Sri Lanka

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Ce-flag.png
Quick Facts
CapitalColombo; note - Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte is the legislative capital
Governmentrepublic
CurrencySri Lankan rupee (LKR)
Areatotal: 65,610 sq km
water: 870 sq km
land: 64,740 sq km
Population19,576,783
note: since the outbreak of hostilities between the government and armed Tamil separatists in the mid-1980s, several hundred thousand Tamil civilians have fled the island; as of mid-1999, approximately 66,000 were housed in 133 refugee camps in south India, another 40,000 lived outside the Indian camps, and more than 200,000 Tamils have sought refuge in the West (July 2002 est.)
LanguageSinhala (official and national language) 74%, Tamil (national language) 18%, other 8%
note: English is commonly used in government and is spoken competently by about 10% of the population
ReligionBuddhist 70%, Hindu 15%, Christian 8%, Muslim 7% (1999)

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The Sinhalese arrived in Sri Lanka late in the 6th century B.C., probably from northern India. Buddhism was introduced beginning in about the mid-3rd century B.C. and a great civilization developed at such cities as Anuradhapura (kingdom from c. 200 B.C. to c. 1000 A.D.) and Polonnaruwa (c. 1070 to 1200). In the 14th century, a south Indian dynasty seized power in the north and established a Tamil kingdom. Occupied by the Portuguese in the 16th century and by the Dutch in the 17th century, the island was ceded to the British in 1796 and became a crown colony in 1802. As Ceylon it became independent in 1948; its name was changed in 1972. Tensions between the Sinhalese majority and Tamil separatists erupted in violence in the mid-1980s. Tens of thousands have died in an ethnic war that continues to fester.


Geography

Ce-map.png
Map of Sri Lanka
Location 
Southern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of India
Geographic coordinates 
7 00 N, 81 00 E
Map references 
Asia
Area 
total: 65,610 sq km
water: 870 sq km
land: 64,740 sq km
Area - comparative 
slightly larger than West Virginia
Land boundaries 
0 km
Coastline 
1,340 km
Maritime claims 
contiguous zone: 24 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate 
tropical monsoon; northeast monsoon (December to March); southwest monsoon (June to October)
Terrain 
mostly low, flat to rolling plain; mountains in south-central interior
Elevation extremes 
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pidurutalagala 2,524 m
Natural resources 
limestone, graphite, mineral sands, gems, phosphates, clay, hydropower
Land use 
arable land: 13.43%
permanent crops: 15.78%
other: 70.79% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land 
6,510 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards 
occasional cyclones and tornadoes
Environment - current issues 
deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by poaching and urbanization; coastal degradation from mining activities and increased pollution; freshwater resources being polluted by industrial wastes and sewage runoff; waste disposal; air pollution in Colombo
Environment - international agreements 
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note 
strategic location near major Indian Ocean sea lanes

People

Population 
19,576,783
note: since the outbreak of hostilities between the government and armed Tamil separatists in the mid-1980s, several hundred thousand Tamil civilians have fled the island; as of mid-1999, approximately 66,000 were housed in 133 refugee camps in south India, another 40,000 lived outside the Indian camps, and more than 200,000 Tamils have sought refuge in the West (July 2002 est.)
Age structure 
0-14 years: 25.6% (male 2,559,246; female 2,446,393)
15-64 years: 67.7% (male 6,446,320; female 6,802,515)
65 years and over: 6.7% (male 628,398; female 693,911) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate 
0.85% (2002 est.)
Birth rate 
16.36 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate 
6.45 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate 
-1.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio 
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate 
15.65 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth 
total population: 72.35 years
female: 75 years (2002 est.)
male: 69.83 years
Total fertility rate 
1.93 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 
0.07% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 
7,500 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths 
490 (1999 est.)
Nationality 
noun: Sri Lankan(s)
adjective: Sri Lankan
Ethnic groups 
Sinhalese 74%, Tamil 18%, Moor 7%, Burgher, Malay, and Vedda 1%
Religions 
Buddhist 70%, Hindu 15%, Christian 8%, Muslim 7% (1999)
Languages 
Sinhala (official and national language) 74%, Tamil (national language) 18%, other 8%
note: English is commonly used in government and is spoken competently by about 10% of the population
Literacy 
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90.2%
male: 93.4%
female: 87.2% (1995 est.)

Government

Country name 
conventional long form: Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
conventional short form: Sri Lanka
former: Serendib, Ceylon
Government type 
republic
Capital 
Colombo; note - Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte is the legislative capital
Administrative divisions 
8 provinces; Central, North Central, North Eastern, North Western, Sabaragamuwa, Southern, Uva, Western; note - North Eastern province may have been divided in two - Northern and Eastern
Independence 
4 February 1948 (from UK)
National holiday 
Independence Day, 4 February (1948)
Constitution 
adopted 16 August 1978
Legal system 
a highly complex mixture of English common law, Roman-Dutch, Muslim, Sinhalese, and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch 
chief of state: President Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA (since 12 November 1994); note - Ranil WICKREMASINGHE (since 9 December 2001) is the prime minister; in Sri Lanka the president is considered both the chief of state and head of government, in contrast to the more common practice of dividing the roles between the president and the prime minister when both offices exist
head of government: President Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA (since 12 November 1994); note - Ranil WICKREMASINGHE (since 9 December 2001) is the prime minister; in Sri Lanka the president is considered both the chief of state and head of government, in contrast to the more common practice of dividing the roles between the president and the prime minister when both offices exist
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president in consultation with the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 21 December 1999 (next to be held NA December 2005)
election results: Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA reelected president; percent of vote - Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA (PA) 51%, Ranil WICKREMASINGHE (UNP) 42%, other 7%
Legislative branch 
unicameral Parliament (225 seats; members elected by popular vote on the basis of a modified proportional representation system by district to serve six-year terms)
elections: last held 7 December 2001 (next to be held NA December 2007)
election results: percent of vote by party or electoral alliance - UNP, SLMC and CWC 46.8%, PA and EPDP 38%, JVP 9.1%, Tamil National Alliance 3.89%, PLOTE 0.19%; seats by party or electoral alliance - UNP, SLMC and CWC 114, PA and EPDP 79, JVP 16, Tamil National Alliance 15, PLOTE 1
Judicial branch 
Supreme Court; Court of Appeals; judges for both courts are appointed by the president
Political parties and leaders 
All Ceylon Tamil Congress or ACTC [KUMARGURUPARAM]; Ceylon Workers Congress or CWC [Arumugam THONDAMAN]; Communist Party or CP [D. GUNASEKERA]; Democratic United National (Lalith) Front or DUNLF [Shrimani ATULATHMUDALI]; Eelam People's Democratic Party or EPDP [Douglas DEVANANDA]; Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation Front or EPRLF [Suresh PREMACHANDRAN]; Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna or JVP [Tilvan SILVA]; National Unity Alliance or NUA [Ferial ASHRAFF]; People's Alliance or PA [Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA]; People's Liberation Organization of Tamil Eelam or PLOTE [leader NA]; Sihala Urumaya or SU [Tilak KARUNARATNE]; Sri Lanka Freedom Party or SLFP [Chandrika Bandaranaike KUMARATUNGA]; Sri Lanka Muslim Congress or SLMC [Rauff HAKEEM]; Sri Lanka Progressive Front or SLPF [P. Nelson PERERA]; Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization or TELO [SABARATNAM]; Tamil National Alliance or TNA [Nadarajah RAVIRAJ]; Tamil United Liberation Front or TULF [R. SAMPATHAN]; United National Party or UNP [Ranil WICKREMASINGHE]; Upcountry People's Front or UPF [P. CHANDRASEKARAN]; several ethnic Tamil and Muslim parties, represented in either Parliament or provincial councils
Political pressure groups and leaders 
Buddhist clergy; labor unions; Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam or LTTE [Velupillai PRABHAKARAN](insurgent group fighting for a separate state); radical chauvinist Sinhalese groups such as the National Movement Against Terrorism; Sinhalese Buddhist lay groups
International organization participation 
AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OPCW, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Diplomatic representation in the US 
chief of mission: Ambassador Devinda R. SUBASINGHE
consulate(s): New York
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
FAX: [1] (202) 232-7181
telephone: [1] (202) 483-4025 (through 4028)
chancery: 2148 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the US 
chief of mission: Ambassador E. Ashley WILLS
embassy: 210 Galle Road, Colombo 3
mailing address: P. O. Box 106, Colombo
telephone: [94] (1) 448007
FAX: [94] (1) 437345
Flag description 
yellow with two panels; the smaller hoist-side panel has two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and orange; the other panel is a large dark red rectangle with a yellow lion holding a sword, and there is a yellow bo leaf in each corner; the yellow field appears as a border around the entire flag and extends between the two panels

Economy

Economy - overview 
In 1977, Colombo abandoned statist economic policies and its import substitution trade policy for market-oriented policies and export-oriented trade. Sri Lanka's most dynamic sectors now are food processing, textiles and apparel, food and beverages, telecommunications, and insurance and banking. By 1996 plantation crops made up only 20% of exports (compared with 93% in 1970), while textiles and garments accounted for 63%. GDP grew at an average annual rate of 5.5% throughout the 1990s until a drought and a deteriorating security situation lowered growth to 3.8% in 1996. The economy rebounded in 1997-2000 with average growth of 5.3%. But 2001 saw the first contraction in the country's history, due to a combination of power shortages, severe budgetary problems, the global slowdown, and continuing civil strife.
GDP 
purchasing power parity - $62.7 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 
-1% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita 
purchasing power parity - $3,250 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector 
agriculture: 21%
industry: 27%
services: 52% (2000)
Population below poverty line 
22% (1997 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share 
lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 28% (1995)
Distribution of family income - Gini index 
34 (1995)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 
14.2% (2001 est.)
Labor force 
6.6 million (1998)
Labor force - by occupation 
services 45%, agriculture 38%, industry 17% (1998 est.)
Unemployment rate 
7.7% (2001)
Budget 
revenues: $2.8 billion
expenditures: $4.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Industries 
rubber processing, tea, coconuts, and other agricultural commodities; clothing, cement, petroleum refining, textiles, tobacco
Industrial production growth rate 
1.4% (2001)
Electricity - production 
6.619 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source 
fossil fuel: 32%
hydro: 68%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption 
6.156 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products 
rice, sugarcane, grains, pulses, oilseed, spices, tea, rubber, coconuts; milk, eggs, hides, beef
Exports 
$4.9 billion f.o.b. (2001)
Exports - commodities 
textiles and apparel 15%, tea, diamonds, coconut products, petroleum products
Exports - partners 
US 39%, UK 13%, Middle East 8%, Germany 4%, Japan 4% (2000)
Imports 
$6 billion f.o.b. (2001)
Imports - commodities 
machinery and equipment, textiles, petroleum, foodstuffs
Imports - partners 
Japan 9%, India 8%, Hong Kong 7%, Singapore 7%, South Korea 5% (2000)
Debt - external 
$9.9 billion (2000)
Economic aid - recipient 
$577 million (1998) (1998)
Currency 
Sri Lankan rupee (LKR)
Currency code 
LKR
Exchange rates 
Sri Lankan rupees per US dollar - 93.383 (January 2002), 89.383 (2001), 77.005 (2000), 70.635 (1999), 64.450 (1998), 58.995 (1997)
Fiscal year 
calendar year

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use 
494,509 (1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular 
228,604 (1999)
Telephone system 
general assessment: very inadequate domestic service, particularly in rural areas; likely improvement with privatization of national telephone company and encouragement to private investment; good international service (1999)
domestic: national trunk network consists mostly of digital microwave radio relay; fiber-optic links now in use in Colombo area and two fixed wireless local loops have been installed; competition is strong in mobile cellular systems; telephone density remains low at 2.6 main lines per 100 persons (1999)
international: submarine cables to Indonesia and Djibouti; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (1999)
Radio broadcast stations 
AM 26, FM 45, shortwave 1 (1998)
Radios 
3.85 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations 
21 (1997)
Televisions 
1.53 million (1997)
Internet country code 
.lk
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 
5 (2000)
Internet users 
121,500 (2001)

Transportation

Railways 
total: 1,463 km
broad gauge: 1,404 km 1.676-m gauge
narrow gauge: 59 km 0.762-m gauge (2001)
Highways 
total: 11,285 km
paved: 10,721 km
unpaved: 564 km (1998 est.)
Waterways 
430 km (navigable by shallow-draft craft)
Pipelines 
crude oil and petroleum products 62 km (1987)
Ports and harbors 
Colombo, Galle, Jaffna, Trincomalee
Merchant marine 
total: 18 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 137,321 GRT/233,367 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 15, container 1, petroleum tanker 1, includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Germany 9, Hong Kong 1, United Arab Emirates 1 (2002 est.)
Airports 
15 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways 
total: 14
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways 
total: 1 1
under 914 m: 1 (2002)

Military

Military branches 
Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Force
Military manpower - military age 
18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability 
males age 15-49: 5,347,153 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service 
males age 15-49: 4,148,825 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually 
males: 193,522 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure 
$719 million (FY98)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 
4.2% (FY98)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international 
none