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Revision as of 12:04, 4 April 2007

The Tumbuka language is a Bantu language which is spoken in parts of Northern Malawi, Eastern Zambia, and South-Western Tanzania.

The language of the Tumbuka is called chiTumbuka - the 'chi' in front of Tumbuka meaning 'the language of', similar to 'ki' in kiSwahili or 'se' in seTswana.

The World Almanac (1998) estimates approximately 2,000,000 Tumbuka speakers exist in the aforementioned three countries.

There are substantial differences between the form of Tumbuka spoken in urban areas (which borrows some words from Chichewa/Nyanja) and the "village" or "deep" Tumbuka spoken in villages. Furthermore there are many alternative spellings in written Tumbuka, and no standard orthography. The Rumphi variant is often regarded as the most "linguistically pure", and is sometimes called "real Tumbuka".

Contents

Pronunciation

Vowels

like the "a" in "father"
like the "ay" in "pay" (like the French é)
like the "ee" in "tree" (like the French i)
like the "o" in "home"
something like the "oo" in "food"

Consonants

like 'b' in "bed", but sometimes interchangeable with 'w'
like 'k' in "kid"
ch 
like 'ch' in "chair"
like 'd' in "dog"
like 'f' in "fit"
like 'g' in "go"
like 'h' in "help"
like 'dg' in "edge"
like 'c' in "cat"
like 'l' in "love", but often interchangable with 'r'
like 'm' in "mother"
like 'n' in "nice"
nkh 
like a 'n' sound at the back of the mouth expelling air through the nose
like 'p' in "pig"
ph 
like a breathy 'p'
like 'r' in "row", but often interchangable with 'l'
like 'ss' in "hiss", like 'z' in "haze"
like 't' in "top"
like 'v' in "victory"
like 'w' in "weight", but sometimes interchangeable with 'b'
like 'y' in "yes"
like 'z' in "haze"

Vocabulary

Basics

The standard greetings are addressed as questions, most of which can be answered with the word makola.

How are you? 
Muli uli?
Fine. 
Makola.
I'm fine, how are you? 
Nili makola, kwali namwe?
Hello. (General positive response meaning hi, yes, thank you, etc.) 
Yebo/Yewo.
Hello? (Is anyone at home?) 
Odi?
Welcome. (Greeting.) 
response to "Odi" = "Odini"
What is your name? 
Zina linu ndimwe njani?
My name is ______ . 
Zina lane ndine ______ .
Nice to meet you. 
Chatowa kuwonana nawe.
Please. 
Chonde (when used, connotes begging)
Thank you. 
Yewo = common
Tawonga = deeper thanks/deeper Chitumbuka.
You're welcome. 
Palije suzgo = no problem
Yes. 
Enya.
No. 
Yayi.
Excuse me. (getting attention
Pephani
Excuse me. (begging pardon
Pephani
I'm sorry. 
Pephani. (also means sorry as with empathy)
Goodbye. (I'm going.) 
Nkhuluta sono.
Goodbye. (Go well, if someone else is leaving.) 
Mwende makola.
Goodbye. (Stay well, if you are leaving) 
Khalani makola.
Farewell. (We'll see each other later.) 
Tizamuonana.
Tisanganenge. Tiwonanenge.
I do not speak Tumbuka. 
Ine nkhuyowoya chiTumbuka yayi.
English 
ChiZungu, which means the language of the white people, especially in Malawi and Zambia
Do you speak English? 
Kasi ... mukhuyowoya chiZungu?
Is there someone here who speaks English? 
Pali uyo wakuyowoya chiZungu pano?
Help! 
Novwire.
Stop! 
Leka!
Look out! 
Labisya
Good morning. (How have you woken?) 
Mwawuka uli?
Good afternoon. (How has your day been?) 
Mwatandala uli?.
Good night. 
Mugone makola (Sleep Well). Usiku uwemi (Good night).
Sleep well. (To one who is going.) 
Mugone makola.
I don't understand. 
Nkhupulika yayi.
Where is the toilet? 
Chimbuzi chili nkhuni? (toilet = "chimbuzi")

Problems

Leave me alone. 
Ni leke/ Ni lekani(many)(...)
Don't touch me! 
Leka kunikola/Khwasya(Kunikhwasya yayi - Don't touch me)
I'll call the police. 
Niti cheme Kapokola(...)
Police! 
Kapokola(...)
Stop that! 
("Leka!")
Stop! Thief! 
Wakwiba uyo(...)
I need your help. 
Nkhukhumba kuti mundovwiri(...)
It's an emergency. 
(...)
I'm lost. 
Na sowa/soba(...)
I lost my bag. 
na sovya chola chane, Nataya chola chane(...)
I lost my wallet. 
na sovya chikwama chane, Nataya chikwama chane(...)
I'm sick. 
Nalwala(...)
I've been injured. 
na pwetekeka(...)
I need a doctor. 
nkukhumbika docotala/ng'anga(...)
Can I use your phone? 
ningayimba fone yinu(...)

Numbers

Note that English numbers are often used even when speaking Tumbuka.

moza (...)
bili (...)
tatu (...)
nayi (...)
nkondi, nkonde (...)
nkonde na kamoza (...)
nkonde na tubili (...)
nkonde na tutatu (...)
nkonde na tunayi (...)
10 
Khumi (...)
11 
Khumi na kamoza (...)
12 
Khumi na Tubili (...)
13 
Khumi na Tutatu (...)
14 
Khumi na tunayi (...)
15 
Khumi na Nkonde (...)
16 
Khumi na nkonde na kamoza (...)
17 
Khumi na nkonde na tubili (...)
18 
Khumi na nkonde na tutatu (...)
19 
Khumi na nkonde na Nayi (...)
20 
ma Khumi ya bili (...)
30 
ma Khumi ya tatu(...)
40 
ma Khumi ya nayi(...)
50 
ma Khumi ya nkonde(...)
halve 
kuswa pakati,kugawa pakati (...)
less 
pachoko(...)
more 
chomeni(...)

Clock time

The twenty-four hour clock is used in all Tumbuka-speaking areas.


now 
Sono
later 
panyuma
before 
pambere
morning 
mulenje
na mulenje (in the morning)
afternoon 
mise
na mise (in the afternoon)
evening 
mise, mazgetu(...)
night 
usiku
What is the time? 
Ni nyengo uli?
Nyengo yil uli
one o'clock AM 
wanu koloko ya mulenje
two o'clock AM 
Thu koloko ya mulenje
noon 
namuhanya pakati
one o'clock PM 
wanu koloko ya mise
two o'clock PM 
Thu koloko ya mise
midnight 
usiku pakati

Duration

Hour 
ola (pl maola)
Day 
dazi (pl madazi)
Week 
sabata (pl masabta)
Month(s) 
_mwezi____ (.miyezi..)
Year 
chaka (pl vyaka)

Days

today 
muhanya uno
yesterday 
mayiro
tomorrow 
namachero
this week 
Sabata Yino (...)
last week 
Sabata Yamala (...)
next week 
Sabata Yikwiza (...)
Sunday 
Sabata (...)
Monday 
(Chimoza) - Mande (...)
Tuesday 
Chibiri (...)
Wednesday 
Chitatu (...)
Thursday 
Chinayi (...)
Friday 
Chinkondi (...)
Saturday 
Chisulo (...)

Months

English names are generally used but pronounced in Chitumbuka as follows:

January 
Janyuwali(...)
February 
Feburuwari(...)
March 
marichi(...)
April 
epurelo(...)
May 
Me(...)
June 
Juni(...)
July 
Julayi(...)
August 
Ogasiti(...)
September 
Seputembala(...)
October 
Okutobala(...)
November 
Novembala(...)
December 
Disembala(...)

Writing time and date

In chiTumbuka, traditionally times have been indicated by the position of the sun in the sky. The hand is used as in waving goodbye but turned round with the inside palm facing you and pointing to the eastern horizon for 6 o'clock am and western horizon for 6 pm. Pointing Overhead for midday. 6 O'clock am: Dazi likufuma, namulenje ("6:00 is generally the time when the sun rises in the tropics") 10 O'clock am: generally signalled as the position in the sky between sunrise and mid-day

Colors

The main distinguished colours are Black,Red and white.

black 
ufipa(...)
white 
utuwa(...)
gray 
utuwa(...)
red 
uswesi(...)
blue 
ubidi(...)
yellow 
(...)
green 
ubiliwiri(...)
orange 
ngati ma lalanje(Like oranges)
purple 
(...)
brown 
uswesiswesi(...)

Transportation

Journey/trip: ulendo Depart: nyamuka Arrive: Fika Travel: kwenda ulendo

Bus and train

How much is a ticket to _____? 
Ni ndalama zilinga kuluta ku ________(...)
One ticket to _____, please. 
Khukhumba Tikiti yimoza(...)
Where does this train/bus go? 
Sitima iyi yikuya nkhu? - where does this train go? Basi iyi yikuya nkhu? - where does this bus go?(...)
Where is the train/bus to _____? 
Sitma/Basi yaku ______ yili nkhu? (...)
Does this train/bus stop at _____? 
Sitmai/Basi iyi yikuyima pa _______? (...)
When does the train/bus for _____ leave? 
Sitima/Basi yaku____ yinyamukenge pauli?(...)
When will this train/bus arrive in _____? 
Sitima/Basi yamfika pauli ku ________? (...)

Directions

How do I get to _____ ? 
Ningenda uli kukafika ku ____(...)
...the train station? 
Chiteskeni cha sitima (...)
...the bus station? 
Chiteskeni cha basi (...)
...the airport? 
Chibanja (...)
...the school? 
...sukulu? (...)
...the market? 
...musika? (...)
...the backpackers'?
Mala yakugona(...)
...the resthouse?
resiti hausi(...)
...the _____ hotel? 
(...)
...the American/Canadian/Australian/British consulate? 
(...)
Where are ______
___ yili kuti? the noun comes first and there are different modifiers for different nouns ie: chili, yili, etck(...)
...hotels? 
Mahotelu yali nku?(where are hotels?)malo yakugona ghali nkhu? where is the place to sleep?
...restaurants? 
(...)
...bars? 
chilabo (traditional bar) mala yakumwa mowa (place to drink beer) (...)
...sites to see? 
(...)
Can you show me on the map? 
munganilongola pa mapu?(...)
Path 
Ntowa ("...")
Road 
Musewu/musewo ("...")
street 
Muzele (...)
City 
Mzinda ("...")
Gov't center
boma
Turn left. 
Petukila ku mazele (...)
Turn right. 
Petukila ku malyelo (...)
left 
mazele (...)
right 
malyelo (...)
straight ahead 
ku ntazi (...)
towards the _____ 
chaku______(...)
past the _____ 
kujumpha ______(...)
before the _____ 
Pambere ______(...)
Watch for the _____. 
(...)
intersection 
(...)
north 
Mpoto(...)
south 
Mwela(...)
east 
vuma(...)
west 
kumanjiriro(...)
uphill 
chikwera(...)
downhill 
kusika(...)

Taxi

Taxi! 
matola (...)
Take me to _____, please. 
Muniyeyeko kuluta ku_____(...)
How much does it cost to get to _____?
Ni mutengo uli kuluta ku______ (uli uli?...)
Take me there, please. 
Kaniperekezgani chonde - escort me please , Muniyeyeko chonde- give me a lift please(...)

Lodging

Do you have any rooms available? 
malo yalipo?(...)
How much is a room for one person/two people? 
Ni ndalama zilinga chipinda chimoza(...)
Does the room come with... 
Kasi malo/vipinda vili na....(...)
...bedsheets/Blankets? 
vyakudika?(...)
...a mosquito net? 
(...)
...a bathroom? toileti
(...)
...a telephone? 
(...)
...a TV? 
(...)
May I see the room first? 
Niyawone malo(...)
Do you have anything quieter? 
(...)
...bigger? 
chikulu(...)
...cleaner? 
(...)
...cheaper? 
(...)
OK, I'll take it. 
Mbwenu, ningatola (...)
I will stay for _____ night(s). 
Nikhalenge nausiku.. (...)
Can you suggest another hotel? 
(...)
Do you have a safe? 
(...)
...lockers? 
(...)
Is breakfast/supper included? 
Muli na chakurya cha mulenji? (...)
What time is breakfast/supper? 
Chakurya cha mulenji/namise pa nyengo uli?(...)
Please clean my room. 
(...)
Can you wake me at _____? 
(...)
I want to check out. 
Nkhukhumba kuluta pa...(...)

Money

Do you accept American/Australian/Canadian dollars? 
(...)
Do you accept British pounds? 
(...)
Do you accept credit cards? 
(...)
Can you change money for me? 
Kasi mungasinta ndalama?(...)
Where can I get money changed? 
Kasi ningasinta ndalama nkhu?(...)
Can you change a traveler's check for me? 
(...)
Where can I get a traveler's check changed? 
(...)
What is the exchange rate? 
(...)
Where is an automatic teller machine (ATM)? 
(...)

Eating

A table for one person/two people, please. 
(...)
Can I look at the menu, please? 
(...)
Can I look in the kitchen? 
Kasi ningawona mu kitchini?(...)
Is there a house specialty? 
(...)
Is there a local specialty? 
Kuli chakurya cha Malawi? (...)
I'm a vegetarian. 
Nkurya nyama yayi. (...)
I don't eat pork. 
Nkurya nkumba yayi. (...)
I don't eat beef. 
Nkurya ng'ombe yayi. (...)
I only eat kosher food. 
(...)
Can you make it "lite", please? (less oil/butter/lard)Kasi mungapika na mafuta pachoko? 
(...)
fixed-price meal 
(...)
à la carte 
(...)
breakfast 
chakurya cha mulenji(...)
lunch 
(chakurya chamuhanya)
tea (tiyi
(...)
supper 
chakurya cha namise(...)
I want _____. 
Nkhukumba _____. (...)
I want a dish containing _____. 
(...)
chicken 
nkhuku (...)
beef 
Nyama ya Ng'ombe(...)
fish 
somba (usipa...)
small fish 
kapenta (...)
ham 
(...)
sausage 
(...)
cheese 
(...)
eggs 
masumbi (...)
salad 
mphangwe (this is usually cooked greens)(...)
(fresh) vegetables 
kwambula kupika(...)
(fresh) fruit 
vipaso(...)
banana 
ntochi (...)
maize porridge 
nsima (...)
relish (served with nsima) 
dende (...)
bread 
chingwa, bredi (...)
toast 
(...)
noodles 
(...)
rice 
mpunga (...)
beans 
Nchunga(...)
May I have a glass of _____? 
Nkhumba....(...)
May I have a cup of _____? 
ni paniko nkhombo ya______?(...)
May I have a bottle of _____? 
(...)
coffee 
(...)
tea (drink
tiyi (...)
juice 
jusi(...)
(bubbly) water 
(...)
water 
maji (...)
beer 
Mowa(...)
red/white wine 
Vinyu liswesi/Vinyu lituwa(...)
May I have some _____? 
ni paniko(...)
salt 
muchele (...)
black pepper 
(...)
butter 
margarina(...)
sugar 
suga (...)
Excuse me, waiter? (getting attention of server)
(I-sayi...)
I'm finished. 
(basi, nakuta chomeme...)
It was delicious. 
Chakurya chikunowa. (...)
Please clear the plates. 
sukani mbale(...)
The check, please. 
(...)

Bars

Do you serve alcohol? 
(mukuguliska mowa?)
Is there table service? 
(...)
A beer/two beers, please. 
(mowa/mowa abiri...)
A glass of red/white wine, please. 
(...)
A pint, please. 
(...)
A bottle, please. 
(...)
_____ (hard liquor) and _____ (mixer), please. 
(...)
whiskey 
(kachasu...)
vodka 
(...)
rum 
(...)
water 
maji (...)
club soda 
(...)
tonic water 
(...)
orange juice 
(...)
Coke (soda
Coca cola (...)
Do you have any bar snacks? 
(twakukhwasula pa mowa tulipo?)
One more, please. 
(...)
Another round, please. 
(...)
When is closing time? 
(nyengo yakujalila ni vichi?)

Shopping

Do you have this in my size? 
(...)
How much is this? 
Nizilinga? (...)
That's too expensive. 
Wadula. (mudulalizia...)
Would you take _____? Unga yegha? 
(...)
to be expensive 
kudula (...)
cheap 
(...)
I can't afford it. 
(...)
I don't want it. 
Nkuchikhumba yayi(...)
You're cheating me. 
Ukunitetezga(...)
I'm not interested. 
(..)
OK, I'll take it. 
(...)
Can I have a bag? 
(...)
Do you ship (overseas)? 
(...)
I need... 
Nkukhumba (...)
...toothpaste. 
(...)
...a toothbrush. Muswaju
(...)
...tampons. 
(...)
...soap. 
Sopo(...)
...shampoo. 
(...)
...pain reliever. (e.g., aspirin or ibuprofen
(...)
...antimalaria medicine. 
(...)
...stomach medicine. 
Munkwala wa Muntumbo(...)
...a razor. 
(...)
...an umbrella. 
(...)
...sunblock lotion. 
(...)
...a postcard. 
(...)
...postage stamps. 
(...)
...batteries. 
(...)
...writing paper. 
(...)
...a pen. 
Chilembelo(...)
...English-language books. 
(...)
...English-language magazines. 
(...)
...an English-language newspaper. 
(...)
...an English-English dictionary. 
(...)

Driving

I want to rent a car. 
(...)
Can I get insurance? 
(...)
stop (on a street sign
(...)
one way 
(...)
yield 
(...)
no parking 
(...)
speed limit 
(...)
gas (petrol) station 
(...)
petrol 
(...)
diesel 
(...)

Authority

I haven't done anything wrong. 
(nindanange chili chose)
It was a misunderstanding. 
(...)
Where are you taking me? 
(mukunitolelankhu?')
Am I under arrest? 
(kasi ndakakika)
I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen. 
(...)
I want to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate. 
(...)
I want to talk to a lawyer. 
(nkhukhumba niyowose na mmanyi ma lango)
Can I just pay a fine now? 
(...)

Learning more

This is where you'd give more information on learning the language, such as links to online courses or textbooks, or suggestions for in-person courses to take, or pointers to a dictionary or two.

How do you say _____ ? 
(...)
What is this/that called? 
(ichi ni chi vichi______ku chitumbuka)


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