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; half : half (''...'')
 
; half : half (''...'')
 
; less : less (''...'')
 
; less : less (''...'')
; more : more (''...'')
+
; more : mear (''...'')
  
 
===Time===
 
===Time===

Revision as of 12:36, 19 June 2009

There are several forms of Frisian but the most widely spoken of these is West Frisian, or Frysk. It is a language spoken mostly in the province of Friesland (Fryslân) in the north of the Netherlands. West Frisian is the name by which this language is usually known outside of the Netherlands, to distinguish it from the closely related Frisian languages of Saterland Frisian and North Frisian, which are spoken in Germany. Within the Netherlands however, (and often in other countries) the West Frisian language is the language of the province of Fryslân and is virtually always just called Frisian: Fries in Dutch, and Frysk in Frisian. The 'official' name used by linguists in the Netherlands to indicate the West Frisian language is Westerlauwers Fries (West Lauwers Frisian), the Lauwers being a border stream which separates the Dutch provinces of Fryslân and Groningen.

Most speakers of West Frisian live in the province of Fryslân (Friesland in Dutch) in the north of the Netherlands. The province has 643,000 inhabitants (2005); of these 94% can understand spoken Frisian, 74% can speak Frisian, 65% can read Frisian, and 17% can write it. For over half of the inhabitants of the province of Fryslân, 55% (c. 354,000 people), Frisian is the native tongue.

To find out more about West Frisian, including the history, visit Wikipedia[1].

West Frisian is similar in both sound and grammar to Dutch, Afrikaans and some northern dialects of German. There are two grammatical genders, common and neuter, although they are nowadays very corroded and usually always the same in the plural.

Contents

Pronunciation guide

West Frisian vowels are similar to Dutch although there are a few substantial differences; for example, accented vowels like â are considered separate letters in West Frisian, not simply a variation of a. Also there a few sound differences in consonants.

Vowels

A a 
like 'a' in "hat" or like "wall" when before d, t, l, n, s
 â 
like 'o' in "more"
E e 
like 'e' in "let" or like 'e' in unemphasised "the" at word end
Ê ê 
like 'e' in "bear"
I i 
like 'i' in "it"
O o 
like 'o' in "hope"
Ô ô 
(rare) like 'o' in "hope" but longer
U u 
like 'u' in "burn"
Û û 
like 'u' in "fun"
Ú ú 
similar to 'ue' in "blue", same as German 'ü'
Y y 
like 'i' in "reid"

Consonants

The letters 'q' and 'x' do not appear in Frisian except for loan words; the same applies to the letter 'c' when not part of the combination "ch".

B b 
like 'b' in "bat" or like 'p' in "map" at word end
C c 
(rare) like 'c' in "cat" or like 'c' in "rice" (usually in loan words)
D d 
like 'd' in "day" or like 't' in "tap" at word end
F f 
like 'f' in "fire"
G g 
like 'g' in "green" or sometimes like Dutch G, dragged from the throat
H h 
like 'h' in "hot", silent when before j or w
J j 
like 'y' in "yes"
K k 
like 'k' in "kit"
L l 
like 'l' in "lock", silent between â and d or t
M m 
like 'm' in "moon"
N n 
like 'n' in "now" or like 'm' when before the letter p
P p 
like 'p' in "pen"
R r 
by and large trilled like Scottish 'r' using the tongue; however, 'r' can often be said like German or French, said from the back of the throat
'r' is silent when before t, d, n, l, s, z
S s 
like 's' in "sit"
T t 
like 't' in "tie"
V v 
like 'f' in "fire"
W w 
like 'v' in "vine" or 'w' in "wine", sometimes also 'f'
Z z 
like 'z' in "zip"

Common digraphs

AA aa 
like 'a' in "father"
EE ee 
like 'ey' in "hey"
EI ei 
same as 'ee' except in the word "dei" when it is pronounced the same as 'ii'
II ii 
like 'ee' in "cheese"
OA oa 
like 'oa' in "moan"
OI oi 
like 'oy' in "boy"
OO oo 
same as German 'ö'
OU ou 
like 'o' in "noon"
UU uu 
(rare) same as German 'ü' but longer, identical to Finnish 'yy'
CH ch 
like Scottish "loch"
IJ ij 
like 'i' in "hi", sometimes like 'ey' in "hey"
KS ks 
replacement of letter x
SJ sj 
like 'sh' in "shut"
TSJ tsj 
like 'ch' in "church"

Phrase list

Basics

Common signs

OPEN 
Ticht
CLOSED 
Takomme
ENTRANCE 
Yngean
EXIT 
Útgean
PUSH 
Stjit
PULL 
Tsjen
TOILET 
Húske
MEN 
Men
WOMEN 
Dammen
FORBIDDEN 
Ferboten


Hello. 
Goeie
Hello. (informal
Hoi
How are you? 
Hoe is it mei dy?
Fine, thank you. 
Mei my giet it goed, tige tank!
What is your name? 
Wat is jo naam?
My name is ______ . 
Ik heet _____
Nice to meet you. 
Nice to meet you. (NIGHSS t' meet YOO)
Please. 
Asjeblyft
Thank you. 
Tige tank
You're welcome. 
Nimme net kwea ôf
Yes. 
Ja
No. 
Nee
Excuse me. (getting attention
Excuse me. (ehkz-KYOOZ mee)
Excuse me. (begging pardon
Excuse me. (ehkz-KYOOZ mee)
I'm sorry. 
I'm sorry. (IGHM SAW-ree)
Goodbye 
Oant sjen
Goodbye (informal
Bye. (BIGH)
I can't speak name of language [well]. 
Ik kin net [goed] Ingelsk praten
Do you speak English? 
Kinne jo Ingelsk?
Is there someone here who speaks English? 
Is there someone here who speaks English? (IZ thayr SUM-wun heer hoo speekz ING-lush?)
Help! 
Help! (HEHLP!)
Look out! 
Look out! (look OWT!)
Good morning. 
Goe moarn
Good evening. 
Goe jûn
Good night. 
Good night. (guhd NIGHT)
Good night (to sleep
Good night. (good NIGHT)
I don't understand. 
Ik begryp it net
Where is the toilet? 
Wêr is it húske?

At this point, the fake phoneticizations of English are going to stop, and be replaced by ellipses.

Problems

Leave me alone. 
Leave me alone. (...)
Don't touch me! 
Don't touch me! (...)
I'll call the police. 
I'll call the police. (...)
Police! 
Police! (...)
Stop! Thief! 
Stop! Thief! (...)
I need your help. 
I need your help. (...)
It's an emergency. 
It's an emergency. (...)
I'm lost. 
I'm lost. (...)
I lost my bag. 
I lost my bag. (...)
I lost my wallet. 
I lost my wallet. (...)
I'm sick. 
I'm sick. (...)
I've been injured. 
I've been injured. (...)
I need a doctor. 
I need a doctor. (...)
Can I use your phone? 
Can I use your phone? (...)

Numbers

ien (EE-en)
twa (TWAH)
trije (TREE-yuh)
fjouwer (FYOH-wer)
fiif (FEEF)
seis (SEYS)
sân (SORN)
acht (ACHT)
njoggen (NYOG-hen)
10 
tsien (CHEE-en)
11 
alve (OL-vuh)
12 
tolve (TOL-vuh)
13 
trettjin (TRE-chin)
14 
fjirtjin (FYIR-chin)
15 
fyftjin (...)
16 
sechstjin (...)
17 
santjin (...)
18 
achttjin (...)
19 
njoggentjin (...)
20 
tweintich (...)
21 
ienentweintich (...)
22 
twaentweintich(...)
23 
trijeentweintich (...)
30 
tritich (...)
40 
fjirtich (FYIR-tich)
50 
fyftich (FEEF-tich)
60 
sechstich (...)
70 
santich (...)
80 
tachtich (...)
90 
njoggentich (...)
100 
ien hûndert (...)
200 
twa hûndert (...)
300 
trije hûndert (...)
1000 
ien tûzen (...)
2000 
twa tûzen (...)
1,000,000 
one million (...)
1,000,000,000 
one thousand million in UK, one billion in USA
1,000,000,000,000 
one billion in UK, one trillion in USA
number _____ (train, bus, etc.
number _____ (...)
half 
half (...)
less 
less (...)
more 
mear (...)

Time

now 
no (...)
later 
letter (...)
before 
foar (...)
morning 
moar (...)
afternoon 
middei (mid-day) (...)
evening 
jun (...)
night 
nacht (...)

Clock time

one o'clock AM 
one o'clock AM (...)
two o'clock AM 
two o'clock AM (...)
noon 
noon (...)
one o'clock PM 
one o'clock PM (...)
two o'clock PM 
two o'clock PM (...)
midnight 
midnight (...)

Duration

_____ minute(s) 
_____ minuit(en) (...)
_____ hour(s) 
_____ oere(en) (...)
_____ day(s) 
_____ dei(dagen) (...)
_____ week(s) 
_____ weik(en) (...)
_____ month(s) 
_____ moanne(en) (...)
_____ year(s) 
_____ jier(en) (...)

Days

today 
hjoed (hyood)
yesterday 
juster (...)
tomorrow 
moarn (...)
this week 
dit wike (...)
last week 
last wike (...)
next week 
nêst wike (...)
Sunday 
Sinnedei (...)
Monday 
Moandei (...)
Tuesday 
Tiisdei (...)
Wednesday 
Woansdei (...)
Thursday 
Tongersdei (...)
Friday 
Freedei (...)
Saturday 
Saterdei (...)

Months

If speakers of the language commonly use a calendar other than the Gregorian, explain it here and list its months. See Hebrew phrasebook for an example.

January 
January (...)
February 
February (...)
March 
March (...)
April 
April (...)
May 
May (...)
June 
June (...)
July 
July (...)
August 
August (...)
September 
September (...)
October 
October (...)
November 
November (...)
December 
December (...)

Writing time and date

Give some examples how to write clock times and dates if it differs from English.

Colors

black 
black (...)
white 
white (...)
gray 
gray (...)
red 
red (...)
blue 
blue (...)
yellow 
yellow (...)
green 
green (...)
orange 
orange (...)
purple 
purple (...)
brown 
brown (...)

Transportation

Bus and train

How much is a ticket to _____? 
How much is a ticket to _____? (...)
One ticket to _____, please. 
One ticket to _____, please. (...)
Where does this train/bus go? 
Where does this train/bus go? (...)
Where is the train/bus to _____? 
Where is the train/bus to _____? (...)
Does this train/bus stop in _____? 
Does this train/bus stop in _____? (...)
When does the train/bus for _____ leave? 
When does the train/bus for _____ leave? (...)
When will this train/bus arrive in _____? 
When will this bus arrive in _____? (...)

Directions

How do I get to _____ ? 
How do I get to _____ ? (...)
...the train station? 
...the train station? (...)
...the bus station? 
...the bus station? (...)
...the airport? 
...the airport? (...)
...downtown? 
...downtown? (...)
...the youth hostel? 
...the youth hostel? (...)
...the _____ hotel? 
...the _____ hotel? (...)
...the American/Canadian/Australian/British consulate? 
...the American/Canadian/Australian/British consulate? (...)
Where are there a lot of... 
Where are there a lot of... (...)
...hotels? 
...hotels? (...)
...restaurants? 
...restaurants? (...)
...bars? 
...bars? (...)
...sites to see? 
...sites to see? (...)
Can you show me on the map? 
Can you show me on the map? (...)
street 
street (...)
Turn left. 
Turn left. (...)
Turn right. 
Turn right. (...)
left 
left (...)
right 
right (...)
straight ahead 
straight ahead (...)
towards the _____ 
towards the _____ (...)
past the _____ 
past the _____ (...)
before the _____ 
before the _____ (...)
Watch for the _____. 
Watch for the _____. (...)
intersection 
intersection (...)
north 
north (...)
south 
south (...)
east 
east (...)
west 
west (...)
uphill 
uphill (...)
downhill 
downhill (...)

Taxi

Taxi! 
Taxi! (...)
Take me to _____, please. 
Take me to _____, please. (...)
How much does it cost to get to _____? 
How much does it cost to

get to _____? (...)

Take me there, please. 
Take me there, please. (...)

Lodging

Do you have any rooms available? 
Do you have any rooms available? (...)
How much is a room for one person/two people? 
How much is a room for one person/two people? (...)
Does the room come with... 
Does the room come with... (...)
...bedsheets? 
...bedsheets? (...)
...a bathroom? 
...a bathroom? (...)
...a telephone? 
...a telephone? (...)
...a TV? 
...a TV? (...)
May I see the room first? 
May I see the room first? (...)
Do you have anything quieter? 
Do you have anything quieter? (...)
...bigger? 
...bigger? (...)
...cleaner? 
...cleaner? (...)
...cheaper? 
...cheaper? (...)
OK, I'll take it. 
OK, I'll take it. (...)
I will stay for _____ night(s). 
I will stay for _____ night(s). (...)
Can you suggest another hotel? 
Can you suggest another hotel? (...)
Do you have a safe? 
Do you have a safe? (...)
...lockers? 
...lockers? (...)
Is breakfast/supper included? 
Is breakfast/supper included? (...)
What time is breakfast/supper? 
What time is breakfast/supper? (...)
Please clean my room. 
Please clean my room. (...)
Can you wake me at _____? | Can you wake me at _____? (...)
I want to check out. 
I want to check out. (...)

Money

Do you accept American/Australian/Canadian dollars? 
Do you accept American/Australian/Canadian dollars? (...)
Do you accept British pounds? 
Do you accept British pounds? (...)
Do you accept credit cards? 
Do you accept credit cards? (...)
Can you change money for me? 
Can you change money for me? (...)
Where can I get money changed? 
Where can I get money changed? (...)
Can you change a traveler's check for me? 
Can you change a traveler's check for me? (...)
Where can I get a traveler's check changed? 
Where can I get a traveler's check changed? (...)
What is the exchange rate? 
What is the exchange rate? (...)
Where is an automatic teller machine (ATM)? 
Where is an automatic teller machine (ATM)? (...)

Eating

A table for one person/two people, please. 
A table for one person/two people, please. (...)
Can I look at the menu, please? 
Can I look at the menu, please? (...)
Can I look in the kitchen? 
Can I look in the kitchen? (...)
Is there a house specialty? 
Is there a house specialty? (...)
Is there a local specialty? 
Is there a local specialty? (...)
I'm a vegetarian. 
I'm a vegetarian. (...)
I don't eat pork. 
I don't eat pork. (...)
I don't eat beef. 
I don't eat beef. (...)
I only eat kosher food. 
I only eat kosher food. (...)
Can you make it "lite", please? (less oil/butter/lard
Can you make it "lite", please? (...)
fixed-price meal 
fixed-price meal (...)
a la carte 
a la carte (...)
breakfast 
breakfast (...)
lunch 
lunch (...)
tea (meal
tea (...)
supper 
supper (...)
I want _____. 
I want _____. (...)
I want a dish containing _____. 
I want a dish containing _____. (...)
chicken 
chicken (...)
beef 
beef (...)
fish 
fish (...)
ham 
ham (...)
sausage 
sausage (...)
cheese 
cheese (...)
eggs 
eggs (...)
salad 
salad (...)
(fresh) vegetables 
(fresh) vegetables (...)
(fresh) fruit 
(fresh) fruit (...)
bread 
bread (...)
toast 
toast (...)
noodles 
noodles (...)
rice 
rice (...)
beans 
beans (...)
May I have a glass of _____? 
May I have a glass of _____? (...)
May I have a cup of _____? 
May I have a cup of _____? (...)
May I have a bottle of _____? 
May I have a bottle of _____? (...)
coffee 
coffee (...)
tea (drink
tea (...)
juice 
juice (...)
(bubbly) water 
water (...)
water 
water (...)
beer 
beer (...)
red/white wine 
red/white wine (...)
May I have some _____? 
May I have some _____? (...)
salt 
salt (...)
black pepper 
black pepper (...)
butter 
butter (...)
Excuse me, waiter? (getting attention of server)
Excuse me, waiter? (...)
I'm finished. 
I'm finished. (...)
It was delicious. 
It was delicious. (...)
Please clear the plates. 
Please clear the plates. (...)
The check, please. 
The check, please. (...)

Bars

Do you serve alcohol? 
Do you serve alcohol? (...)
Is there table service? 
Is there table service? (...)
A beer/two beers, please. 
A beer/two beers, please. (...)
A glass of red/white wine, please. 
A glass of red/white wine, please. (...)
A pint, please. 
A pint, please. (...)
A bottle, please. 
A bottle, please. (...)
_____ (hard liquor) and _____ (mixer), please. 
_____ and _____, please. (...)
whiskey 
whiskey (...)
vodka 
vodka (...)
rum 
rum (...)
water 
water (...)
club soda 
club soda (...)
tonic water 
tonic water (...)
orange juice 
orange juice (...)
Coke (soda
Coke (...)
Do you have any bar snacks? 
Do you have any bar snacks? (...)
One more, please. 
One more, please. (...)
Another round, please. 
Another round, please. (...)
When is closing time? 
When is closing time? (...)
Cheers! 
Cheers! (...)

Shopping

Do you have this in my size? 
Do you have this in my size? (...)
How much is this? 
How much is this? (...)
That's too expensive. 
That's too expensive. (...)
Would you take _____? 
Would you take _____? (...)
expensive 
expensive (...)
cheap 
cheap (...)
I can't afford it. 
I can't afford it. (...)
I don't want it. 
I don't want it. (...)
You're cheating me. 
You're cheating me. (...)
I'm not interested. 
I'm not interested. (..)
OK, I'll take it. 
OK, I'll take it. (...)
Can I have a bag? 
Can I have a bag? (...)
Do you ship (overseas)? 
Do you ship (overseas)? (...)
I need... 
I need... (...)
...toothpaste. 
...toothpaste. (...)
...a toothbrush. 
...a toothbrush. (...)
...tampons. 
...tampons. (...)
...soap. 
...soap. (...)
...shampoo. 
...shampoo. (...)
...pain reliever. (e.g., aspirin or ibuprofen
...pain reliever. (...)
...cold medicine. 
...cold medicine. (...)
...stomach medicine. 
...stomach medicine. (...)
...a razor. 
...a razor. (...)
...an umbrella. 
...an umbrella. (...)
...sunblock lotion. 
...sunblock lotion. (...)
...a postcard. 
...a postcard. (...)
...postage stamps. 
...postage stamps. (...)
...batteries. 
...batteries. (...)
...writing paper. 
...writing paper. (...)
...a pen. 
...a pen. (...)
...English-language books. 
...English-language books. (...)
...English-language magazines. 
...English-language magazines. (...)
...an English-language newspaper. 
...an English-language newspaper. (...)
...an English-English dictionary. 
...an English-English dictionary. (...)

Driving

I want to rent a car. 
I want to rent a car. (...)
Can I get insurance? 
Can I get insurance? (...)
stop (on a street sign
stop (...)
one way 
one way (...)
yield 
yield (...)
no parking 
no parking (...)
speed limit 
speed limit (...)
gas (petrol) station 
gas station (...)
petrol 
petrol (...)
diesel 
diesel (...)

Authority

I haven't done anything wrong. 
I haven't done anything wrong. (...)
It was a misunderstanding. 
It was a misunderstanding. (...)
Where are you taking me? 
Where are you taking me? (...)
Am I under arrest? 
Am I under arrest? (...)
I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen. 
I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen. (...)
I want to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate. 
I need to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate. (...)
I want to talk to a lawyer. 
I want to talk to a lawyer. (...)
Can I just pay a fine now? 
Can I just pay a fine now? (...)

Variants

Actions

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