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(About Yellow Fever: tweak)
(Vaccination requirements: identify countries that require vaccination when arriving from non-endemic areas)
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== Vaccination requirements ==
 
== Vaccination requirements ==
  
Some countries have mandatory yellow fever vaccination requirements. These requirements vary from country to country and may also vary from time to time. The following is a list of countries which had yellow fever vaccination requirements as at mid-2006:
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Some countries have mandatory yellow fever vaccination requirements. The exact requirements vary from country to country and may also vary from time to time. The following is a list of countries which had yellow fever vaccination requirements as at mid-2006. Countries requiring proof of vaccination upon arrival from all other countries (as opposed to only upon arrival from endemic zones) for all travellers more than one year old are shown '''bold'''.
  
 
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* '''[[Mauritania]]''' - '''exception''': not required for travellers arriving from non-endemic zones who will stay less than 2 weeks
 
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Revision as of 15:57, 21 July 2006

This is an article about health issues. While contributors do their best, we cannot take account of your individual health needs. Consult your doctor for individual medical advice.


About Yellow Fever

Yellow fever is a potentially fatal tropical disease caused by a virus that is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes. Illness ranges in severity from an influenza-like syndrome to severe hepatitis and hemorrhagic fever. Yellow fever can be prevented by vaccination. Travellers to areas with yellow fever transmission should take precautions against exposure to mosquitoes.

Countries where yellow fever is endemic - with CDC vaccination recommendation (may be abbreviated) as at mid-2006 in brackets - are:

Africa - yellow fever map

  • Angola (all travellers over 9 months of age)
  • Benin (all travellers over 9 months of age)
  • Burkina Faso (all travellers over 9 months of age)
  • Burundi (all travellers over 9 months of age)
  • Cameroon (all travellers over 9 months of age)
  • Cape Verde (all travellers over 9 months of age)
  • Central African Republic (all travellers over 9 months of age)
  • Chad (all travellers over 9 months of age)
  • Congo: Democratic Republic of the Congo (all travellers over 9 months of age)
  • Congo: Republic of the Congo (all travellers over 9 months of age)
  • Côte d'Ivoire (all travellers over 9 months of age)
  • Equatorial Guinea (all travellers over 9 months of age)
  • Ethiopia (all travellers over 9 months of age)
  • Gabon (all travellers over 9 months of age)
  • The Gambia (all travellers over 9 months of age)
  • Ghana (all travellers over 9 months of age)
  • Guinea (all travellers over 9 months of age)
  • Guinea-Bissau (all travellers over 9 months of age)
  • Kenya (all travellers over 9 months of age; cities of Nairobi and Mombasa have lower risk of transmission than rural areas)
  • Liberia (all travellers over 9 months of age)
  • Mali (all travellers over 9 months of age)
  • Mauritania (all travellers over 9 months of age)
  • Niger (all travellers over 9 months of age)
  • Nigeria (all travellers over 9 months of age)
  • Rwanda (all travellers over 9 months of age)
  • Sao Tome and Principe (all travellers over 9 months of age)
  • Senegal (all travellers over 9 months of age)
  • Sierra Leone (all travellers over 9 months of age)
  • Somalia (all travellers over 9 months of age)
  • Sudan (all travellers over 9 months of age)
  • Tanzania (all travellers over 9 months of age; city of Dar es Salaam has a lower risk of transmission than rural areas)
  • Togo (all travellers over 9 months of age)
  • Uganda (all travellers over 9 months of age)

Central America & South America - yellow fever map

  • Argentina (all travellers over 9 months of age going to the northern and north-eastern forested areas, including Iguaçu Falls)
  • Bolivia (all travellers over 9 months of age travelling to areas east of the Andes Mountains)
  • Brazil (all travellers over 9 months of age going to the endemic zone)
  • Colombia (all travellers over 9 months of age; where itinerary is limited to the cities of Bogotá, Cali, or Medellín, risk is lower and travellers may consider foregoing vaccination)
  • Ecuador (all travellers over 9 months of age who are travelling to areas east of the Andes Mountains)
  • French Guiana (all travellers over 9 months of age)
  • Guyana (all travellers over 9 months of age)
  • Panama (all travellers over 9 months of age travelling to the provinces of Darien, Kunayala (San Blas) and Panama, excluding the Canal Zone)
  • Paraguay (all travellers over 9 months of age travelling to the forested areas on the east and west)
  • Peru (all travellers over 9 months of age travelling to the areas east of the Andes Mountains, except if only travelling to the cities of Cuzco and Machu Picchu)
  • Suriname (all travellers over 9 months of age)
  • Trinidad and Tobago (all travellers over 9 months of age)
  • Venezuela (all travellers over 9 months of age, except if only travelling to the northern coastal area)

Vaccination

A vaccine is available which provides immunity for at least ten years. Many countries will require that you be vaccinated against yellow fever if you are coming from a country where it is present or have been in such a country within the last 6 days (the incubation period). If this is the case you will need to present a "World Health Organisation International Certificate of Vaccination" with an appropriately dated certification on the "International Certificate of Vaccination or Revaccination Against Yellow Fever" page to immigration officials. This little yellow booklet will be given to you when you are vaccinated against yellow fever for the first time. Carry it with your passport: you'll typically present them to immigration officials at the same time.

It is generally easiest to get a yellow fever vaccination in your home country before you leave on your trip. The vaccination is not in the normal vaccination schedules of many countries outside the infected areas since it is unnecessary unless you are travelling and has a somewhat higher risk of complications than many other vaccines. You will need to especially request a yellow fever vaccination from a designated yellow fever vaccination center. Immunity is considered to start 10 days from the time of the vaccination, so be sure to get vaccinated 10 days before you enter an infected country. The vaccine is live and not entirely inactive: many people have mild flu-like symptoms for a couple of days after receiving this vaccine, so it would be good not to be planning anything strenuous in those days.

Depending on how the vaccine is cultivated, you may need to allow about half an hour for a yellow fever vaccination as you will be observed for an allergic reaction after it is administered.

Vaccination requirements

Some countries have mandatory yellow fever vaccination requirements. The exact requirements vary from country to country and may also vary from time to time. The following is a list of countries which had yellow fever vaccination requirements as at mid-2006. Countries requiring proof of vaccination upon arrival from all other countries (as opposed to only upon arrival from endemic zones) for all travellers more than one year old are shown bold.

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