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Svalbard

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Norway : Svalbard
Revision as of 03:54, 8 August 2003 by CIAWorldFactbook2002 (Talk | contribs) (Automated upload of Svalbard)

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Flag
Sv-flag.png
Quick Facts
CapitalLongyearbyen
GovernmentNA
CurrencyNorwegian krone (NOK)
Areatotal: 62,049 sq km
note: includes Spitsbergen and Bjornoya (Bear Island)
water: 0 sq km
land: 62,049 sq km
Population2,868 (July 2002 est.)
LanguageRussian, Norwegian
Religion

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First discovered by the Norwegians in the 12th century, the islands served as an international whaling base during the 17th and 18th centuries. Norway's sovereignty was recognized in 1920; five years later it officially took over the territory.


Geography

Sv-map.png
Map of Svalbard
Location 
Northern Europe, islands between the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, and Norwegian Sea, north of Norway
Geographic coordinates 
78 00 N, 20 00 E
Map references 
Arctic Region
Area 
total: 62,049 sq km
note: includes Spitsbergen and Bjornoya (Bear Island)
water: 0 sq km
land: 62,049 sq km
Area - comparative 
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries 
0 km
Coastline 
3,587 km
Maritime claims 
exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM unilaterally claimed by Norway but not recognized by Russia
territorial sea: 4 NM
Climate 
arctic, tempered by warm North Atlantic Current; cool summers, cold winters; North Atlantic Current flows along west and north coasts of Spitsbergen, keeping water open and navigable most of the year
Terrain 
wild, rugged mountains; much of high land ice covered; west coast clear of ice about one-half of the year; fjords along west and north coasts
Elevation extremes 
lowest point: Arctic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Newtontoppen 1,717 m
Natural resources 
coal, copper, iron ore, phosphate, zinc, wildlife, fish
Land use 
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (no trees, and the only bushes are crowberry and cloudberry) (1998 est.)
Irrigated land 
NA sq km
Natural hazards 
ice floes often block the entrance to Bellsund (a transit point for coal export) on the west coast and occasionally make parts of the northeastern coast inaccessible to maritime traffic
Environment - current issues 
NA
Geography - note 
northernmost part of the Kingdom of Norway; consists of nine main islands; glaciers and snowfields cover 60% of the total area

People

Population 
2,868 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure 
0-14 years: NA%
15-64 years: NA%
65 years and over: NA%
Population growth rate 
-1.99% (2002 est.)
Birth rate 
NA births/1,000 population
Death rate 
NA deaths/1,000 population
Net migration rate 
NA migrant(s)/1,000 population
Sex ratio 
NA
Infant mortality rate 
NA deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth 
total population: NA years
male: NA years
female: NA years
Total fertility rate 
NA children born/woman
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 
0% (2001)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 
0 (2001)
HIV/AIDS - deaths 
0 (2001)
Ethnic groups 
Norwegian 55.4%, Russian and Ukrainian 44.3%, other 0.3% (1998)
Languages 
Russian, Norwegian
Literacy 
NA

Government

Country name 
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Svalbard (sometimes referred to as Spitzbergen)
Dependency status 
territory of Norway; administered by the Polar Department of the Ministry of Justice, through a governor (sysselmann) residing in Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen; by treaty (9 February 1920) sovereignty was awarded to Norway
Government type 
NA
Capital 
Longyearbyen
Independence 
none (territory of Norway)
National holiday 
NA
Legal system 
NA
Executive branch 
chief of state: King HARALD V of Norway (since 17 January 1991)
head of government: Governor Morten RUUD (since NA November 1998) and Assistant Governor Odd Redar HUMLEGAARD (since NA)
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor and assistant governor responsible to the Polar Department of the Ministry of Justice
International organization participation 
none
Flag description 
the flag of Norway is used

Economy

Economy - overview 
Coal mining is the major economic activity on Svalbard. The treaty of 9 February 1920 gives the 41 signatories equal rights to exploit mineral deposits, subject to Norwegian regulation. Although US, UK, Dutch, and Swedish coal companies have mined in the past, the only companies still mining are Norwegian and Russian. The settlements on Svalbard are essentially company towns. The Norwegian state-owned coal company employs nearly 60% of the Norwegian population on the island, runs many of the local services, and provides most of the local infrastructure. There is also some trapping of seal, polar bear, fox, and walrus.
GDP 
purchasing power parity - $NA
GDP - real growth rate 
NA%
GDP - per capita 
purchasing power parity - $NA
Population below poverty line 
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share 
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 
NA%
Labor force 
NA
Budget 
revenues: $11.5 million
expenditures: $11.5 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.) (1998 est.)
Industrial production growth rate 
NA%
Electricity - production 
NA kWh
Electricity - production by source 
fossil fuel: NA%
other: NA%
hydro: NA%
nuclear: NA%
Electricity - consumption 
NA kWh
Exports 
$NA
Imports 
$NA
Economic aid - recipient 
$8.2 million from Norway (1998)
Currency 
Norwegian krone (NOK)
Currency code 
NOK
Exchange rates 
Norwegian kroner per US dollar - 8.9684 (January 2002), 8.9917 (2001), 8.8018 (2000), 7.7992 (1999), 7.5451 (1998), 7.0734 (1997)

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use 
NA
Telephones - mobile cellular 
NA
Telephone system 
general assessment: probably adequate
domestic: local telephone service
international: satellite earth station - 1 of unknown type (for communication with Norwegian mainland only)
Radio broadcast stations 
AM 1, FM 1 (plus 2 repeaters), shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios 
NA
Television broadcast stations 
NA
Televisions 
NA
Internet country code 
.sj
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 
13 (Svalbard and Jan Mayen) (2000)
Internet users 
NA

Transportation

Railways 
0 km
Highways 
total: NA km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km
Waterways 
none
Ports and harbors 
Barentsburg, Longyearbyen, Ny-Alesund, Pyramiden
Merchant marine 
none (2002 est.)
Airports 
4 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways 
total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways 
total: 2
under 914 m: 2 (2002)

Military

Military - note 
demilitarized by treaty (9 February 1920)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international 
despite recent discussions, Russia and Norway dispute their maritime limits in the Barents Sea and Russia's fishing rights beyond Svalbard's territorial limits within the Svalbard Treaty zone