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Difference between revisions of "Welsh phrasebook"

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'''Welsh''' (Welsh: ''Cymraeg'') is a language spoken by around 21% of the population in [[Wales]] in addition to English. It is also spoken by several thousand people in the [[Chubut]] province of [[Argentina]], as well as by substantial numbers of people scattered around the world. All Welsh speakers old enough to attend school in Wales also speak English, while those in Argentina speak Spanish.
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'''Welsh''' (Welsh: ''Cymraeg'') is a language spoken by around 21% of the population in [[Wales]] in addition to English (according to the 2001 Census) but probably more than 21% of the Welsh population can speak the Welsh Language now in 2010. It is also spoken by several thousand people in the [[Chubut]] province of [[Argentina]], as well as by substantial numbers of people scattered around the world. All Welsh speakers old enough to attend school in Wales also speak English, while those in Argentina speak Spanish.
  
 
==Pronunciation guide==
 
==Pronunciation guide==
Welsh is a relatively phonetic language, with most letters having only one pronunciation. Complications arise with the various double consonants, particularly "dd" which is represented in English as "th" as in "breathe", while "th" is represented in English as "th" as in "think"; "ll" is a famously difficult (and common) sound for non-Welsh speakers to produce - made by positioning the tongue at the top front of the mouth and blowing, and represented here as "lh". "Ch" is ''always'' pronounced like the German name "Bach" or the Scottish "loch"; the sound which appears in the English word ''"church"'' is represented by "ts".
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Welsh is a relatively phonetic language, with most letters having only one pronunciation. Complications may arise with the various consonantal digraphs, particularly "dd" which is represented in English as "th" as in "breathe", while "th" is represented in English as "th" as in "think"; "ll" is a famously difficult (and common) sound for non-Welsh speakers to produce - made by positioning the tongue at the top front of the mouth and blowing, and represented here as "lh". "Ch" is ''always'' pronounced like the German name "Bach" or the Scottish "loch"; the sound which appears in the English word ''"church"'' is represented by "ts".
  
There are relatively minor pronunciation differences between northern and southern Welsh, most notably that "i" and "u" are two distinct sounds in the north, while in the south both letters are pronounced as "i".  
+
There are relatively minor pronunciation differences between northern and southern Welsh, most notably that "i" on the one hand and "u" and "y" are two distinct sounds on the other in the north, while in the south these letters are pronounced identically as the sound of "i".  
  
Unless overridden by an accent mark, the stress in Welsh words always falls on the last but one syllable of a word. As syllables get added to words, for example to denote a plural or a female person of a particular occupation, the sound of a word can change dramatically.
+
Unless overridden by an accent mark, the stress in Welsh words nearly always falls on the last but one syllable of a word. As syllables get added to words, for example to denote a plural or a female person of a particular occupation, the sound of a word can change dramatically.
  
 
Welsh is written in a version of the Latin alphabet containing 28 letters, including 8 digraphs which count as separate letters for collating purposes (and crossword puzzles): a, b, c, ch, d, dd, e, f, ff, g, ng, h, i, l, ll, m, n, o, p, ph, r, rh, s, t, th, u, w, y.
 
Welsh is written in a version of the Latin alphabet containing 28 letters, including 8 digraphs which count as separate letters for collating purposes (and crossword puzzles): a, b, c, ch, d, dd, e, f, ff, g, ng, h, i, l, ll, m, n, o, p, ph, r, rh, s, t, th, u, w, y.
  
The letters j and v do not exist in normal Welsh usage, but have been adopted from English for limited use e.g. in personal names. "K" is regarded as redundant in Welsh as the sound is always represented by "c", but it is found in the prefix "kilo-", although "cilo-" is always acceptable.
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The letters j, v, x and z do not exist in normal Welsh usage, but have been adopted from English for limited use e.g. in personal names. "K" is regarded as redundant in Welsh as the sound is always represented by "c", but it is found in the prefix "kilo-", although "cilo-" is always acceptable.
  
 
Grammatically, Welsh is relatively complex with two grammatical genders, masculine and feminine, which all nouns are assigned to, and also masculine and feminine forms of the numbers "two" "three" and "four" which have to match the gender of the object being counted; there are also two separate counting systems, decimal (base 10) and the more traditional vigesimal (base 20). The phenomenon of ''mutation'' is a characteristic of the Celtic languages, where the initial letters of words change depending on the grammar of the sentence, which can make tracking words down in a dictionary difficult.
 
Grammatically, Welsh is relatively complex with two grammatical genders, masculine and feminine, which all nouns are assigned to, and also masculine and feminine forms of the numbers "two" "three" and "four" which have to match the gender of the object being counted; there are also two separate counting systems, decimal (base 10) and the more traditional vigesimal (base 20). The phenomenon of ''mutation'' is a characteristic of the Celtic languages, where the initial letters of words change depending on the grammar of the sentence, which can make tracking words down in a dictionary difficult.
  
 
===Vowels===
 
===Vowels===
Vowels in Welsh can have accent marks, most commonly the circumflex (^), called the ''bach (little roof)'', which lengthens the sound of the vowel, and the acute (´), which shortens it. Occasionally the diaresis appears on the letter ï, to signify a doubling of the sound. Vowel sounds tend to resemble those of major continental European languages rather than English.
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Vowels in Welsh can have accent marks, most commonly the circumflex (^), called the ''to bach (little roof)'', which lengthens the sound of the vowel, and the acute (´), which shortens it. Occasionally the diaresis appears, dividing two vowel sounds from each other. Vowel sounds tend to resemble those of major continental European languages rather than English.
  
There are seven vowels in Welsh, which have both short and long forms:
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There are seven vowels in Welsh, which have both short and long forms. The following sounds are only approximations in English:
; a : like "a" in "and"  
+
 
; e : like "eh"
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; a : like "p'''a'''t" and "f'''a'''ther".
; i : like "ee" in "see"
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; e : like "p'''e'''t" and "p'''ea'''r".
; o : like "oh"
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; i : like "p'''i'''t" and "mach'''i'''ne".
; u : like a very tight, frontal "oo" sound (purse your lips as if to say "oo" as in "soon" but try and say "ee")
+
; o : like "p'''o'''t" and "p'''or'''t".
; w : like "oo" as in "moon"
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; u : In South Wales, like "p'''i'''t" and "mach'''i'''ne".
; y : either "uh", or like "ee" in "see" (note that the short form varies depending on where it is in the word. If "y" is in the final syllable and is followed by a consonant, it's pronounced like the "i" in "bin". A common example containing both short forms is the word for valley, ''dyffryn'', which is pronounced "DUFF-rin")
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In  North Wales, more like a French "u" as in "t'''u'''"
 +
; w : like "u" in "p'''u'''t" and "oo" as in "m'''oo'''n".
 +
; y : like "i" in "p'''i'''t" and "mach'''i'''ne".
  
 
===Consonants===
 
===Consonants===
; b : like "b" in "bed"
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; b : like "b" in "'''b'''ed".
; c : like "c" in "cat"
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; c : like "c" in "'''c'''at".
; ch : like "ch" in German ''"Bach"'' or Scottish ''"loch"''
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; ch : like "ch" in German ''"''Ba'''ch'''''"'' or Scottish ''"''lo'''ch'''''"''.
; d : like "d" in "death"
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; d : like "d" in "'''d'''eath".
; dd : like "th" in "the"
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; dd : like "th" in "'''th'''e".
; f : like "v" in "van"
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; f : like "v" in "'''v'''an".
; ff : like "f" in "fun"
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; ff : like "f" in "'''f'''un".
; g : like "g" in "garden"
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; g : like "g" in "'''g'''arden".
; ng : like "ng" in "pong"
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; ng : like "ng" in "po'''ng'''". Sometimes, like in "fi'''ng'''er".
; h : like "h" in "heart"
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; h : like "h" in "'''h'''eart".
; l : like "l" in "link"
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; l : like "l" in "'''l'''ink".
 
; ll : place the tongue at the top of the mouth, and blow.
 
; ll : place the tongue at the top of the mouth, and blow.
; m : like "m" in "meet"
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; m : like "m" in "'''m'''eet".
; n : like "n" in "news"
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; n : like "n" in "'''n'''ews".
; p : like "p" in "pen"
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; p : like "p" in "'''p'''en".
; ph : like "f" in "fun"; only found in words of Greek origin, or at the beginning of words as a mutated "p".
+
; ph : like "ph" in "'''ph'''iloso'''ph'''y".
; r : like "r" in "range"
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; r : like "r" in "'''r'''ed" (well rolled, as in Scottish pronunciation).
; rh : an aspirated, breathy "r"
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; rh : an aspirated, breathy "r".
; s : like "s" in "state"
+
; s : like "s" in "'''s'''tate".
; t : like "t" in "time"
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; si + vowel (NOT a consonant, but a sound) : like "sh" in "'''sh'''ore".
; th : like "th" in "think"
+
; t : like "t" in "'''t'''ime".
 +
; th : like "th" in "'''th'''ink".
  
 
===Common diphthongs===
 
===Common diphthongs===
; ae : ''aaye'' (long "a" sound) in the north; like "eye" in the south.
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Only southern forms unless otherwise stated.
; ai : like "eye"
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English approximations are also given.
 +
 
 +
; ae : like "eye".
 +
; ai : like "eye".
 
; au : like "aye", with a rounded closing sound. When used as the plural marker, often pronounced "ah" in the north and "eh" in the south.
 
; au : like "aye", with a rounded closing sound. When used as the plural marker, often pronounced "ah" in the north and "eh" in the south.
; aw : like "ow!"
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; aw : like "ow!".
 
; ei : like "ey" in "hey!"
 
; ei : like "ey" in "hey!"
 
; eu : like "ey" in "hey!", but with a rounded closing sound.
 
; eu : like "ey" in "hey!", but with a rounded closing sound.
 
; ew : like "eh-oo" said quickly.
 
; ew : like "eh-oo" said quickly.
; ey : like "ey" in "hey!"
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; ey : like "ey" in "hey!".
; iw : like "you"
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; iw : like "you".
; oe : like "oy" in "boy"
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; oe : like "oy" in "boy".
; oi : like "oy" in "boy"
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; oi : like "oy" in "boy".
; ou : like "oy" in "boy"
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; ou : like "oy" in "boy".
; uw : like "you"
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; uw : like "you".
; wy : like "oo-ee"
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; wy : like "oo-ee".
; yw : like "you"
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; yw : like "you" (in monosyllables).
The differences between some of the dipthongs are very subtle and virtually indistinguishable.
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; yw : like "uh-oo" (in polysyllabics).
 +
 
 +
The differences between some of the dipthongs are often very subtle.
  
 
==Phrase list==
 
==Phrase list==
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; Hello. :  Helo. (''Hello'')
 
; Hello. :  Helo. (''Hello'')
 
; Hello. (''informal'') :  S'mae? (''s-my?'' (north) ''shoo-my?'' (south))
 
; Hello. (''informal'') :  S'mae? (''s-my?'' (north) ''shoo-my?'' (south))
; How are you? :  S'mae? (''s-my?'' (north) ''shoo-my?'' (south))
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; How are you? (''formal''):  Sut ydych chi? (north) Shwd ych chi? (south)
; Fine, thank you. :  iawn, diolch. (''yown, dee-ol'ch'')
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; How are you? (''informal''):  Sut wyt ti? (north) Shwd wyt ti? (south)
; What is your name? :  Be' dy'ch enw chi? (''bay di'ch enoo ch'ee?'')
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; Fine, thank you. :  Iawn, diolch. (''yown, DEE-ol'ch'')
; My name is ______ . :  ______ yw f'enw i. (''_____  you ven-oo ee.'')
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; What is your name? (''formal'') :  Be' ydy'ch enw chi? (''bay UHdi'ch ENoo ch'ee?'')
 +
What is your name? (''informal'') :  Be' ydy dy enw di? (''bay UHdi duh ENoo dee?'')
 +
; My name is ______ . :  ______ ydy f'enw i. (''_____  you ven-oo ee.'')
 
; Nice to meet you. :  Braf cwrdd â chi. (''Brahv corth ah khi'')
 
; Nice to meet you. :  Braf cwrdd â chi. (''Brahv corth ah khi'')
 
; Please. : Os gwelwch chi'n dda. ('' '')
 
; Please. : Os gwelwch chi'n dda. ('' '')
; Thank you [very much]. :  Diolch [yn fawr]. (''dee-ol'ch [un vowr]'')
+
; Thank you [very much]. :  Diolch [yn fawr]. (''DEE-ol'ch [un vowr]'')
 
; You're welcome. :  Croeso. (''CROY-so'')
 
; You're welcome. :  Croeso. (''CROY-so'')
; There are no exact equivalents of "yes" and "no" in Welsh; the concept is conveyed grammatically by indicating agreement or disagreement e.g. "yes there is" or "no there is not", which is said in different ways depending on how the question was phrased. If the question begins "Oes...?" or "A oes...?" (''"Is there...?"'') then the reply is "oes" or "nac oes"; if the question begins "Ydy...?" (''"Is...?"'') or a construct beginning with "ydy" e.g. "Ydych...?" (''"Do you...?"'') then the reply is "ydy" or "nac ydy":
+
; There are no exact equivalents of "yes" and "no" in Welsh; the concept is conveyed grammatically with regard to agreement between the person and tense by indicating agreement or disagreement e.g. "yes there is" or "no there is not", which is said in different ways depending on how the question was phrased. If the question begins "Oes...?" or "A oes...?" (''"Is there...?"'') then the reply is "oes" or "nac oes"; if the question begins "Ydy...?" (''"Is...?"'') then the reply is "ydy" or "nac ydy" etc
; Yes. :  Oes. (''oyss''); Ydy (''UD-ee''); Ie (''ee-yeah'')
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; Yes. :  Ie (''ee-yeah'')
; No. :  Nac oes. (''nak oyss'' or ''nag oyss''); Nac ydy (''nac-UD-ee'', ''nag-ud-ee'', or ''NAG-dee''), Na (''Nah'')
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; No. :  Na (''Nah'')
 
; Excuse me. (''getting attention'') :  Esgusodwch fi. (''es-gis-OD-oo'ch vee'')
 
; Excuse me. (''getting attention'') :  Esgusodwch fi. (''es-gis-OD-oo'ch vee'')
 
; Excuse me. (''begging pardon'') :  Esgusodwch fi. (''es-gis-OD-oo'ch vee'')
 
; Excuse me. (''begging pardon'') :  Esgusodwch fi. (''es-gis-OD-oo'ch vee'')
; I'm sorry. :  Mae ddrwg gen i. (''My th'roog gen ee'')
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; I'm sorry. :  Mae'n ddrwg gen i. (''My uhn th'roog gen ee'')
; Goodbye :  Ffarwél. (''far-WEL '')
+
; Goodbye (''Formal'') :  Da bo chi. (''Da BO ch'ee'')
; Goodbye (''informal'') :  Da bo chi. (''Da BO ch'ee'') ''(a contraction of "Duw bu gydach chi" - "God be with you")''
+
; Goodbye (''Informal'') :  Hwyl! (''hooill'')
; I can't speak Welsh [well]. : Alla i ddim siarad Cymraeg [yn dda]. (''alh'a ee thim sharad kym-RYE-g [un tha]'')
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; I can't speak Welsh [well]. : Alla i ddim siarad Cymraeg [yn dda]. (''Alh'a ee thim SHARad kym-RYE-g [uhn tha]'')
; Do you speak English? :  Ydych chi'n siarad Saesneg? (''UD-ich ch'een sharad SIS-neg?'')
+
; Do you speak English? :  Ydych chi'n siarad Saesneg? (''UD-ich ch'een SHARad SAYES-neg?'')
; Is there someone here who speaks English? : Oes rhywun yma sy'n siarad Saesneg? (''Oyss reew-in umma seen sharad sis-neg?'')
+
; Is there someone here who speaks English? : Oes rhywun yma sy'n siarad Saesneg? (''Oyss RHEEW-in UMma seen SHARad SAYES-neg?'')
; Help! :  Help! ('' !'')
+
; Help! :  Help! (''Help'')
 
; Look out! :  Hendiwch! (''HEN-dyoo'ch!'')
 
; Look out! :  Hendiwch! (''HEN-dyoo'ch!'')
; Good morning. : Bore da. (''BOR-eh da'')
+
; Good morning. : Bore da. (''BOR-eh dah'')
; Good evening. : Noswaith dda. (''NOSS-why-th tha'')
+
; Good afternoon. : Prynhawn da. (''PRINhaun dah'')
; Good night. :  Nos da. (''NOHS da'')
+
; Good evening. : Noswaith dda. (''NOSS-why-th thah'')
; Good night (''to sleep'') : Nos da. ('' '')
+
; Good night. :  Nos da. (''NOHS dah'')
; I don't understand. : Dwi ddim yn deall. ('' '')
+
; Good night (''to sleep'') : Nos da. (''NOHS dah'')
; Where is the toilet? :  Ble' mae'r toiled? (''Blay my'r toy-led?'')
+
; I don't understand. : Dw i ddim yn ddeall. ('' '')
 +
; Where is the toilet? :  Ble' mae'r ty bach? (''Blay my'r tee bahch?'')
  
 
===Problems===
 
===Problems===
  
 
===Numbers===
 
===Numbers===
 +
; 0 : dim (''dim'')
 
; 1 : un (''een'')
 
; 1 : un (''een'')
 
; 2 : dau (''die'') (m); dwy (''doo-ey'') (f)
 
; 2 : dau (''die'') (m); dwy (''doo-ey'') (f)
 
; 3 : tri (''tree'') (m); tair (''tire'') (f)
 
; 3 : tri (''tree'') (m); tair (''tire'') (f)
 
; 4 : pedwar (''PED-war'') (m); pedair (''PED-ire'') (f)
 
; 4 : pedwar (''PED-war'') (m); pedair (''PED-ire'') (f)
; 5 : pump (''pimp'')
+
; 5 : pump (''pimp''); pum (''pim'') before a noun
; 6 : chwech (''ch'way'ch'' or ''ch'way'')
+
; 6 : chwech (''ch'way'ch''); chwe (''ch'way'') before a noun
; 7 : saith (''scyth'')
+
; 7 : saith (''sayeth'')
 
; 8 : wyth (''oo-ith'')
 
; 8 : wyth (''oo-ith'')
 
; 9 : naw (''now'')
 
; 9 : naw (''now'')
; 10 : deg (''day-g'' or ''deng'')
+
; 10 : deg (''day-g''); deng (''deng'') before a noun
 
;''From this point, the first term is the vigesimal form, the second is the decimal form. Replace "dau", "tri" and "pedwar" with "dwy", "tair", and "pedair" as appropriate.
 
;''From this point, the first term is the vigesimal form, the second is the decimal form. Replace "dau", "tri" and "pedwar" with "dwy", "tair", and "pedair" as appropriate.
 
; 11 : un ar ddeg (''een ar thayg''); un deg un
 
; 11 : un ar ddeg (''een ar thayg''); un deg un
; 12 : deuddeg (''DAY-theg'' or ''DAY-theng'')' un deg dau
+
; 12 : deuddeg (''DAY-theg'') deuddeng (''DAY-theng'')before a noun;  un deg dau
 
; 13 : tri ar ddeg (''tree ar thayg''); un deg tri
 
; 13 : tri ar ddeg (''tree ar thayg''); un deg tri
 
; 14 : pedwar ar ddeg (''PED-war ar thayg''); un deg pedwar
 
; 14 : pedwar ar ddeg (''PED-war ar thayg''); un deg pedwar
; 15 : pumtheg (''PUM-theg''); un deg pump
+
; 15 : pumtheg (''PUM-theg''), pumtheng (''PUM-theng'')before a noun; un deg pump
; 16 : un ar bumtheg (''een ar BUM-theg''); un deg chwech
+
; 16 : un ar bymtheg (''een ar BUM-theg''); un deg chwech
; 17 : dau ar bumtheg (''die ar BUM-theg''); un deg saith
+
; 17 : dau ar bymtheg (''die ar BUM-theg''); un deg saith
 
; 18 : deunaw (''DAY-now''); un deg wyth
 
; 18 : deunaw (''DAY-now''); un deg wyth
 
; 19 : pedwar ar bymtheg (''PED-war ar BUM-theg''); un deg naw
 
; 19 : pedwar ar bymtheg (''PED-war ar BUM-theg''); un deg naw
 
; 20 : ugain (''IG-ine''); dau ddeg
 
; 20 : ugain (''IG-ine''); dau ddeg
; 21 : un ar ugain (''een ar IG-ine''); dau ddeg un
+
; 21 : un ar hugain (''een ar IG-ine''); dau ddeg un
; 22 : dau ar ugain (''die ar IG-ine''); dau ddeg dau
+
; 22 : dau ar hugain (''die ar HIG-ine''); dau ddeg dau
; 23 : tri ar ugain (''tree ar IG-ine''); dau ddeg tri
+
; 23 : tri ar hugain (''tree ar HIG-ine''); dau ddeg tri
; 30 : deg ar ugain (''DAYG ar IG-ine''); tri ddeg
+
; 30 : deg ar hugain (''DAYG ar HIG-ine''); tri ddeg
 
; 40 : deugain (''DAY-gine''); pedwar deg
 
; 40 : deugain (''DAY-gine''); pedwar deg
; 50 : hanner cant (''HAN-ner kant''); pum' deg
+
; 50 : hanner cant (''HAN-ner kant''); pum deg
; 60 : trigain (''TRIG-ine''); chwe' deg
+
; 60 : trigain (''TRIG-ine''); chwe deg
 
; 70 : deg a thrigain (''DAYG ah THRIG-ine''); saith deg  
 
; 70 : deg a thrigain (''DAYG ah THRIG-ine''); saith deg  
 
; 80 : pedwar ugain (''PED-war IG-ine''); wyth deg  
 
; 80 : pedwar ugain (''PED-war IG-ine''); wyth deg  
 
; 90 : deg a phedwar ugain (''DAYG ah FED-war IG-ine''); naw deg
 
; 90 : deg a phedwar ugain (''DAYG ah FED-war IG-ine''); naw deg
 
; 91 : un ar ddeg a phedwar ugain (''een ar thayg ah FED-war IG-ine''); naw deg un  
 
; 91 : un ar ddeg a phedwar ugain (''een ar thayg ah FED-war IG-ine''); naw deg un  
; 100 : cant (''KANT'')
+
; 100 : cant (''KANT''); can ('' can) before a noun
; 200 : dau gant (''die gant'') (m); dwy chant (''doo-ey ch'ant'') (f)
+
; 200 : dau gant (''die gant'')
 
; 300 : tri chant (''tree ch'ant'')
 
; 300 : tri chant (''tree ch'ant'')
 
; 1000 : mil (''meel'')
 
; 1000 : mil (''meel'')
; 2000 : dau mil (''die meel'') (m); dwy fil (''doo-ey veel'') (f)
+
; 2000 : dwy fil (''doo-eey veel'')  
 
; 1,000,000 : miliwn (''MIL-ioon'')
 
; 1,000,000 : miliwn (''MIL-ioon'')
; number _____ (''train, bus, etc.'') : rhif _____ (''REEV'')
+
; number _____ (''train, bus, etc.'') : rhif _____ (''Rheev'')
 
; half : hanner (''HAN-ner'')
 
; half : hanner (''HAN-ner'')
 
; less : llai (''lhie'')
 
; less : llai (''lhie'')
; more : mwy (''MOO-ee'')
+
; more : mwy (''moo-ee'')
  
 
===Time===
 
===Time===
  
; now : rwan (''ROO-an''); nawr (''NOW-r'')
+
; now : rwan (''ROO-an'')[North]; nawr (''NOW-r'') [South]
 
; later : hwyrach (''HOOIR-ach'')
 
; later : hwyrach (''HOOIR-ach'')
 
; before : cyn (''kin'')
 
; before : cyn (''kin'')
 
; after : wedi (''weddy'')
 
; after : wedi (''weddy'')
 
; morning : bore (''BOR-eh'')
 
; morning : bore (''BOR-eh'')
; in the morning : yn y fore (''un uh VOR-eh'')
+
; in the morning : yn y bore (''un uh BOR-eh'')
 
; afternoon : prynhawn (''PRUN-hown'') - commonly pronounced ''p'nown''
 
; afternoon : prynhawn (''PRUN-hown'') - commonly pronounced ''p'nown''
; evening : min nos (''meen nohs''); noson (''nosson'')
+
; evening : noswaith (''NOSooaith''); noson (''nosson'')
; in the evening: yn y fin nos (''un uh veen nohs'')
+
; in the evening: gyda'r nos (''GIdar nohs'')
 
; night : nos (''nohs'')
 
; night : nos (''nohs'')
  
Line 162: Line 174:
 
; one o'clock AM : un o'r gloch y bore (''een oh'r glo'ch uh bor-eh'') - 1:00 y.b.; 01:00
 
; one o'clock AM : un o'r gloch y bore (''een oh'r glo'ch uh bor-eh'') - 1:00 y.b.; 01:00
 
; two o'clock AM : dau o'r gloch y bore (''die oh'r glo'ch uh bor-eh'') - 2:00 y.b.; 02:00
 
; two o'clock AM : dau o'r gloch y bore (''die oh'r glo'ch uh bor-eh'') - 2:00 y.b.; 02:00
; noon : hanner dydd (''HAN-ner DEE-th'') - 12:00
+
; noon : hanner dydd (''HAN-ner DEE-th'') - 12:00 pm
 
; one o'clock PM, <nowiki>13:00</nowiki> : un o'r gloch y p'nawn (''een oh'r glo'ch uh p'nown'') - 1:00 y.p.; 13:00
 
; one o'clock PM, <nowiki>13:00</nowiki> : un o'r gloch y p'nawn (''een oh'r glo'ch uh p'nown'') - 1:00 y.p.; 13:00
 
; two o'clock PM, <nowiki>14:00</nowiki> : dau o'r gloch y p'nawn (''die oh'r glo'ch uh p'nown'') - 2:00 y.p.; 14:00
 
; two o'clock PM, <nowiki>14:00</nowiki> : dau o'r gloch y p'nawn (''die oh'r glo'ch uh p'nown'') - 2:00 y.p.; 14:00
; quarter to seven, <nowiki>18:45</nowiki> : chwarter i saith
+
; quarter to seven, <nowiki>18:45</nowiki> : chwarter i saith - 6.45 y.h.
; quarter past seven, <nowiki>19:15</nowiki> : chwarter wedi saith
+
; quarter past seven, <nowiki>19:15</nowiki> : chwarter wedi saith - 7.15 y.h.
; half past seven, <nowiki>19:30</nowiki> :hanner wedi saith
+
; half past seven, <nowiki>19:30</nowiki> :hanner wedi saith - 7:30 y.h.
; midnight : hanner nos (''HAN-ner nohs'')
+
; midnight : hanner nos (''HAN-ner nohs'') 12:00 y.b.
  
 
====Duration====
 
====Duration====
  
; _____ minute(s) : _____ munud(au) (''MINNID(ie)'')
+
; _____ minute(s) : _____ munud(au) (''MINNID(eh)'')
 
; _____ hour(s) : _____ awr, ''pl.'' oriau (''our'', plural ''OR-yai'')
 
; _____ hour(s) : _____ awr, ''pl.'' oriau (''our'', plural ''OR-yai'')
 
; _____ day(s) : _____ dydd(iau) (''DEEth'', plural ''DUTH-yai'')
 
; _____ day(s) : _____ dydd(iau) (''DEEth'', plural ''DUTH-yai'')
Line 178: Line 190:
 
; _____ month(s) : _____ mis(au) (''mees'', plural ''MIS-eye'')
 
; _____ month(s) : _____ mis(au) (''mees'', plural ''MIS-eye'')
 
; _____ year(s) : _____ blwyddyn, ''pl.'' blynyddau (''BLOOITH-in'', plural ''blun-UTH-eye'')
 
; _____ year(s) : _____ blwyddyn, ''pl.'' blynyddau (''BLOOITH-in'', plural ''blun-UTH-eye'')
; daily : dyddiadol (''duh-THIAD-ol'')
+
; daily : yn ddyddiol (''uhn dhuh-iol'')
; weekly : wythnosol (''ooith-NOSS-ol'')
+
; weekly : yn wythnosol (''uhn ooith-NOSS-ol'')
; monthly : misol (''MEES-ol'')
+
; monthly : yn fisol (''uhn VIS-ol'')
; yearly : blynyddol (''bluh-NUTH-ol'')
+
; yearly : yn flynyddol (''uhn vluh-NUTH-ol'')
  
 
====Days====
 
====Days====
Line 188: Line 200:
 
; the day before yesterday : echddoe (''ECH-thoy'')
 
; the day before yesterday : echddoe (''ECH-thoy'')
 
; tomorrow : yfory (''uh-VOR-ee'')
 
; tomorrow : yfory (''uh-VOR-ee'')
; this week : wythnos hon  (''WITH-nos hon'')
+
; this week : yr wythnos hon  (''uhr WITH-nos hon'')
; last week : wythnos olaf (''WITH-nos ollav'' ''(commonly pronounced "olla'")'')
+
; last week : yr wythnos diwethaf (''uhr WITH-nos xxx'')
; next week : wythnos nesaf (''WITH-nos NESS-av'' ''(commonly pronounced "nessa'")'')
+
; next week : yr wythnos nesaf (''uhr WITH-nos NESS-av'' ''(commonly pronounced "nessa'")'')
  
 
; Sunday : Dydd Sul (''deeth seel'')
 
; Sunday : Dydd Sul (''deeth seel'')
Line 211: Line 223:
 
; September : Medi (''MED-ee'')
 
; September : Medi (''MED-ee'')
 
; October : Hydref (''HUD-rev'')
 
; October : Hydref (''HUD-rev'')
; November : Tachwedd (''TACH-wedd'')
+
; November : Tachwedd (''TACH-weth'')
 
; December : Rhagfyr (''RAG-vir'')
 
; December : Rhagfyr (''RAG-vir'')
  
 
====Writing time and date====
 
====Writing time and date====
Dates are written day/month/year. So if you see 04-12-2003, you know that's ''y pedwerydd o Rhagfyr'', not April 12. A date (18-12-1963) fully spelled out is ''y deunawfed o Rhagfyr mil naw chwe' thri'' (you specify the number of thousands, then the individual number of the hundreds, tens, and units; for years from 2000 onwards say "dwy fil" (two thousand) followed by the significant number, omitting the zeroes - thus 2005 is "dwy fil a pump" (two thousand and five), compared with 1987 which was "mil naw wyth saith" ((one) thousand nine eight seven). Ordinals are
+
Dates are written day/month/year. So if you see 04-12-2003, you know that's ''y pedwerydd o Rhagfyr'', not April 12. A date (18-12-1963) fully spelled out is ''y deunawfed o Ragfyr mil naw chwe tri'' (you specify the number of thousands, then the individual number of the hundreds, tens, and units; for years from 2000 onwards say "dwy fil" (two thousand) followed by the significant number, omitting the zeroes - thus 2005 is "dwy fil a phump" (two thousand and five), compared with 1987 which was "mil naw wyth saith" ((one) thousand nine eight seven).  
 +
 
 +
The ordinals are as follows. The feminine form is given with feminine nouns.
 
:1st - 1af, cyntaf  
 
:1st - 1af, cyntaf  
 
:2nd - 2il, ail
 
:2nd - 2il, ail
:3rd - 3ydd, trydydd
+
:3rd - 3ydd, trydydd (m.), trydedd (f.)
:4th - 4ydd, pedwerydd
+
:4th - 4ydd, pedwerydd (m.), pedwaredd (f.)
 
:5th - 5ed, pumed
 
:5th - 5ed, pumed
:6th - 6fed or 6ed, chwechfed
+
:6th - 6ed, chweched
:7th - 7fed or 7ed, saithfed
+
:7th - 7fed, seithfed
:8th - 8fed or 8ed, wythfed
+
:8th - 8fed, wythfed
:9th - 9fed or 9ed, nawfed
+
:9th - 9fed, nawfed
:10th - 10fed or 10ed, degfed
+
:10th - 10fed, degfed
  
Times are either written in the 24 hour clock or with hours and minutes separated by a colon or dot and suffixed by "y.b." (y bore) or "y.p." (y p'nawn), equivalent to "a.m." and "p.m.".
+
Times are either written in the 24 hour clock or with hours and minutes separated by a colon or dot and suffixed by "y.b." (y bore),"y.p." (y p'nawn) or "y.h." (yr hwyr) equivalent to "a.m." and "p.m.".
  
 
===Colors===
 
===Colors===
 
; black : du (''dee'')
 
; black : du (''dee'')
 
; white : gwyn (m) / gwen (f) (''gwin/gwen'')
 
; white : gwyn (m) / gwen (f) (''gwin/gwen'')
; gray : llwyd (''lh'oo-id'')
+
; grey : llwyd (''lh'oo-id'')
 
; red : coch (''KO'ch'')
 
; red : coch (''KO'ch'')
 
; blue : glas (''glaas'') - ''note that this word is also used to describe the colour of grass.''
 
; blue : glas (''glaas'') - ''note that this word is also used to describe the colour of grass.''
Line 244: Line 258:
  
 
====Bus and train====
 
====Bus and train====
; How much is a ticket to _____? : Praint yw tocyn i _____ ? (''pry-nt yoo tok-in ee'')
+
; How much is a ticket to _____? : Faint yw tocyn i _____ ? (''Vy-nt yoo TOK-in ee'')
; One ticket to _____, please. : Tocyn i _____, os gwelwch yn dda. (''tok-in ee ____ oss gwel-ookh un tha'')
+
; One ticket to _____, please. : Tocyn i _____, os gwelwch yn dda. (''TOK-in ee ____ oss GWEL-ookh uhn thah'')
; Where does this train/bus go? : Ble 'dy tr&ecirc;n/bws hon yn mynd? (''blay dee train/boos honn yn mind?'')
+
; Where does this train/bus go? : Ble mae'r tr&ecirc;n/bws hwn yn mynd? (''blay mire trayn/boos hoon uhn mind?'')
; Where is the train/bus to _____? : Ble mae'r tr&ecirc;n/bws i _____ ? (''blay mire train/boos i ____'')
+
; Where is the train/bus to _____? : Ble mae'r tr&ecirc;n/bws i _____ ? (''blay mire trayn/boos i ____'')
; Does this train/bus stop in _____? : Ydy'r tr&ecirc;n/bws hon yn galw yn _____ ? (''Uh deer train/bws honn un ga-loo un _____'')
+
; Does this train/bus stop in _____? : Ydy'r tr&ecirc;n/bws hwn yn galw yn _____ ? (''Uh deer trayn/bws hoon uhn GA-loo uhn _____'')
; When does the train/bus for _____ leave? : Pryd mae'r tr&ecirc;n/bws i ______ yn ymadael? (''preed my-r train/boos i _______ un umm-ad-ile'')
+
; When does the train/bus for _____ leave? : Pryd mae'r tr&ecirc;n/bws i ______ yn gadael? (''preed mire trayn/boos i _______ un GAD-ile'')
; When will this train/bus arrive in _____? : Pryd fydd y tr&ecirc;n/bws hon yn cyrraedd _____ ? (''preed veeth uh train/boos honn un kurr-ithe _____'')
+
; When will this train/bus arrive in _____? : Pryd fydd y tr&ecirc;n/bws hwn yn cyrraedd _____ ? (''preed veeth uh trayn/boos hoon un KUHR-ithe _____'')
;a one-way ticket: tocyn unig
+
;a one-way ticket: tocyn sengl
;a round trip ticket: tocyn dwy ffordd
+
;a return/round trip ticket: tocyn dwy ffordd
  
 
====Directions====
 
====Directions====
 
; Where is the _____? : Ble mae'r _____ ? (''blay my'r _____'')
 
; Where is the _____? : Ble mae'r _____ ? (''blay my'r _____'')
 
; North : y Gogledd (''uh GOG-leth''')
 
; North : y Gogledd (''uh GOG-leth''')
; South : y De (''uh DAY'')
+
; South : y De (''uh day'')
; East : y Ddwyrain (''uh THOOY-rine'')
+
; East : y Dwyrain (''uh DOOY-rine'')
 
; West : y Gorllewin (''uh gor-LH'EW-in'')
 
; West : y Gorllewin (''uh gor-LH'EW-in'')
  
Line 271: Line 285:
 
; tent : pabell (pl: pebyll)
 
; tent : pabell (pl: pebyll)
 
; caravan : carafan
 
; caravan : carafan
; self-catering : hunan arlwy
+
; self-catering : hunan arlwyo
  
 
===Money===
 
===Money===
Line 283: Line 297:
 
; Chips (fries) : Sglodion
 
; Chips (fries) : Sglodion
 
; Fish : Pysgod
 
; Fish : Pysgod
; Fish'n'chips : 'Sgod a Sglod
 
 
; Cheese : Caws
 
; Cheese : Caws
 
; Sausage : Selsig
 
; Sausage : Selsig
Line 298: Line 311:
 
; Beer : Cwrw
 
; Beer : Cwrw
 
; Bitter : Chwerw
 
; Bitter : Chwerw
 +
; Real ale : Cwrw go iawn
 
; Wine : Gwin
 
; Wine : Gwin
 
; White wine : Gwin gwyn
 
; White wine : Gwin gwyn
Line 303: Line 317:
 
; Half a bottle : haner potel
 
; Half a bottle : haner potel
 
; Crisps (''potato chips'') : Creision (Tatws)
 
; Crisps (''potato chips'') : Creision (Tatws)
; Nuts : Cneu
+
; Nuts : Cnau
 
; whisky : chwisgi
 
; whisky : chwisgi
 
; vodka : fodca
 
; vodka : fodca
Line 309: Line 323:
  
 
===Shopping===
 
===Shopping===
Siopiau-shops
 
  
siop-shop
+
; Shops : Siopau
 
+
; Shop : Siop
penis-pydyn
+
; Dairy : Llaethdy
 
+
; Bakery : Popty
rydw i'n hoffy pydyn mochyn daer sugyn- i like sucking badger penis
+
; Butcher : Cigydd
 
+
; change : newid
Ydych chi'n dori ac yn dwat?  Do you have the Telegraph?
+
; open : ar agor
 +
; closed : ar gau
 +
; buy : prynu
 +
; sell : gwerthu
  
 
===Driving===
 
===Driving===
Oes na orsaf petrol fan hyn?
 
Is there a petrol station here?
 
  
 +
; road : ffordd
 +
; motorway : traffordd
 +
; services : gwasanaethau
 +
; car park : maes parcio
 +
; insurance : yswiriant
 +
; accident : damwain
 +
; Is there a petrol station here? : Oes na orsaf petrol fan hyn?
 +
; Where's the road to Pandy? : Ble mae'r ffordd i'r Pandy?
 +
; The road via Gwersyllt is quicker. : Mae'r ffordd drwy Gwersyllt yn gyflymach.
 +
; Try to avoid Cefn-y-Bedd. : Ceisiwch osgoi Cefn-y-Bedd.
 +
; Is there a prettier route to Brymbo? : Oes ffordd perta i fynd i Frymbo?
 +
; Turn left at the old steel works. : Trowch i'r chwith ger yr hen waith dur.
 +
; There's nothing to see there. : Does dim byd yna i weld yno.
 +
; There's a petrol station in Rossett but Sainsbury's is cheaper. : Mae na orsaf petrol yn Yr Orsedd ond mae Sainsbury's yn rhatach
 +
; You can park in Heol Hyfryd for free. : Gewch chi barcio yn Heol Hyfryd am ddim.
 +
; Don't park in Bryn Hyfryd it's a rough area. : Peidiwch a pharcio ym Mryn Hyfryd - mae'n ardal ryff.
  
Ble mae'r fordd i'r Pandy?
+
===Authority===
Where's the road to Pandy?
+
  
 +
; Police : Heddlu
 +
'''Fire Station'''
 +
Gorsaf Dan
 +
; Ambulance : Ambiwlans
  
Mae'r ffordd drwy Gwersyllt yn gyflyma.
+
{{usablephrasebook}}
The road via Gwersyllt is quicker.
+
{{phrasebookguide}}
 
+
 
+
Ceisiwch osgoi Cefn-y-Bedd.
+
Try to avoid Cefn-y-Bedd.
+
 
+
 
+
Oes ffordd perta i fynd i Frymbo?
+
Is there a prettier route to Brymbo?
+
 
+
 
+
Trowch i'r chwith ger yr hen waith dur.
+
Turn left at the old steel works.
+
 
+
 
+
Does dim byd yna i weld. Mae'r glofa Groesfford yn stad tai rwan.
+
There's nothing to see there. The Gresford pithead is a housing estate now.
+
 
+
 
+
Mae na orsaf petrol yn Yr Orsedd ond mae Sainsburies yn dsiepach
+
There's a petrol station in Rossett but Sainsburies is cheaper.
+
 
+
 
+
Gewch chi barcio yn Heol Hyfryd am ddim.
+
You can park in Heol Hyfryd for free.
+
 
+
 
+
Paid a pharcio yn Heol Hafod - mae'n ardal ryff.
+
Don't park in Heol Hafod it's a rough area.
+
 
+
===Authority===
+
 
+
{{usable}}
+
  
 
[[Wikipedia:Welsh_language]]
 
[[Wikipedia:Welsh_language]]

Revision as of 19:01, 6 November 2012

Welsh (Welsh: Cymraeg) is a language spoken by around 21% of the population in Wales in addition to English (according to the 2001 Census) but probably more than 21% of the Welsh population can speak the Welsh Language now in 2010. It is also spoken by several thousand people in the Chubut province of Argentina, as well as by substantial numbers of people scattered around the world. All Welsh speakers old enough to attend school in Wales also speak English, while those in Argentina speak Spanish.

Contents

Pronunciation guide

Welsh is a relatively phonetic language, with most letters having only one pronunciation. Complications may arise with the various consonantal digraphs, particularly "dd" which is represented in English as "th" as in "breathe", while "th" is represented in English as "th" as in "think"; "ll" is a famously difficult (and common) sound for non-Welsh speakers to produce - made by positioning the tongue at the top front of the mouth and blowing, and represented here as "lh". "Ch" is always pronounced like the German name "Bach" or the Scottish "loch"; the sound which appears in the English word "church" is represented by "ts".

There are relatively minor pronunciation differences between northern and southern Welsh, most notably that "i" on the one hand and "u" and "y" are two distinct sounds on the other in the north, while in the south these letters are pronounced identically as the sound of "i".

Unless overridden by an accent mark, the stress in Welsh words nearly always falls on the last but one syllable of a word. As syllables get added to words, for example to denote a plural or a female person of a particular occupation, the sound of a word can change dramatically.

Welsh is written in a version of the Latin alphabet containing 28 letters, including 8 digraphs which count as separate letters for collating purposes (and crossword puzzles): a, b, c, ch, d, dd, e, f, ff, g, ng, h, i, l, ll, m, n, o, p, ph, r, rh, s, t, th, u, w, y.

The letters j, v, x and z do not exist in normal Welsh usage, but have been adopted from English for limited use e.g. in personal names. "K" is regarded as redundant in Welsh as the sound is always represented by "c", but it is found in the prefix "kilo-", although "cilo-" is always acceptable.

Grammatically, Welsh is relatively complex with two grammatical genders, masculine and feminine, which all nouns are assigned to, and also masculine and feminine forms of the numbers "two" "three" and "four" which have to match the gender of the object being counted; there are also two separate counting systems, decimal (base 10) and the more traditional vigesimal (base 20). The phenomenon of mutation is a characteristic of the Celtic languages, where the initial letters of words change depending on the grammar of the sentence, which can make tracking words down in a dictionary difficult.

Vowels

Vowels in Welsh can have accent marks, most commonly the circumflex (^), called the to bach (little roof), which lengthens the sound of the vowel, and the acute (´), which shortens it. Occasionally the diaresis appears, dividing two vowel sounds from each other. Vowel sounds tend to resemble those of major continental European languages rather than English.

There are seven vowels in Welsh, which have both short and long forms. The following sounds are only approximations in English:

like "pat" and "father".
like "pet" and "pear".
like "pit" and "machine".
like "pot" and "port".
In South Wales, like "pit" and "machine".

In North Wales, more like a French "u" as in "tu"

like "u" in "put" and "oo" as in "moon".
like "i" in "pit" and "machine".

Consonants

like "b" in "bed".
like "c" in "cat".
ch 
like "ch" in German "Bach" or Scottish "loch".
like "d" in "death".
dd 
like "th" in "the".
like "v" in "van".
ff 
like "f" in "fun".
like "g" in "garden".
ng 
like "ng" in "pong". Sometimes, like in "finger".
like "h" in "heart".
like "l" in "link".
ll 
place the tongue at the top of the mouth, and blow.
like "m" in "meet".
like "n" in "news".
like "p" in "pen".
ph 
like "ph" in "philosophy".
like "r" in "red" (well rolled, as in Scottish pronunciation).
rh 
an aspirated, breathy "r".
like "s" in "state".
si + vowel (NOT a consonant, but a sound) 
like "sh" in "shore".
like "t" in "time".
th 
like "th" in "think".

Common diphthongs

Only southern forms unless otherwise stated. English approximations are also given.

ae 
like "eye".
ai 
like "eye".
au 
like "aye", with a rounded closing sound. When used as the plural marker, often pronounced "ah" in the north and "eh" in the south.
aw 
like "ow!".
ei 
like "ey" in "hey!"
eu 
like "ey" in "hey!", but with a rounded closing sound.
ew 
like "eh-oo" said quickly.
ey 
like "ey" in "hey!".
iw 
like "you".
oe 
like "oy" in "boy".
oi 
like "oy" in "boy".
ou 
like "oy" in "boy".
uw 
like "you".
wy 
like "oo-ee".
yw 
like "you" (in monosyllables).
yw 
like "uh-oo" (in polysyllabics).

The differences between some of the dipthongs are often very subtle.

Phrase list

Basics

Hello. 
Helo. (Hello)
Hello. (informal
S'mae? (s-my? (north) shoo-my? (south))
How are you? (formal)
Sut ydych chi? (north) Shwd ych chi? (south)
How are you? (informal)
Sut wyt ti? (north) Shwd wyt ti? (south)
Fine, thank you. 
Iawn, diolch. (yown, DEE-ol'ch)
What is your name? (formal
Be' ydy'ch enw chi? (bay UHdi'ch ENoo ch'ee?)

What is your name? (informal) : Be' ydy dy enw di? (bay UHdi duh ENoo dee?)

My name is ______ . 
______ ydy f'enw i. (_____ you ven-oo ee.)
Nice to meet you. 
Braf cwrdd â chi. (Brahv corth ah khi)
Please. 
Os gwelwch chi'n dda. ( )
Thank you [very much]. 
Diolch [yn fawr]. (DEE-ol'ch [un vowr])
You're welcome. 
Croeso. (CROY-so)
There are no exact equivalents of "yes" and "no" in Welsh; the concept is conveyed grammatically with regard to agreement between the person and tense by indicating agreement or disagreement e.g. "yes there is" or "no there is not", which is said in different ways depending on how the question was phrased. If the question begins "Oes...?" or "A oes...?" ("Is there...?") then the reply is "oes" or "nac oes"; if the question begins "Ydy...?" ("Is...?") then the reply is "ydy" or "nac ydy" etc
Yes. 
Ie (ee-yeah)
No. 
Na (Nah)
Excuse me. (getting attention
Esgusodwch fi. (es-gis-OD-oo'ch vee)
Excuse me. (begging pardon
Esgusodwch fi. (es-gis-OD-oo'ch vee)
I'm sorry. 
Mae'n ddrwg gen i. (My uhn th'roog gen ee)
Goodbye (Formal
Da bo chi. (Da BO ch'ee)
Goodbye (Informal
Hwyl! (hooill)
I can't speak Welsh [well]. 
Alla i ddim siarad Cymraeg [yn dda]. (Alh'a ee thim SHARad kym-RYE-g [uhn tha])
Do you speak English? 
Ydych chi'n siarad Saesneg? (UD-ich ch'een SHARad SAYES-neg?)
Is there someone here who speaks English? 
Oes rhywun yma sy'n siarad Saesneg? (Oyss RHEEW-in UMma seen SHARad SAYES-neg?)
Help! 
Help! (Help)
Look out! 
Hendiwch! (HEN-dyoo'ch!)
Good morning. 
Bore da. (BOR-eh dah)
Good afternoon. 
Prynhawn da. (PRINhaun dah)
Good evening. 
Noswaith dda. (NOSS-why-th thah)
Good night. 
Nos da. (NOHS dah)
Good night (to sleep
Nos da. (NOHS dah)
I don't understand. 
Dw i ddim yn ddeall. ( )
Where is the toilet? 
Ble' mae'r ty bach? (Blay my'r tee bahch?)

Problems

Numbers

dim (dim)
un (een)
dau (die) (m); dwy (doo-ey) (f)
tri (tree) (m); tair (tire) (f)
pedwar (PED-war) (m); pedair (PED-ire) (f)
pump (pimp); pum (pim) before a noun
chwech (ch'way'ch); chwe (ch'way) before a noun
saith (sayeth)
wyth (oo-ith)
naw (now)
10 
deg (day-g); deng (deng) before a noun
From this point, the first term is the vigesimal form, the second is the decimal form. Replace "dau", "tri" and "pedwar" with "dwy", "tair", and "pedair" as appropriate.
11 
un ar ddeg (een ar thayg); un deg un
12 
deuddeg (DAY-theg) deuddeng (DAY-theng)before a noun; un deg dau
13 
tri ar ddeg (tree ar thayg); un deg tri
14 
pedwar ar ddeg (PED-war ar thayg); un deg pedwar
15 
pumtheg (PUM-theg), pumtheng (PUM-theng)before a noun; un deg pump
16 
un ar bymtheg (een ar BUM-theg); un deg chwech
17 
dau ar bymtheg (die ar BUM-theg); un deg saith
18 
deunaw (DAY-now); un deg wyth
19 
pedwar ar bymtheg (PED-war ar BUM-theg); un deg naw
20 
ugain (IG-ine); dau ddeg
21 
un ar hugain (een ar IG-ine); dau ddeg un
22 
dau ar hugain (die ar HIG-ine); dau ddeg dau
23 
tri ar hugain (tree ar HIG-ine); dau ddeg tri
30 
deg ar hugain (DAYG ar HIG-ine); tri ddeg
40 
deugain (DAY-gine); pedwar deg
50 
hanner cant (HAN-ner kant); pum deg
60 
trigain (TRIG-ine); chwe deg
70 
deg a thrigain (DAYG ah THRIG-ine); saith deg
80 
pedwar ugain (PED-war IG-ine); wyth deg
90 
deg a phedwar ugain (DAYG ah FED-war IG-ine); naw deg
91 
un ar ddeg a phedwar ugain (een ar thayg ah FED-war IG-ine); naw deg un
100 
cant (KANT); can ( can) before a noun
200 
dau gant (die gant)
300 
tri chant (tree ch'ant)
1000 
mil (meel)
2000 
dwy fil (doo-eey veel)
1,000,000 
miliwn (MIL-ioon)
number _____ (train, bus, etc.
rhif _____ (Rheev)
half 
hanner (HAN-ner)
less 
llai (lhie)
more 
mwy (moo-ee)

Time

now 
rwan (ROO-an)[North]; nawr (NOW-r) [South]
later 
hwyrach (HOOIR-ach)
before 
cyn (kin)
after 
wedi (weddy)
morning 
bore (BOR-eh)
in the morning 
yn y bore (un uh BOR-eh)
afternoon 
prynhawn (PRUN-hown) - commonly pronounced p'nown
evening 
noswaith (NOSooaith); noson (nosson)
in the evening
gyda'r nos (GIdar nohs)
night 
nos (nohs)

Clock time

one o'clock AM 
un o'r gloch y bore (een oh'r glo'ch uh bor-eh) - 1:00 y.b.; 01:00
two o'clock AM 
dau o'r gloch y bore (die oh'r glo'ch uh bor-eh) - 2:00 y.b.; 02:00
noon 
hanner dydd (HAN-ner DEE-th) - 12:00 pm
one o'clock PM, 13:00 
un o'r gloch y p'nawn (een oh'r glo'ch uh p'nown) - 1:00 y.p.; 13:00
two o'clock PM, 14:00 
dau o'r gloch y p'nawn (die oh'r glo'ch uh p'nown) - 2:00 y.p.; 14:00
quarter to seven, 18:45 
chwarter i saith - 6.45 y.h.
quarter past seven, 19:15 
chwarter wedi saith - 7.15 y.h.
half past seven, 19:30 
hanner wedi saith - 7:30 y.h.
midnight 
hanner nos (HAN-ner nohs) 12:00 y.b.

Duration

_____ minute(s) 
_____ munud(au) (MINNID(eh))
_____ hour(s) 
_____ awr, pl. oriau (our, plural OR-yai)
_____ day(s) 
_____ dydd(iau) (DEEth, plural DUTH-yai)
_____ week(s) 
_____ wythnos(au) (OOITH-noss, plural ooith-NOSS-eye)
_____ month(s) 
_____ mis(au) (mees, plural MIS-eye)
_____ year(s) 
_____ blwyddyn, pl. blynyddau (BLOOITH-in, plural blun-UTH-eye)
daily 
yn ddyddiol (uhn dhuh-iol)
weekly 
yn wythnosol (uhn ooith-NOSS-ol)
monthly 
yn fisol (uhn VIS-ol)
yearly 
yn flynyddol (uhn vluh-NUTH-ol)

Days

today 
heddiw (HETH-you)
yesterday 
ddoe (THOY)
the day before yesterday 
echddoe (ECH-thoy)
tomorrow 
yfory (uh-VOR-ee)
this week 
yr wythnos hon (uhr WITH-nos hon)
last week 
yr wythnos diwethaf (uhr WITH-nos xxx)
next week 
yr wythnos nesaf (uhr WITH-nos NESS-av (commonly pronounced "nessa'"))
Sunday 
Dydd Sul (deeth seel)
Monday 
Dydd Llun (deeth lheen)
Tuesday 
Dydd Mawrth (deeth MOW-rth)
Wednesday 
Dydd Mercher (deeth MER-cher)
Thursday 
Dydd Iau (deeth IAI)
Friday 
Dydd Gwener (deeth GWEN-er)
Saturday 
Dydd Sadwrn (deeth SAD-oorn)

Months

January 
Ionawr (ION-our)
February 
Chwefror (CHWEV-ror)
March 
Mawrth (MOWRTH)
April 
Ebrill (EB-rilh)
May 
Mai (MY)
June 
Mehefin (me-HEV-in)
July 
Gorffennaf (gor-FEN-nav)
August 
Awst (OWST)
September 
Medi (MED-ee)
October 
Hydref (HUD-rev)
November 
Tachwedd (TACH-weth)
December 
Rhagfyr (RAG-vir)

Writing time and date

Dates are written day/month/year. So if you see 04-12-2003, you know that's y pedwerydd o Rhagfyr, not April 12. A date (18-12-1963) fully spelled out is y deunawfed o Ragfyr mil naw chwe tri (you specify the number of thousands, then the individual number of the hundreds, tens, and units; for years from 2000 onwards say "dwy fil" (two thousand) followed by the significant number, omitting the zeroes - thus 2005 is "dwy fil a phump" (two thousand and five), compared with 1987 which was "mil naw wyth saith" ((one) thousand nine eight seven).

The ordinals are as follows. The feminine form is given with feminine nouns.

1st - 1af, cyntaf
2nd - 2il, ail
3rd - 3ydd, trydydd (m.), trydedd (f.)
4th - 4ydd, pedwerydd (m.), pedwaredd (f.)
5th - 5ed, pumed
6th - 6ed, chweched
7th - 7fed, seithfed
8th - 8fed, wythfed
9th - 9fed, nawfed
10th - 10fed, degfed

Times are either written in the 24 hour clock or with hours and minutes separated by a colon or dot and suffixed by "y.b." (y bore),"y.p." (y p'nawn) or "y.h." (yr hwyr) equivalent to "a.m." and "p.m.".

Colors

black 
du (dee)
white 
gwyn (m) / gwen (f) (gwin/gwen)
grey 
llwyd (lh'oo-id)
red 
coch (KO'ch)
blue 
glas (glaas) - note that this word is also used to describe the colour of grass.
yellow 
melyn (MELLIN)
green 
gwyrdd (m) / gwerdd (f) (gwirth/gwer'th)
orange 
oren (ORRen)
purple 
porffor or glascoch (POR-for or GLASko'ch)
brown 
brown (brown)

Transportation

Bus and train

How much is a ticket to _____? 
Faint yw tocyn i _____ ? (Vy-nt yoo TOK-in ee)
One ticket to _____, please. 
Tocyn i _____, os gwelwch yn dda. (TOK-in ee ____ oss GWEL-ookh uhn thah)
Where does this train/bus go? 
Ble mae'r trên/bws hwn yn mynd? (blay mire trayn/boos hoon uhn mind?)
Where is the train/bus to _____? 
Ble mae'r trên/bws i _____ ? (blay mire trayn/boos i ____)
Does this train/bus stop in _____? 
Ydy'r trên/bws hwn yn galw yn _____ ? (Uh deer trayn/bws hoon uhn GA-loo uhn _____)
When does the train/bus for _____ leave? 
Pryd mae'r trên/bws i ______ yn gadael? (preed mire trayn/boos i _______ un GAD-ile)
When will this train/bus arrive in _____? 
Pryd fydd y trên/bws hwn yn cyrraedd _____ ? (preed veeth uh trayn/boos hoon un KUHR-ithe _____)
a one-way ticket
tocyn sengl
a return/round trip ticket
tocyn dwy ffordd

Directions

Where is the _____? 
Ble mae'r _____ ? (blay my'r _____)
North 
y Gogledd (uh GOG-leth')
South 
y De (uh day)
East 
y Dwyrain (uh DOOY-rine)
West 
y Gorllewin (uh gor-LH'EW-in)

Taxi

Taxi 
Tacsi

Lodging

Hotel 
Gwesty
Bed & Breakfast 
Gwely a Brecwast
Campsite 
Gwersyll, Maes Gwersylla
tent 
pabell (pl: pebyll)
caravan 
carafan
self-catering 
hunan arlwyo

Money

Pound 
Punt
Penny 
Ceiniog

Eating

Milk 
Llaeth (south), Llefrith (north)
Bread 
Bara
Chips (fries) 
Sglodion
Fish 
Pysgod
Cheese 
Caws
Sausage 
Selsig
Cake 
Cacen, Teisen
Chocolate 
Siocled
Coffee 
Coffi
Tea 
Te
Water 
Dwr

Bars

Pub 
Tafarn
Cheers (good health
Iechyd da
Beer 
Cwrw
Bitter 
Chwerw
Real ale 
Cwrw go iawn
Wine 
Gwin
White wine 
Gwin gwyn
Red wine 
Gwin coch
Half a bottle 
haner potel
Crisps (potato chips
Creision (Tatws)
Nuts 
Cnau
whisky 
chwisgi
vodka 
fodca
rum 
rym

Shopping

Shops 
Siopau
Shop 
Siop
Dairy 
Llaethdy
Bakery 
Popty
Butcher 
Cigydd
change 
newid
open 
ar agor
closed 
ar gau
buy 
prynu
sell 
gwerthu

Driving

road 
ffordd
motorway 
traffordd
services 
gwasanaethau
car park 
maes parcio
insurance 
yswiriant
accident 
damwain
Is there a petrol station here? 
Oes na orsaf petrol fan hyn?
Where's the road to Pandy? 
Ble mae'r ffordd i'r Pandy?
The road via Gwersyllt is quicker. 
Mae'r ffordd drwy Gwersyllt yn gyflymach.
Try to avoid Cefn-y-Bedd. 
Ceisiwch osgoi Cefn-y-Bedd.
Is there a prettier route to Brymbo? 
Oes ffordd perta i fynd i Frymbo?
Turn left at the old steel works. 
Trowch i'r chwith ger yr hen waith dur.
There's nothing to see there. 
Does dim byd yna i weld yno.
There's a petrol station in Rossett but Sainsbury's is cheaper. 
Mae na orsaf petrol yn Yr Orsedd ond mae Sainsbury's yn rhatach
You can park in Heol Hyfryd for free. 
Gewch chi barcio yn Heol Hyfryd am ddim.
Don't park in Bryn Hyfryd it's a rough area. 
Peidiwch a pharcio ym Mryn Hyfryd - mae'n ardal ryff.

Authority

Police 
Heddlu

Fire Station Gorsaf Dan

Ambulance 
Ambiwlans
This is a usable phrasebook. It explains pronunciation and the bare essentials of travel communication. An adventurous person could use it to get by, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

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