Travel in the Schengen Zone
This article is a travel topic
Europe is a continent that is small but has many independent states. Under normal circumstances, travelling through multiple states should mean having to go through visa applications, passport control multiple times. However, by entering through any of the member states of the Schengen zone, you will generally be able to access any of the other member states without going through passport control checkpoints again. Similarly, by having a Schengen visa, you do not need to apply for visas to each of the Schengen member states separately/individually hence saving time, money and paperwork.
Countries of the Schengen Zone include Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland. Microstates within or between Schengen states like Andorra, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Vatican City and San Marino, whilst not officially part of the agreement will recognise a Schengen visa to allow you to enter.
The Schengen Zone is not necessarily the same as the European Union (EU). Not all EU states are part of the Schengen zone and not all Schengen states are part of the EU. As such, when you go to an EU member state that does not participate in the Schengen agreement, you will be subject to their completely separate visa, entry requirements and passport control systems. The most notable example of an EU non-Schengen member is the United Kingdom. Newer EU member states such as Bulgaria and Romania are not yet part of the Schengen zone but will do so in the future. Likewise, Norway and Switzerland are examples of Schengen zone members that do not belong to the EU.
The Schengen Zone only covers immigration controls whilst the EU is effectively a customs union. Therefore, you do not need to pass through customs when travelling between a Schengen and a non-Schengen EU country, but you will need to pass through immigration controls (e.g. UK to Germany or vice versa). The converse is true for travel between EU and non-EU Schengen countries: you must pass through customs, but not immigration (e.g. Norway to France or vice versa).
Requirements for a visa
Some nationalities do not require a Schengen visa for tourism purposes. These include members of the European Economic Area, the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand just to name a few.
In general, if your nationality needs a tourist visa, you usually will need to procure the following documents (specific requirements vary slightly per embassy):
Please do not give your only copy of the above-mentioned documents as the copies you submit to the application centre will not be returned to you (except the passport of course).
The application form may have an option of whether you want a single or multiple entry visa. However, the latter is rarely granted for first-time and not all countries (notably the Netherlands) grant it at all unless you can demonstrate that in between two Schengen states, you intend to visit a non-Schengen country.
Setting an appointment
Before choosing an application centre to apply at, it is very important that you identify your main destination. That is, the destination where you intend to spend the longest time in your trip. It is in that country’s embassy/consulate which you must go to. If you will spend exactly the same amount of time in each of your destination countries, then you may apply at the embassy/consulate of the country you will first visit.
For example, if your itinerary says you will spend 2 days in Germany, 4 days in Sweden, 3 days in Poland and 1 day in Belgium, in this case you must set an appointment with the Swedish embassy/consulate. Check the relevant embassy’s website for more details on how to set an appointment, where you need to go, and what else you need to bring.
The application may be filed up to 3 months in advance of your scheduled trip. Get all your paperwork in order as early as possible especially if it takes days to process and/or needs to be posted to you. Appointment slots run out quickly so book an appointment early.
On the appointment itself
In general, personal appearance at the application centre is compulsory, that is an agent cannot lodge the application on your behalf. Make sure you be at the application centre at least 15 minutes before your appointment and that your documents are in order.
The staff at the window will inspect your documents, ask routine questions about your trip and may take biometric fingerprints and digital photographs. If your documents are insufficient, out of order or are requested to submit more, then you will usually need to make a new appointment. Your application will not be processed until this is satisfied.
Processing takes around two to four weeks and possibly a bit longer for some nationalities as other Schengen states may need to be consulted. Before the appointment is over, the application centre will advise you on how you can claim your passport (either by returning or by post).
When you receive your Schengen visa, make sure you check to see the information is correct. Contact the application centre immediately if you notice any discrepancies (take note that even if you applied for a multiple-entry visa, the consul may still grant a single entry visa).
Pay particular attention to the validity dates and length of stay: make sure to leave before they expire (whichever comes earlier/first). If you have been issued a multiple-entry visa with a long validity period or several single-entry visas, please be aware that you are only allowed a combined maximum of 90 days within a 180-day period in the Schengen Zone.
Entering the Schengen zone
Unlike most other countries, incoming passengers are not required to fill-in any additional paperwork to present to passport control officials. That said, a Schengen visa does not automatically allow entry into the Schengen zone. As such, you must still demonstrate to passport control officers that you are genuinely entitled to the visa you were issued.
When travelling through a Schengen airport, flights are separated into schengen and non-schengen flights which are effectively domestic and international flights as known elsewhere respectively. This means if you flight originates from a non-schengen country but are connecting via a schengen airport to another schengen country (or vice versa), you must clear passport control first at your connecting airport. Hence where a connection is inevitable, consider the connection times and the potential for queues when booking your flights.
Going around the Schengen zone
Once you are allowed into the Schengen zone, you can generally travel to any member state without going through formal passport control procedures again. When using a plane to travel between two Schengen points, it will be as if you are taking a domestic flight.
However, part of the Schengen agreement has provisions for allowing individual member states to temporarily reinstate border controls in certain circumstances. In addition, expect random passport checks when crossing borders at anytime, as well as when boarding a plane at the airport. Hence, even if there are no border controls between Schengen states, you are strongly advised to carry your passport with you when crossing borders between Schengen states.
When you check-in at your hotel, you will need to present your passport to the hotel staff as they need to register their guests with the local police.