U.S. Virgin Islands

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Earth : North America : Caribbean : U.S. Virgin Islands
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Quick Facts
CapitalCharlotte Amalie
CurrencyUS dollar (USD)
Areatotal: 352 sq km
water: 3 sq km
land: 349 sq km
Population123,498 (July 2002 est.)
LanguageEnglish (official), Spanish, Creole
ReligionBaptist 42%, Roman Catholic 34%, Episcopalian 17%, other 7%

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During the 17th century, the archipelago was divided into two territorial units, one English and the other Danish. Sugarcane, produced by slave labor, drove the islands' economy during the 18th and early 19th centuries. In 1917, the US purchased the Danish portion, which had been in economic decline since the abolition of slavery in 1848.


Map of Virgin Islands
Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of Puerto Rico
Geographic coordinates 
18 20 N, 64 50 W
Map references 
Central America and the Caribbean
total: 352 sq km
water: 3 sq km
land: 349 sq km
Area - comparative 
twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries 
0 km
188 km
Maritime claims 
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
subtropical, tempered by easterly trade winds, relatively low humidity, little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season May to November
mostly hilly to rugged and mountainous with little level land
Elevation extremes 
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Crown Mountain 474 m
Natural resources 
sun, sand, sea, surf
Land use 
arable land: 15%
permanent crops: 6%
other: 79% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land 
NA sq km
Natural hazards 
several hurricanes in recent years; frequent and severe droughts and floods; occasional earthquakes
Environment - current issues 
lack of natural freshwater resources
Geography - note 
important location along the Anegada Passage - a key shipping lane for the Panama Canal; Saint Thomas has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the Caribbean


123,498 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure 
0-14 years: 26.7% (male 16,926; female 16,012)
15-64 years: 64.2% (male 35,801; female 43,443)
65 years and over: 9.1% (male 4,851; female 6,465) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate 
1.04% (2002 est.)
Birth rate 
15.85 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate 
5.58 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate 
0.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio 
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.87 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate 
9.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth 
total population: 78.43 years
female: 82.53 years (2002 est.)
male: 74.55 years
Total fertility rate 
2.24 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 
HIV/AIDS - deaths 
noun: Virgin Islander(s)
adjective: Virgin Islander
Ethnic groups 
black 80%, white 15%, other 5%
note: West Indian (45% born in the Virgin Islands and 29% born elsewhere in the West Indies) 74%, US mainland 13%, Puerto Rican 5%, other 8%
Baptist 42%, Roman Catholic 34%, Episcopalian 17%, other 7%
English (official), Spanish, Creole
definition: NA
total population: NA%
male: NA%
female: NA%


Country name 
conventional long form: United States Virgin Islands
conventional short form: Virgin Islands
former: Danish West Indies
Dependency status 
organized, unincorporated territory of the US with policy relations between the Virgin Islands and the US under the jurisdiction of the Office of Insular Affairs, US Department of the Interior
Government type 
Charlotte Amalie
Administrative divisions 
none (territory of the US); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are three islands at the second order; Saint Croix, Saint John, Saint Thomas
National holiday 
Transfer Day (from Denmark to the US), 27 March (1917)
Revised Organic Act of 22 July 1954
Legal system 
based on US laws
18 years of age; universal; note - indigenous inhabitants are US citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections
Executive branch 
chief of state: President George W. BUSH of the US (since 20 January 2001); Vice President Richard B. CHENEY (Since 20 January 2001)
election results: Dr. Charles Wesley TURNBULL reelected governor; percent of vote - Dr. Charles Wesley TURNBULL (Democrat) 50.5%, John de Jongh 24.4%
elections: US president and vice president elected on the same ticket for four-year terms; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 5 November 2002 (next to be held NA November 2006)
head of government: Governor Dr. Charles Wesley TURNBULL (since 5 January 1999) and Lieutenant Governor Gererd LUZ James II (since 5 January 1999)
cabinet: NA
Legislative branch 
unicameral Senate (15 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve two-year terms)
elections: last held 6 November 2002 (next to be held NA November 2004)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Democratic Party 8, ICM NA, no party affiliation NA
note: the Virgin Islands elects one non-voting representative to the US House of Representatives; election last held 6 November 2002 (next to be held NA November 2004); results - Donna M. CHRISTIAN-CHRISTENSON (Democrat) reelected
Judicial branch 
US District Court of the Virgin Islands (under Third Circuit jurisdiction); Territorial Court (judges appointed by the governor for 10-year terms)
Political parties and leaders 
Democratic Party [Arturo WATLINGTON]; Independent Citizens' Movement or ICM [Usie RICHARDS]; Republican Party [Gary SPRAUVE]
Political pressure groups and leaders 
International organization participation 
ECLAC (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC
Diplomatic representation in the US 
none (territory of the US)
Diplomatic representation from the US 
none (territory of the US)
Flag description 
white, with a modified US coat of arms in the center between the large blue initials V and I; the coat of arms shows a yellow eagle holding an olive branch in one talon and three arrows in the other with a superimposed shield of vertical red and white stripes below a blue panel


Economy - overview 
Tourism is the primary economic activity, accounting for more than 70% of GDP and 70% of employment. The islands normally host 2 million visitors a year. The manufacturing sector consists of petroleum refining, textiles, electronics, pharmaceuticals, and watch assembly. The agricultural sector is small, with most food being imported. International business and financial services are a small but growing component of the economy. One of the world's largest petroleum refineries is at Saint Croix. The islands are subject to substantial damage from storms. The government is working to improve fiscal discipline, support construction projects in the private sector, expand tourist facilities, reduce crime, and protect the environment.
purchasing power parity - $1.8 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 
GDP - per capita 
purchasing power parity - $15,000 (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector 
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Population below poverty line 
Household income or consumption by percentage share 
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 
Labor force 
Labor force - by occupation 
agriculture 1%, industry 20%, services 79% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate 
4.9% (March 1999)
revenues: $364.4 million
expenditures: $364.4 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)
tourism, petroleum refining, watch assembly, rum distilling, construction, pharmaceuticals, textiles, electronics
Industrial production growth rate 
Electricity - production 
1.02 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source 
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
other: 0% (1999)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption 
948.6 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 
0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 
0 kWh (1999)
Agriculture - products 
fruit, vegetables, sorghum; Senepol cattle
Exports - commodities 
refined petroleum products
Exports - partners 
US, Puerto Rico
Imports - commodities 
crude oil, foodstuffs, consumer goods, building materials
Imports - partners 
US, Puerto Rico
Debt - external 
Economic aid - recipient 
US dollar (USD)
Currency code 
Exchange rates 
the US dollar is used
Fiscal year 
1 October - 30 September


Telephones - main lines in use 
62,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 
2,000 (1992)
Telephone system 
general assessment: NA
domestic: modern, uses fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay
international: submarine cable and satellite communications; satellite earth stations - NA
Radio broadcast stations 
AM 5, FM 11, shortwave 0 (2002)
107,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 
2 (2002)
68,000 (1997)
Internet country code 
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 
50 (2000)
Internet users 
12,000 (2000)


0 km
total: 856 km
paved: NA km
note: the only US posession where driving on the left side of the road is practiced (2000)
unpaved: NA km
Ports and harbors 
Charlotte Amalie, Christiansted, Cruz Bay, Port Alucroix
Merchant marine 
none (2002 est.)
2 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways 
total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2002)


Military - note 
defense is the responsibility of the US

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international