Voronezh — the regional capital is a major cultural, economic, and transit hub for the surrounding regions and a center of the contemporary Russian Communist movement (due to very high unemployment); be sure to visit the excellent collection of Western and Russian art at the Kramskoy Museum; the city is also the birthplace of many famous Russians, including writers Ivan Bunin and Andrei Platonov (the poet Osip Mandelshtam was exiled here also), as well as the great Russian painter Ivan Kramskoi
Divnogorye — a village on the Don River by the Divnogorye Museum-Preserve, an open air museum full of interesting sites, including the ruins of a chalk fortress of the Jewish Khazar Khaganate and a Cossack cave monastery and church, cut from the side of Chalk cliffs and surrounded by natural chalk pillars
Khrenovoye — a village famous for its Orlov Stallion rearing stud farm
Kostenki — a small village surrounded by early Stone Age archaeological sites containing the huts and burial sites of mammoth hunters
Voronezh Biosphere Reserve — a successful preservation story of the last European Beaver population; on-site natural history museum
Voronezh is considered the heart of the "Black Earth Region," a rich soiled region in the south of Central Russia. In its post-Soviet history it has also come to be known as the heart of Russia's "Red Belt," the center of contemporary Russian communism, owing to its high unemployment levels. An interesting read for visitors is Black Earth City, an account written by Charlotte Hobson, a foreign student visiting the capital in 1991–92.
Chances are high that you will need either some knowledge of Russian or a competent guide in order to travel outside of Voronezh.