Anti-aging creams are predominantly moisturiser based cosmeceutical skin care products marketed with the promise of making the consumer look younger by reducing visible wrinkles, expression lines, blemishes, pigmentation changes, discolourations and other environmentally (especially from the sun) related conditions of the skin. A comprehensive grading scale for anti-aging of the skin has been validated and categorizes skin aging as: laxity (sagging), rhytids (wrinkles), and the various categories of photoaging, including erythema (redness), dyspigmentation (brown discolorations), solar elastosis (yellowing), keratoses (abnormal growths), and poor texture. Despite great demand, many such products and treatments have not been proven to give lasting or major positive effects. One study found that the best performing creams reduced wrinkles by less than 10% over 12 weeks which is not noticeable to the human eye. Another study found that cheap moisturisers were as effective as high-priced anti-wrinkle creams. However, recent studies at Manchester University showed that some ingredients have an effect. Traditionally, anti-aging creams have been marketed towards women, but products specifically targeting men are increasingly common.[ Ingredients As well as more conventional moisturising ingredients, anti-aging creams usually contain anti-aging ingredients such as: • Retinol (for instance, in the form of retinyl palmitate). In various formulations it has been shown to reduce fine lines and pores. • Epidermal growth factor, made of 53 amino acids to stimulate cell renewal and Collagen production in the skin and strengthen elasticity and structure. The discovery of Epidermal Growth Factor won Dr. Stanley Cohen and Rita Levi-Montalcini a Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 1986. In various research Epidermal Growth Factor has been shown to reduce fine lines, wrinkles and sagging. It also has healing (wounds and burns) and anti-inflammatory properties when applied to skin. • Alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) and beta hydroxy acids or other chemical peels. These help to dissolve the intracellular "glue" that holds the dead cells together on the skin. The use of this type of product on a daily basis gradually enhances the exfoliation of the epidermis. This exposes newer skin cells and can help improve appearance. AHAs may irritate some skin, causing redness and flaking. • Peptides, such as Argireline (acetyl hexapeptide-3), Matryxil, and copper peptides. • Coenzyme Q10 • Anti-oxidants are substances that may protect cells from the damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals. • Sunscreens provide a high level of UVA protection, which is recommended as UVA radiation is associated with aging effects such as wrinkles. • Vitamin C is supposedly one of the most effective and commonly included ingredient in wrinkle creams. It is also thought to help the healing process. The effects of these ingredients depends on their concentration and mode of application. Many skin care companies recommend using a treatment programme which may combine these ingredients. For example, AHAs can make the skin more vulnerable to damage from the sun, so the increased use of sunscreens is often recommended.