
; ל lamed : like '''l'''eave
 
; מ ם mem : like '''m'''other
 
; מ ם mem : like '''m'''other
 
; נ ן nun : like '''n'''ever
 
; נ ן nun : like '''n'''ever
 
; ס samekh : like '''s'''ome
 
; ס samekh : like '''s'''ome
; ע ayin : as in s'''e'''t or list'''e'''n
+
; ע ayin : like s'''e'''t  
; פ ף pe : like u'''p'''on or loo'''f'''a
+
; פּ pey : like u'''p'''on  
; צ ץ tsadi : like boo'''ts'''
+
; פֿ ף fey : like '''f'''ree
; ק qoph : like '''c'''oo, but further back in the throat
+
; צ ץ tsadek : like boo'''ts'''
; ר resh : voiced gargle as in French
+
; ק kuf : like '''c'''oo, but further back in the throat
; ש sin, shin : like '''sh'''oot or '''s'''eem
+
; ר reysh : voiced gargle as in French, can be pronounced as '''r'''oot
; ת tav : like '''t'''eeth or jui'''ce'''
+
; ש shin : '''sh''oe
 +
; שׂ sin : like '''s'''eem; only used in words of Hebrew or Aramaic origin
 +
; תּ tof : like '''t'''eeth; only used in words of Hebrew or Aramaic origin
 +
; ת sof : like '''s'''mooth; only used in words of hebrew or aramaic origin
  
 
==Phrase list==
 
==Phrase list==
Line 46: Line 53:
 
===Basics===
 
===Basics===
  
; Hello. : sholem-aleykhem. (שלום-עליכם)
+
; Hello. : שלום־עליכם (sholem-aleykhem)
; Hello (to you) (in response to a "Hello"). : aleykhem-sholem (עליכמ־שלום)
+
; Hello (in response to a "Hello") : עליכם־שלום (aleykhem-sholem)
; How are you? : (...)
+
; How are you? : װאָס מאַכסטו? (Vos makhstu?) (informal) / װאָס מאַכט איר? (Vos makht ir?) (formal)
; Fine, thank you. : (...)
+
; Fine, thank you. : גוט, אַ דאַנק (Gut, a dank) גאָט צו דאַנקן (Got tsu danken) ברוך השם (Borukh Hashem)
; What is your name? : (...)
+
; What is your name? : װי הײסטו? (Vi heystu? [informal])/ װי הײסט איר?(Vi heyst ir? [formal])
; My name is ______ . : (...).
+
; My name is ______ . : איך הײס (Ikh heys ______.)
; Nice to meet you. : (...).
+
; Nice to meet you. : עס פֿרײַט מיר זיך צו קענען אײַך (Es frayt mir zikh tsu kenen aykh [formal]) עס פֿרײַט מיר זיך צו טרעפֿן דיך (Es frayt mir zikh tsu trefen dikh.)
; Please. : (...)  
+
; Please. : זײַט אַזױ גוט (Zayt azoy gut.)
; Thank you. : (...)
+
; Thank you. : אַ דאַנק (A dank.)
; You're welcome. : (...)
+
; You're welcome : נישטאָ פֿאַרװאָס (nishto farvos)
; Yes. : yo (יא)
+
; Yes. : יאָ (yo)
; No. : neyn. (נײן)
+
; No. : נײן (neyn)
; Excuse me. (''getting attention'') :  
+
; Excuse me. (''getting attention'') : ענטשולדיק (Entshuldik!)
; Excuse me. (''begging pardon'') :  
+
; Excuse me. (''begging pardon'') : זײַט זשע מוחל (Zayt zhe moykhl! )
; I'm sorry. :  
+
; I'm sorry. : Zayt mir moykhl (formal) זײַ מיר מוחל (Zay mir moykhl [informal].)
; Goodbye :  
+
; Goodbye : זײַ געזונט (Zay gezunt) אַ גרוס אין דער הײם (A grus in der heym.)
; Goodbye (''informal'') :  
+
; Goodbye (''informal'') : אַ גוטן (A gutn.)
; I can't speak Yiddish [well]. : .
+
; I can't speak Yiddish [well]. : (איך רעד נישט קײן אידיש (גוט (Ikh red nisht keyn Yidish (gut).)
; Do you speak English? :  
+
; Do you speak English? : רעדסטו ענגליש Redstu English? (informal)/ רעדט איר ענגליש Redt ir English? (formal)
;  Is there someone here who speaks English? :  
+
;  Is there someone here who speaks English? : איז עס דאָ עמעץ װאָס רעדט ענגליש Iz es do emetz vos redt english?
; Help! : oyshelfn!
+
; Help! : הילף Hilf! גװאַלד Gvald!
; Good morning. : .
+
; Good morning. : גוטן מאָרגן Gutn morgn.
; Good evening. : .
+
; Good evening. : גאָטן אָװענט Gutn ovent.
; Good night. : Gabon.
+
; Good night : אַ גוטע נאַכט A gute nakht.
; Good night (''to sleep'') : A gute nakht.
+
; I don't understand. : איך פֿאַרשטײ נישט (ikh farshtey nisht)
; I don't understand. :  
+
; Where is the toilet? : װוּ איז דער באָדצימער/דער װאַנעצימער Vu iz der bodtsimer?/ der vanetsimer?
; Where is the toilet? :
+
 
 +
===Problems===
 +
 
 +
; Leave me alone. :  . ('' .'')
 +
; Don't touch me! :  ! ('' !'')
 +
; I'll call the police. : . ('' .'')
 +
; Police! : ! ('' !'')
 +
; Stop! Thief! : ! ! ('' ! !'')
 +
; I need your help. : . ('' .'')
 +
; It's an emergency. : . ('' .'')
 +
; I'm lost. :  . ('' .'')
 +
; I lost my bag. :  . ('' .'')
 +
; I lost my wallet. :  . ('' .'')
 +
; I'm sick. :  . ('' .'')
 +
; I've been injured. :  . ('' .'')
 +
; I need a doctor. :  . ('' .'')
 +
; Can I use your phone? : ? ('' ?'')
 +
 
 +
===Numbers===
 +
 
 +
; 1 :  (''eyn'')
 +
; 2 :  (''tsvey'')
 +
; 3 :  (''dray'')
 +
; 4 :  (''fir'')
 +
; 5 :  (''finf'')
 +
; 6 :  (''zeks'')
 +
; 7 :  (''zibm'')
 +
; 8 :  (''akht'')
 +
; 9 :  (''nayn'')
 +
; 10 :  (''tsen'')
 +
; 11 :  (''elf'')
 +
; 12 :  (''tsvelf'')
 +
; 13 :  (''draytsn'')
 +
; 14 :  (''fertsn'')
 +
; 15 :  (''fuftsn'')
 +
; 16 :  (''zektsn'')
 +
; 17 :  (''zebetsn'')
 +
; 18 :  (''akhtsn'')
 +
; 19 :  (''nayntsn'')
 +
; 20 :  (''tsvantsik'')
 +
; 21 :  (''eynontsvantsik '')
 +
; 22 :  (''tsveyontsvansik'')
 +
; 23 :  (''drayontsvansik'')
 +
; 30 :  (''draysik'')
 +
; 40 :  (''fertsik'')
 +
; 50 :  (''fuftsik'')
 +
; 60 :  (''zektsik'')
 +
; 70 :  (''zibetsik'')
 +
; 80 :  (''akhtsik'')
 +
; 90 :  (''nayntsik'')
 +
; 100 :  (''hundert'')
 +
; 200 :  (''tsvey hundert'')
 +
; 300 :  (''dray hundert'')
 +
; 1,000 :  (''toyznt'')
 +
; 2,000 :  ('' '')
 +
; 1,000,000 :  ('' '')
 +
; 1,000,000,000 :  ('' '')
 +
; 1,000,000,000,000 :  ('' '')
 +
; number _____ (train, bus, etc.) : ('' '')
 +
; half : ('' '')
 +
; less : ('' '')
 +
; more : ('' '')
 +
 
 +
===Time===
 +
 
 +
; now :  ('' '')
 +
; later :  ('' '')
 +
; before :  ('' '')
 +
; morning :  ('' '')
 +
; afternoon :  ('' '')
 +
; evening :  ('' '')
 +
; night ('' '')
 +
 
 +
====Clock time====
 +
 
 +
; one o'clock AM :  ('' '')
 +
; two o'clock AM :  ('' '')
 +
; noon :  (''mitogtsayt '')
 +
; one o'clock PM :  ('' '')
 +
; two o'clock PM :  ('' '')
 +
; midnight :  (''mittennakht, khtsos, di halbe nakht '')
 +
 
 +
====Duration====
 +
 
 +
; _____ minute(s) :  (''minut - מינוט '')
 +
; _____ hour(s) :  (''sho - שעה '')
 +
; _____ day(s) :  (''tog - teg [plural])  - (טעג ,טאָג '')
 +
; _____ week(s) :  (''vokh - vokhn [plural]) - װאָכן ,װאָך '')
 +
; _____ month(s) :  (''khoydesh - khadoshim [plural]) -  חודשים  ,חודש'')
 +
; _____ year(s) :  (''yor - yorns [plural])  - יאָרן , יאָר '')
 +
 
 +
====Days====
 +
; today :  ('' '')
 +
; yesterday :  ('' '')
 +
; tomorrow :  ('' '')
 +
; this week :  ('' '')
 +
; last week :  ('' '')
 +
; next week :  ('' '')
 +
 
 +
; Sunday :  ('' '')
 +
; Monday :  ('' '')
 +
; Tuesday :  ('' '')
 +
; Wednesday :  ('' '')
 +
; Thursday :  ('' '')
 +
; Friday :  ('' '')
 +
; Saturday :  ('' '')
 +
 
 +
====Months====
 +
 
 +
<!--If speakers of the language commonly use a calendar other than the Gregorian, explain it here and list its months. See [[Hebrew phrasebook]] for an example.-->
 +
 
 +
; January :  ('' '')
 +
; February :  ('' '')
 +
; March :  ('' '')
 +
; April :  ('' '')
 +
; May :  ('' '')
 +
; June :  ('' '')
 +
; July :  ('' '')
 +
; August :  ('' '')
 +
; September :  ('' '')
 +
; October :  ('' '')
 +
; November :  ('' '')
 +
; December :  ('' '')
 +
 
 +
====Writing time and date====
 +
<!--Give some examples how to write clock times and dates if it differs from English.-->
 +
 
 +
===Colors===
 +
As with many words in Yiddish, colors often have different names due to a difference in dialect.  The following colors will be named in both romanized Yiddish, followed by a hyphen (-) and the Yiddish spelling using the Hebraic alphabet.
 +
 
 +
; black :  (''schvarts) -  (שוואַרץ '')
 +
; white : (''vays)  -  (ווײַס'')
 +
; gray :  (''gro, groy)  -  (גרוי, גראָ '')
 +
; red :  (''royt)  -  (רויט '')
 +
; blue :  (''blo, bloy )  -  (בלוי ,בלאָ '')
 +
; yellow :  (''gel)  -  (געל '')
 +
; green :  (''green) -  (גרין '')
 +
; orange :  (''marants)  -  (מאַראַנץ '')
 +
; purple :  (''lila)  -  (לילאַ '')
 +
; brown :  (''broyn)  -  (ברוין) '')
 +
 
 +
===Transportation===
 +
 
 +
====Bus and train====
 +
; How much is a ticket to _____? :  ('' '')
 +
; One ticket to _____, please. :  ('' '')
 +
; Where does this train/bus go? :  ('' '')
 +
; Where is the train/bus to _____? :  ('' '')
 +
; Does this train/bus stop in _____? :  ('' '')
 +
; When does the train/bus for _____ leave? :  ('' '')
 +
; When will this train/bus arrive in _____? :  ('' '')
 +
 
 +
====Directions====
 +
; How do I get to _____ ? :  ('' '')
 +
; ...the train station? :  ('' '')
 +
; ...the bus station? :  ('' '')
 +
; ...the airport? :  ('' '')
 +
; ...downtown? :  ('' '')
 +
; ...the youth hostel? :  ('' '')
 +
; ...the _____ hotel? :  ('' '')
 +
; ...the American/Canadian/Australian/British consulate? :  ('' '')
 +
; Where are there a lot of... :  ('' '')
 +
; ...hotels? :  ('' '')
 +
; ...restaurants? :  ('' '')
 +
; ...bars? :  ('' '')
 +
; ...sites to see? :  ('' '')
 +
; Can you show me on the map? :  ('' '')
 +
; street :  ('' '')
 +
; Turn left. :  ('' '')
 +
; Turn right. :  ('' '')
 +
; left :  ('' '')
 +
; right :  ('' '')
 +
; straight ahead :  ('' '')
 +
; towards the _____ :  ('' '')
 +
; past the _____ :  ('' '')
 +
; before the _____ :  ('' '')
 +
; Watch for the _____. :  ('' '')
 +
; intersection :  ('' '')
 +
; north :  ('' '')
 +
; south :  ('' '')
 +
; east :  ('' '')
 +
; west :  ('' '')
 +
; uphill :  ('' '')
 +
; downhill :  ('' '')
 +
 
 +
====Taxi====
 +
; Taxi! :  ('' '')
 +
; Take me to _____, please. :  ('' '')
 +
; How much does it cost to get to _____? :  ('' '')
 +
; Take me there, please. :  ('' '')
 +
 
 +
===Lodging===
 +
 
 +
; Do you have any rooms available? :  ('' '')
 +
; How much is a room for one person/two people? :  ('' '')
 +
; Does the room come with... :  ('' '')
 +
; ...bedsheets? :  ('' '')
 +
; ...a bathroom? :  ('' '')
 +
; ...a telephone? :  ('' '')
 +
; ...a TV? :  ('' '')
 +
; May I see the room first? :  ('' '')
 +
; Do you have anything quieter? :  ('' '')
 +
; ...bigger? :  ('' '')
 +
; ...cleaner? :  ('' '')
 +
; ...cheaper? :  ('' '')
 +
; OK, I'll take it. :  ('' '')
 +
; I will stay for _____ night(s). :  ('' '')
 +
; Can you suggest another hotel? :  ('' '')
 +
; Do you have a safe? :  ('' '')
 +
; ...lockers? :  ('' '')
 +
; Is breakfast/supper included? :  ('' '')
 +
; What time is breakfast/supper? :  ('' '')
 +
; Please clean my room. :  ('' '')
 +
; Can you wake me at _____? :  ('' '')
 +
; I want to check out. :  ('' '')
 +
 
 +
===Money===
 +
 
 +
; Do you accept American/Australian/Canadian dollars? :  ('' '')
 +
; Do you accept British pounds? :  ('' '')
 +
; Do you accept Euros? :  ('' '')
 +
; Do you accept credit cards? :  ('' '')
 +
; Can you change money for me? :  ('' '')
 +
; Where can I get money changed? :  ('' '')
 +
; Can you change a traveler's check for me? :  ('' '')
 +
; Where can I get a traveler's check changed? :  ('' '')
 +
; What is the exchange rate? :  ('' '')
 +
; Where is an automatic teller machine (ATM)? :  ('' '')
 +
 
 +
===Eating===
 +
; A table for one person/two people, please. :  ('' '')
 +
; Can I look at the menu, please? :  ('' '')
 +
; Can I look in the kitchen? :  ('' '')
 +
; Is there a house specialty? :  ('' '')
 +
; Is there a local specialty? :  ('' '')
 +
; I'm a vegetarian. :  ('' '')
 +
; I don't eat pork. : ('' '')
 +
; I don't eat beef. :  ('' '')
 +
; I only eat kosher food. :  ('' '')
 +
; Can you make it "lite", please? (''less oil/butter/lard'') :  ('' '')
 +
; fixed-price meal :  ('' '')
 +
; a la carte :  ('' '')
 +
; breakfast :  ('' '')
 +
; lunch :  ('' '')
 +
; tea (''meal'') :  ('' '')
 +
; supper :  ('' '')
 +
; I want _____. :  ('' '')
 +
; I want a dish containing _____. :  ('' '')
 +
; chicken :  ('' '')
 +
; beef :  ('' '')
 +
; fish :  ('' '')
 +
; ham :  ('' '')
 +
; sausage :  ('' '')
 +
; cheese :  ('' '')
 +
; eggs :  ('' '')
 +
; salad :  ('' '')
 +
; (fresh) vegetables :  ('' '')
 +
; (fresh) fruit :  ('' '')
 +
; bread :  ('' '')
 +
; toast :  ('' '')
 +
; noodles :  ('' '')
 +
; rice :  ('' '')
 +
; beans :  ('' '')
 +
; May I have a glass of _____? :  ('' '')
 +
; May I have a cup of _____? :  ('' '')
 +
; May I have a bottle of _____? :  ('' '')
 +
; coffee :  ('' '')
 +
; tea (''drink'') :  ('' '')
 +
; juice :  ('' '')
 +
; (bubbly) water :  ('' '')
 +
; (still) water :  ('' '')
 +
; beer :  ('' '')
 +
; red/white wine :  ('' '')
 +
; May I have some _____? :  ('' '')
 +
; salt :  ('' '')
 +
; black pepper :  ('' '')
 +
; butter :  ('' '')
 +
; Excuse me, waiter? (''getting attention of server''):  ('' '')
 +
; I'm finished. :  ('' '')
 +
; It was delicious. :  ('' '')
 +
; Please clear the plates. :  ('' '')
 +
; The check, please. :  ('' '')
 +
 
 +
===Bars===
 +
; Do you serve alcohol? :  ('' '')
 +
; Is there table service? :  ('' '')
 +
; A beer/two beers, please. :  ('' '')
 +
; A glass of red/white wine, please. :  ('' '')
 +
; A pint, please. :  ('' '')
 +
; A bottle, please. :  ('' '')
 +
; _____ (''hard liquor'') and _____ (''mixer''), please. :  ('' '')
 +
; whiskey :  ('' '')
 +
; vodka :  ('' '')
 +
; rum :  ('' '')
 +
; water :  ('' '')
 +
; club soda :  ('' '')
 +
; tonic water :  ('' '')
 +
; orange juice :  ('' '')
 +
; Coke (''soda'') :  ('' '')
 +
; Do you have any bar snacks? :  ('' '')
 +
; One more, please. :  ('' '')
 +
; Another round, please. :  ('' '')
 +
; When is closing time? :  ('' '')
 +
; Cheers! :  ('' '')
 +
 
 +
===Shopping===
 +
; Do you have this in my size? :  ('' '')
 +
; How much is this? :  ('' '')
 +
; That's too expensive. :  ('' '')
 +
; Would you take _____? :  ('' '')
 +
; expensive :  ('' '')
 +
; cheap :  ('' '')
 +
; I can't afford it. :  ('' '')
 +
; I don't want it. :  ('' '')
 +
; You're cheating me. :  ('' '')
 +
; I'm not interested. :  (..)
 +
; OK, I'll take it. :  ('' '')
 +
; Can I have a bag? :  ('' '')
 +
; Do you ship (overseas)? :  ('' '')
 +
; I need... :  ('' '')
 +
; ...toothpaste. :  ('' '')
 +
; ...a toothbrush. :  ('' '')
 +
; ...tampons. : . ('' '')
 +
; ...soap. :  ('' '')
 +
; ...shampoo. :  ('' '')
 +
; ...pain reliever. (''e.g., aspirin or ibuprofen'') :  ('' '')
 +
; ...cold medicine. :  ('' '')
 +
; ...stomach medicine. : ... ('' '')
 +
; ...a razor. :  ('' '')
 +
; ...an umbrella. :  ('' '')
 +
; ...sunblock lotion. :  ('' '')
 +
; ...a postcard. :  ('' '')
 +
; ...postage stamps. :  ('' '')
 +
; ...batteries. :  ('' '')
 +
; ...writing paper. :  ('' '')
 +
; ...a pen. :  ('' '')
 +
; ...English-language books. :  ('' '')
 +
; ...English-language magazines. :  ('' '')
 +
; ...an English-language newspaper. :  ('' '')
 +
; ...an English-English dictionary. :  ('' '')
 +
 
 +
===Driving===
 +
; I want to rent a car. :  ('' '')
 +
; Can I get insurance? :  ('' '')
 +
; stop (''on a street sign'') :  ('' '')
 +
; one way :  ('' '')
 +
; yield :  ('' '')
 +
; no parking :  ('' '')
 +
; speed limit :  ('' '')
 +
; gas (''petrol'') station :  ('' '')
 +
; petrol :  ('' '')
 +
; diesel :  ('' '')
 +
 
 +
===Authority===
 +
 
 +
; I haven't done anything wrong. :  ('' '')
 +
; It was a misunderstanding. :  ('' '')
 +
; Where are you taking me? :  ('' '')
 +
; Am I under arrest? :  ('' '')
 +
; I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen. :  ('' '')
 +
; I want to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate. :  ('' '')
 +
; I want to talk to a lawyer. :  ('' '')
 +
; Can I just pay a fine now? : ('' '')
 +
 
 +
==Learning more==
 +
 
 +
{{Outlinephrasebook}}
 +
{{phrasebookguide}}

Revision as of 10:35, 3 February 2011

Yiddish is spoken as a daily language in some parts of America, mostly in New York City, and in some parts of Europe, particularly Eastern Europe, and South America, as well as in Israel. It is slightly higher than standard German, with a large admixture of words of Hebrew, Slavic, or other origin. As Yiddish is roughly 75% Germanic in origin, German speakers can understand a large part of it.

Yiddish is written with the same alphabet as Hebrew, with a few additional letters, and is written from right to left.

Contents

Pronunciation guide

Yiddish has several dialects which differ in their vowel sounds and certain vocabulary items. Words of European origin are spelled out phonemically. On the other hand, words of Semitic (Hebrew and Aramaic) origin are written just as in the original Hebrew or Aramaic, without vowels. In many cases, you must learn how to pronounce these words in Yiddish on a word-by-word basis; you cannot necessarily work it out from their spelling, and they are mostly pronounced differently from Israeli Hebrew.

א shtumer alef 
silent; used before ו vov and י yud when they are vowels; e.g. איר (ir) you subj.
אַ pasekh alef 
father
אָ komets aleph 
orange
ב beys 
like bear
בֿ veys 
like volume; only used in words of Hebrew or Aramaic origin
ג giml 
like gone
ד daled 
like dog
ה hey 
like harp
ו vov 
like or or tune
וּ melupm vov 
used in place of ו vov when it appears beside װ tsvey vovn
װ tsvey vovn 
like violin
ױ vov yud 
like boy
ז zayin 
like zebra
ח khes 
like the Scottish Gaelic loch, German ach, or as in חנוכּה (khanuke); used only in words of Hebraic or Aramaic origin
ט tes 
like tuck
י yud 
like yet (as a consonant) or internet (as a vowel)
יִ khirek yud 
used beside another vowel instead of י yud, to show that it is to be pronounced separately; e.g. ייִדיש (yidish) Yiddish
ײ tsvey yudn 
like bay
ײַ pasekh tsvey yudn 
like pie
כּ kof 
like keep; used only in words of Hebraic or Aramaic origin
כ ך khof 
like loch
ל lamed 
like leave
מ ם mem 
like mother
נ ן nun 
like never
ס samekh 
like some
ע ayin 
like set
פּ pey 
like upon
פֿ ף fey 
like free
צ ץ tsadek 
like boots
ק kuf 
like coo, but further back in the throat
ר reysh 
voiced gargle as in French, can be pronounced as root
ש shin 
'shoe
שׂ sin 
like seem; only used in words of Hebrew or Aramaic origin
תּ tof 
like teeth; only used in words of Hebrew or Aramaic origin
ת sof 
like smooth; only used in words of hebrew or aramaic origin

Phrase list

Some phrases in this phrasebook still need to be translated. If you know anything about this language, you can help by plunging forward and translating a phrase.


Basics

Hello. 
שלום־עליכם (sholem-aleykhem)
Hello (in response to a "Hello") 
עליכם־שלום (aleykhem-sholem)
How are you? 
װאָס מאַכסטו? (Vos makhstu?) (informal) / װאָס מאַכט איר? (Vos makht ir?) (formal)
Fine, thank you. 
גוט, אַ דאַנק (Gut, a dank) גאָט צו דאַנקן (Got tsu danken) ברוך השם (Borukh Hashem)
What is your name? 
װי הײסטו? (Vi heystu? [informal])/ װי הײסט איר?(Vi heyst ir? [formal])
My name is ______ . 
איך הײס (Ikh heys ______.)
Nice to meet you. 
עס פֿרײַט מיר זיך צו קענען אײַך (Es frayt mir zikh tsu kenen aykh [formal]) עס פֿרײַט מיר זיך צו טרעפֿן דיך (Es frayt mir zikh tsu trefen dikh.)
Please. 
זײַט אַזױ גוט (Zayt azoy gut.)
Thank you. 
אַ דאַנק (A dank.)
You're welcome 
נישטאָ פֿאַרװאָס (nishto farvos)
Yes. 
יאָ (yo)
No. 
נײן (neyn)
Excuse me. (getting attention
ענטשולדיק (Entshuldik!)
Excuse me. (begging pardon
זײַט זשע מוחל (Zayt zhe moykhl! )
I'm sorry. 
Zayt mir moykhl (formal) זײַ מיר מוחל (Zay mir moykhl [informal].)
Goodbye 
זײַ געזונט (Zay gezunt) אַ גרוס אין דער הײם (A grus in der heym.)
Goodbye (informal
אַ גוטן (A gutn.)
I can't speak Yiddish [well]. 
(איך רעד נישט קײן אידיש (גוט (Ikh red nisht keyn Yidish (gut).)
Do you speak English? 
רעדסטו ענגליש Redstu English? (informal)/ רעדט איר ענגליש Redt ir English? (formal)
Is there someone here who speaks English? 
איז עס דאָ עמעץ װאָס רעדט ענגליש Iz es do emetz vos redt english?
Help! 
הילף Hilf! גװאַלד Gvald!
Good morning. 
גוטן מאָרגן Gutn morgn.
Good evening. 
גאָטן אָװענט Gutn ovent.
Good night 
אַ גוטע נאַכט A gute nakht.
I don't understand. 
איך פֿאַרשטײ נישט (ikh farshtey nisht)
Where is the toilet? 
װוּ איז דער באָדצימער/דער װאַנעצימער Vu iz der bodtsimer?/ der vanetsimer?

Problems

Leave me alone. 
. ( .)
Don't touch me! 
 ! ( !)
I'll call the police. 
. ( .)
Police! 
 ! ( !)
Stop! Thief! 
 ! ! ( ! !)
I need your help. 
. ( .)
It's an emergency. 
. ( .)
I'm lost. 
. ( .)
I lost my bag. 
. ( .)
I lost my wallet. 
. ( .)
I'm sick. 
. ( .)
I've been injured. 
. ( .)
I need a doctor. 
. ( .)
Can I use your phone? 
 ? ( ?)

Numbers

(eyn)
(tsvey)
(dray)
(fir)
(finf)
(zeks)
(zibm)
(akht)
(nayn)
10 
(tsen)
11 
(elf)
12 
(tsvelf)
13 
(draytsn)
14 
(fertsn)
15 
(fuftsn)
16 
(zektsn)
17 
(zebetsn)
18 
(akhtsn)
19 
(nayntsn)
20 
(tsvantsik)
21 
(eynontsvantsik )
22 
(tsveyontsvansik)
23 
(drayontsvansik)
30 
(draysik)
40 
(fertsik)
50 
(fuftsik)
60 
(zektsik)
70 
(zibetsik)
80 
(akhtsik)
90 
(nayntsik)
100 
(hundert)
200 
(tsvey hundert)
300 
(dray hundert)
1,000 
(toyznt)
2,000 
( )
1,000,000 
( )
1,000,000,000 
( )
1,000,000,000,000 
( )
number _____ (train, bus, etc.) 
( )
half 
( )
less 
( )
more 
( )

Time

now 
( )
later 
( )
before 
( )
morning 
( )
afternoon 
( )
evening 
( )
night 
( )

Clock time

one o'clock AM 
( )
two o'clock AM 
( )
noon 
(mitogtsayt )
one o'clock PM 
( )
two o'clock PM 
( )
midnight 
(mittennakht, khtsos, di halbe nakht )

Duration

_____ minute(s) 
(minut - מינוט )
_____ hour(s) 
(sho - שעה )
_____ day(s) 
(tog - teg [plural]) - (טעג ,טאָג )
_____ week(s) 
(vokh - vokhn [plural]) - װאָכן ,װאָך )
_____ month(s) 
(khoydesh - khadoshim [plural]) - חודשים ,חודש)
_____ year(s) 
(yor - yorns [plural]) - יאָרן , יאָר )

Days

today 
( )
yesterday 
( )
tomorrow 
( )
this week 
( )
last week 
( )
next week 
( )
Sunday 
( )
Monday 
( )
Tuesday 
( )
Wednesday 
( )
Thursday 
( )
Friday 
( )
Saturday 
( )

Months

January 
( )
February 
( )
March 
( )
April 
( )
May 
( )
June 
( )
July 
( )
August 
( )
September 
( )
October 
( )
November 
( )
December 
( )

Writing time and date

Colors

As with many words in Yiddish, colors often have different names due to a difference in dialect. The following colors will be named in both romanized Yiddish, followed by a hyphen (-) and the Yiddish spelling using the Hebraic alphabet.

black 
(schvarts) - (שוואַרץ )
white 
(vays) - (ווײַס)
gray 
(gro, groy) - (גרוי, גראָ )
red 
(royt) - (רויט )
blue 
(blo, bloy ) - (בלוי ,בלאָ )
yellow 
(gel) - (געל )
green 
(green) - (גרין )
orange 
(marants) - (מאַראַנץ )
purple 
(lila) - (לילאַ )
brown 
(broyn) - (ברוין) )

Transportation

Bus and train

How much is a ticket to _____? 
( )
One ticket to _____, please. 
( )
Where does this train/bus go? 
( )
Where is the train/bus to _____? 
( )
Does this train/bus stop in _____? 
( )
When does the train/bus for _____ leave? 
( )
When will this train/bus arrive in _____? 
( )

Directions

How do I get to _____ ? 
( )
...the train station? 
( )
...the bus station? 
( )
...the airport? 
( )
...downtown? 
( )
...the youth hostel? 
( )
...the _____ hotel? 
( )
...the American/Canadian/Australian/British consulate? 
( )
Where are there a lot of... 
( )
...hotels? 
( )
...restaurants? 
( )
...bars? 
( )
...sites to see? 
( )
Can you show me on the map? 
( )
street 
( )
Turn left. 
( )
Turn right. 
( )
left 
( )
right 
( )
straight ahead 
( )
towards the _____ 
( )
past the _____ 
( )
before the _____ 
( )
Watch for the _____. 
( )
intersection 
( )
north 
( )
south 
( )
east 
( )
west 
( )
uphill 
( )
downhill 
( )

Taxi

Taxi! 
( )
Take me to _____, please. 
( )
How much does it cost to get to _____? 
( )
Take me there, please. 
( )

Lodging

Do you have any rooms available? 
( )
How much is a room for one person/two people? 
( )
Does the room come with... 
( )
...bedsheets? 
( )
...a bathroom? 
( )
...a telephone? 
( )
...a TV? 
( )
May I see the room first? 
( )
Do you have anything quieter? 
( )
...bigger? 
( )
...cleaner? 
( )
...cheaper? 
( )
OK, I'll take it. 
( )
I will stay for _____ night(s). 
( )
Can you suggest another hotel? 
( )
Do you have a safe? 
( )
...lockers? 
( )
Is breakfast/supper included? 
( )
What time is breakfast/supper? 
( )
Please clean my room. 
( )
Can you wake me at _____? 
( )
I want to check out. 
( )

Money

Do you accept American/Australian/Canadian dollars? 
( )
Do you accept British pounds? 
( )
Do you accept Euros? 
( )
Do you accept credit cards? 
( )
Can you change money for me? 
( )
Where can I get money changed? 
( )
Can you change a traveler's check for me? 
( )
Where can I get a traveler's check changed? 
( )
What is the exchange rate? 
( )
Where is an automatic teller machine (ATM)? 
( )

Eating

A table for one person/two people, please. 
( )
Can I look at the menu, please? 
( )
Can I look in the kitchen? 
( )
Is there a house specialty? 
( )
Is there a local specialty? 
( )
I'm a vegetarian. 
( )
I don't eat pork. 
( )
I don't eat beef. 
( )
I only eat kosher food. 
( )
Can you make it "lite", please? (less oil/butter/lard
( )
fixed-price meal 
( )
a la carte 
( )
breakfast 
( )
lunch 
( )
tea (meal
( )
supper 
( )
I want _____. 
( )
I want a dish containing _____. 
( )
chicken 
( )
beef 
( )
fish 
( )
ham 
( )
sausage 
( )
cheese 
( )
eggs 
( )
salad 
( )
(fresh) vegetables 
( )
(fresh) fruit 
( )
bread 
( )
toast 
( )
noodles 
( )
rice 
( )
beans 
( )
May I have a glass of _____? 
( )
May I have a cup of _____? 
( )
May I have a bottle of _____? 
( )
coffee 
( )
tea (drink
( )
juice 
( )
(bubbly) water 
( )
(still) water 
( )
beer 
( )
red/white wine 
( )
May I have some _____? 
( )
salt 
( )
black pepper 
( )
butter 
( )
Excuse me, waiter? (getting attention of server)
( )
I'm finished. 
( )
It was delicious. 
( )
Please clear the plates. 
( )
The check, please. 
( )

Bars

Do you serve alcohol? 
( )
Is there table service? 
( )
A beer/two beers, please. 
( )
A glass of red/white wine, please. 
( )
A pint, please. 
( )
A bottle, please. 
( )
_____ (hard liquor) and _____ (mixer), please. 
( )
whiskey 
( )
vodka 
( )
rum 
( )
water 
( )
club soda 
( )
tonic water 
( )
orange juice 
( )
Coke (soda
( )
Do you have any bar snacks? 
( )
One more, please. 
( )
Another round, please. 
( )
When is closing time? 
( )
Cheers! 
( )

Shopping

Do you have this in my size? 
( )
How much is this? 
( )
That's too expensive. 
( )
Would you take _____? 
( )
expensive 
( )
cheap 
( )
I can't afford it. 
( )
I don't want it. 
( )
You're cheating me. 
( )
I'm not interested. 
(..)
OK, I'll take it. 
( )
Can I have a bag? 
( )
Do you ship (overseas)? 
( )
I need... 
( )
...toothpaste. 
( )
...a toothbrush. 
( )
...tampons. 
. ( )
...soap. 
( )
...shampoo. 
( )
...pain reliever. (e.g., aspirin or ibuprofen
( )
...cold medicine. 
( )
...stomach medicine. 
... ( )
...a razor. 
( )
...an umbrella. 
( )
...sunblock lotion. 
( )
...a postcard. 
( )
...postage stamps. 
( )
...batteries. 
( )
...writing paper. 
( )
...a pen. 
( )
...English-language books. 
( )
...English-language magazines. 
( )
...an English-language newspaper. 
( )
...an English-English dictionary. 
( )

Driving

I want to rent a car. 
( )
Can I get insurance? 
( )
stop (on a street sign
( )
one way 
( )
yield 
( )
no parking 
( )
speed limit 
( )
gas (petrol) station 
( )
petrol 
( )
diesel 
( )

Authority

I haven't done anything wrong. 
( )
It was a misunderstanding. 
( )
Where are you taking me? 
( )
Am I under arrest? 
( )
I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen. 
( )
I want to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate. 
( )
I want to talk to a lawyer. 
( )
Can I just pay a fine now? 
( )

Learning more

This phrasebook is an outline and needs more content. It has an introduction and a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

Variants

Actions

Destination Docents

In other languages