The Valais is exactly that: a long, narrow, L-shaped valley which was cut by glaciers between two alpine mountain ranges. The main cities in the region are along the river Rhone which cuts through the bottom of the valley, between its source at the Rhone glacier in the east and its temporary destination of Lake Geneva in the west. The main tourist resorts and many small villages are in the side valleys to the north or the south.
Valais offers an amazing diversity of landscapes. Within a few kilometers there are the highest glaciers and mountains of the Alps and almost subtropical places where even almond and pomegranate trees grow.
Some of the best spring skiing in the world is available in the Valais, at prices which although high beat the equivalent offerings in Colorado.
Upper Valais -- German speaking, eastern part of Valais
Lower Valais -- French speaking, western part of Valais
Martigny - old roman town at the bend in the valley, museums and great views
Verbier - first class ski destination with lots of English and Australian visitors throughout the ski season
Fiesch - a beautiful village in the upper Valais, at the foot of the Eggishorn.
The language divide between French and German speaking Switzerland runs through the Valais, with French spoken in the west of the canton, and local German dialects at the eastern end.
Swiss railways (SBB-CFF) in the main valley. Buses span out from the many train stations in the valley and go to almost every inch of the region. The main interchange station for the region is Brig, where trains from the north (Basel,Berne,Zurich) meet trains from the west(Geneva, Lausanne, Sion) and Italy (Milan).
For timetables and tickets for trains see  Post Buses timetables 
The train from Brig to Zermatt is run by a private company and is expensive. The journey is stunning, and is the only way to get to the centre of Zermatt, as the village is Car-Free.
Lower part of Valais
At Martigny, visit the Gianadda museum () : sculptures and paintings, history of the city (especially when the region was part of the Roman empire)
Near Martigny (Vernayaz) : the "Pissevache" cascade and the "Gorges du Trient" ( - )
If you happen to be in Valais during Carnival, don't miss the carnivals of Sion and Monthey
Easily accessible in the summer, the Great St. Bernard Hospice is a monastery situated on top of the St Bernard Pass. It is possible to eat with the monks and even stay the night. The monastery is open in the winter, but only accessible by helicopter or skis.
Heli-skiing is available in the winter, and you don't have to be a advanced skier to experience back-country terrain via helicopter. Most heli-ski companies are based in Anzere.
Middle part of Valais
At Sion, the basilic of Valère on top of a hill with the oldest organ in Europe. On the opposite hill, the ruins of the Castle of Tourbillon, very nice view on the city and the valley.
Fondue - Melt Swiss cheese in a pot, dipped with pieces of bread on a fork. There are some variants :
tomatoes mixed with cheese
chocolate instead of cheese
using vegetables (carrots) instead of bread
Raclette - Another fancy of melt cheese, with potatoes and gherkins
Cholera - Pastry made of potatoes, apples, onions and cheese
Brisolée - hot chestnuts with butter, bread, thin slices of dry-cured and smoked meat
A great diversity of world-class wines. The landscape in the main valley is covered by vineyards.
Very safe area, common sense is just required here. Don't leave luggage unattended etc...
Get a rail pass and see the area from a train or bus
Domodossola for cheap everything compared to the Swiss prices. Direct train every 2 hours from Brig station. NOTE: Domodossola is in Italy so a passport will be required. Also don't go too mad with buying things as there are boarder patrol on the way back and they could search you and then make you pay tax