Wadi Halfa is a town on the shores of Lake Nasser in the north of Sudan, and marks the point of entry into Sudan for those coming in from Egypt. It is surrounded by the dunes of the Nubian Desert, the eastern edge of the Sahara.
Wadi Halfa is Nubia's most important trading point, being the gateway between Egypt and Sudan. With immaculate buildings and surrounded by the golden dunes of the Nubian Desert, it is also exceptionally beautiful for a border town, with none of the usual hassle and dirt. The town is actually the new Wadi Halfa; the original Wadi Halfa was submerged with the building of Lake Nasser, and most of its disgruntled inhabitants were re-located hundreds of kilometres away, to the east. A few Wadi Halfans refused to move away from the river (the Nile) that had built their ancestors' identities as fishermen and river traders and built new settlements several times, finally settling on the current location when the flooding stopped. Seasonal flooding still occurs.
As the road crossing from Egypt periodically closes, and has no public transport even when open, most people entering Sudan from Egypt come by the weekly ferry from Aswan. The ferry docks at the Customs and Immigration terminal five kilomtres outside Wadi Halfa. A sand track leads from the terminal to Wadi Halfa, and several vehicles wait at the terminal, touting for business. It is also possible to walk or cycle into town.
Coming from Khartoum, there is a weekly train to Wadi Halfa. It is also possible to get buses, "boxes" (Toyota Hiluxes) or trucks.
Wadi Halfa is a relatively small town and can be easily explored on foot. Another option is to borrow a donkey, which is the transport of choice for many Wadi Halfans.
If you have just arrived in Sudan and plan to travel independently and off the beaten track (ie not going straight to Khartoum), you will require a Permit To Travel in Sudan. Obtaining one from Wadi Halfa's police station will likely take the best part of a day.
More relaxed options for things to do include wandering out into the desert, climbing a sand dune or sitting around drinking tea and chatting.
The shops and market in Wadi Halfa are substantially better stocked than other small towns to the south, getting most of their goods directly from Egypt. There is an excellent food market just beside the main square that opens early some mornings.
Almost all the eateries are based around the main square and most offer a choice of "fuul" (beans) with bread or fried Nile perch with bread. Many of the restaurants and shops only open two days a week; on the two days after the ferry arrives.
Alcohol is illegal in Sudan. All of the eateries around the main square serve tea, and Wadi Halfans, Egyptian tradesmen and tourists tend to gather there for a few cuppas to watch the world go by.
For most of the year, there are several hotels in Wadi Halfa, although after the rains, many close for repairs. All are similar, offering string beds, bucket showers, mud floors, a courtyard and clean rooms. Many have no signs so ask around.
There is a weekly train from Wadi Halfa to Khartoum, which leaves some time after the weekly ferry from Aswan arrives. There are also buses and boxes heading south after the ferry arrives. NB If you wait for more than a couple of days in Wadi Halfa, all transport will have left and you may be stranded until the next weekly ferry arrives. If travelling south to Akasha with your own vehicle, note that this is a 145 kilometre stretch (local maps are wrong) and there is only one place with water along the way, just before Akasha.