Tver  is a city in Tver Oblast. It was the capital of the powerful medieval Tver Principality and one-time rival to Moscow as Russia's preeminent power base. The medieval center is long gone, a victim of centuries of fires, Nazis, and general rebuilding, but the downtown area is nonetheless quite attractive, dominated by neoclassical architecture erected during the reign of Catherine the Great.
Located north of Moscow, Tver was formerly the capital of a powerful medieval state and a model provincial town in the Russian Empire, with a population of 60,000 on January 14, 1913. It is situated at the confluence of the Volga and Tvertsa Rivers. The city was known as Kalinin (Кали́нин) from 1931 to 1990.