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Spain

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Quick Facts
CapitalMadrid
Governmentparliamentary monarchy
Currencyeuro (EUR); Spanish peseta (ESP)
note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by the financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions with the member countries
Areatotal: 504,782 sq km
water: 5,240 sq km
note: there are 19 autonomous communities including Balearic Islands and Canary Islands, and three small Spanish possessions off the coast of Morocco - Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera
land: 499,542 sq km
Population40,077,100 (July 2002 est.)
LanguageCastilian Spanish (official) 74%, Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, Basque 2%
ReligionRoman Catholic 94%, other 6%

This article is an import from the CIA World Factbook 2002. It's a starting point for creating a real Wikitravel country article according to our country article template. Please plunge forward and edit it.

Spain's powerful world empire of the 16th and 17th centuries ultimately yielded command of the seas to England. Subsequent failure to embrace the mercantile and industrial revolutions caused the country to fall behind Britain, France, and Germany in economic and political power. Spain remained neutral in World Wars I and II, but suffered through a devastating civil war (1936-39). In the second half of the 20th century, Spain has played a catch-up role in the western international community. Continuing concerns are Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) terrorism and further reductions in unemployment.


Geography

Sp-map.png
Map of Spain
Location 
Southwestern Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay, Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, and Pyrenees Mountains, southwest of France
Geographic coordinates 
40 00 N, 4 00 W
Map references 
Europe
Area 
total: 504,782 sq km
water: 5,240 sq km
note: there are 19 autonomous communities including Balearic Islands and Canary Islands, and three small Spanish possessions off the coast of Morocco - Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera
land: 499,542 sq km
Area - comparative 
slightly more than twice the size of Oregon
Land boundaries 
total: 1,917.8 km
border countries: Andorra 63.7 km, France 623 km, Gibraltar 1.2 km, Portugal 1,214 km, Morocco (Ceuta) 6.3 km, Morocco (Melilla) 9.6 km
Coastline 
4,964 km
Maritime claims 
contiguous zone: 24 NM
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM (applies only to the Atlantic Ocean)
territorial sea: 12 NM
Climate 
temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast
Terrain 
large, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills; Pyrenees in north
Elevation extremes 
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico de Teide (Tenerife) on Canary Islands 3,718 m
Natural resources 
coal, lignite, iron ore, uranium, mercury, pyrites, fluorspar, gypsum, zinc, lead, tungsten, copper, kaolin, potash, hydropower, arable land
Land use 
arable land: 28.6%
permanent crops: 9.56%
other: 61.84% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land 
36,400 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards 
periodic droughts
Environment - current issues 
pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from raw sewage and effluents from the offshore production of oil and gas; water quality and quantity nationwide; air pollution; deforestation; desertification
Environment - international agreements 
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification
Geography - note 
strategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

People

Population 
40,077,100 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure 
0-14 years: 14.5% (male 2,993,747; female 2,812,498)
15-64 years: 68.1% (male 13,699,383; female 13,592,717)
65 years and over: 17.4% (male 2,922,452; female 4,056,303) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate 
0.09% (2002 est.)
Birth rate 
9.29 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate 
9.22 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate 
0.87 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio 
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate 
4.85 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth 
total population: 79.08 years
female: 82.76 years (2002 est.)
male: 75.63 years
Total fertility rate 
1.16 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate 
0.58% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 
120,000 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths 
2,000 (1999 est.)
Nationality 
noun: Spaniard(s)
adjective: Spanish
Ethnic groups 
composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types
Religions 
Roman Catholic 94%, other 6%
Languages 
Castilian Spanish (official) 74%, Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, Basque 2%
Literacy 
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: NA%
female: NA%

Government

Country name 
conventional long form: Kingdom of Spain
conventional short form: Spain
local short form: Espana
Government type 
parliamentary monarchy
Capital 
Madrid
Administrative divisions 
19 autonomous communities (comunidades autonomas, singular - comunidad autonoma); Andalucia, Aragon, Asturias, Baleares (Balearic Islands), Ceuta, Canarias (Canary Islands), Cantabria, Castilla-La Mancha, Castilla y Leon, Cataluna, Communidad Valencian, Extremadura, Galicia, La Rioja, Madrid, Melilla, Murcia, Navarra, Pais Vasco (Basque Country)
note: three small Spanish possessions are located off the coast of Morocco: Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera
Independence 
the Iberian peninsula was characterized by a variety of independent kingdoms prior to the Moslem occupation that began in the early 8th Century A. D. and lasted nearly seven centuries; the small Christian redoubts of the north began the reconquest almost immediately, culminating in the seizure of Granada in 1492; this event completed the unification of several kingdoms and is traditionally considered the forging of present-day Spain
National holiday 
Hispanic Day, 12 October
Constitution 
6 December 1978, effective 29 December 1978
Legal system 
civil law system, with regional applications; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage 
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch 
chief of state: King JUAN CARLOS I (since 22 November 1975); Heir Apparent Prince FELIPE, son of the monarch, born 30 January 1968
head of government: President of the Government Jose Maria AZNAR Lopez (since 5 May 1996); First Vice President (and Minister of Interior) Mariano RAJOY (since 27 April 2000) and Second Vice President (and Minister of Economy) Rodrigo RATO Figaredo (since 5 May 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers designated by the president
note: there is also a Council of State that is the supreme consultative organ of the government
election results: Jose Maria AZNAR Lopez (PP) elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 44.54%; note - the Popular Party (PP) obtained an absolute majority of seats in both the Congress of Deputies and the Senate as a result of the March 2000 elections
elections: the monarch is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually proposed president by the monarch and elected by the National Assembly; election last held 12 March 2000 (next to be held NA March 2004); vice presidents appointed by the monarch on the proposal of the president
Legislative branch 
bicameral; General Courts or National Assembly or Las Cortes Generales consists of the Senate or Senado (259 seats - 208 members directly elected by popular vote and the other 51 appointed by the regional legislatures to serve four-year terms) and the Congress of Deputies or Congreso de los Diputados (350 seats; members are elected by popular vote on block lists by proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - PP 44.6%, PSOE 34.1%, CiU 4.2%, PNV 1.5%, CC 1.1%, PIL 0%; seats by party - PP 127, PSOE 61, CiU 8, PNV 6, CC 5, PIL 1; Congress of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PP 44.5%, PSOE 34%, CiU 4.2%, IU 5.4%, PNV 1.5%, CC 1%, BNG 1.3%; seats by party - PP 183, PSOE 125, CiU 15, IU 8, PNV 7, CC 4, BNG 3, other 5
elections: Senate - last held 12 March 2000 (next to be held NA March 2004); Congress of Deputies - last held 12 March 2000 (next to be held NA March 2004)
Judicial branch 
Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo
Political parties and leaders 
Basque Nationalist Party or PNV [Xabier ARZALLUS Antia]; Batasuna [Arnaldo OTEGI]; Canarian Coalition or CC (a coalition of five parties) [Paulino RIVERO]; Convergence and Union or CiU [Jordi PUJOL i Soley, secretary general] (a coalition of the Democratic Convergence of Catalonia or CDC [Jordi PUJOL i Soley] and the Democratic Union of Catalonia or UDC [Josep Antoni DURAN y LLEIDA]); Galician Nationalist Bloc or BNG [Xose Manuel BEIRAS]; Party of Independents from Lanzarote or PIL [Dimas MARTIN Martin]; Popular Party or PP [Jose Maria AZNAR Lopez]; Spanish Socialist Workers Party or PSOE [Jose Luis RODRIGUEZ ZAPATERO]; United Left or IU (a coalition of parties including the PCE and other small parties) [Gaspar LLAMAZARES]
Political pressure groups and leaders 
business and landowning interests; Catholic Church; free labor unions (authorized in April 1977); Socialist General Union of Workers or UGT and the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union or USO; university students; Workers Confederation or CC.OO; Nunca Mais (Galician for "Not Again"; formed in response to the oil tanker Prestige oil spill)
International organization participation 
AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNU, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US 
chief of mission: Ambassador Francisco Javier RUPEREZ
chancery: 2375 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
FAX: [1] (202) 833-5670
telephone: [1] (202) 452-0100, 728-2340
Diplomatic representation from the US 
chief of mission: Ambassador George L. ARGYROS
embassy: Serrano 75, 28006 Madrid
mailing address: APO AE 09642
telephone: [34] (91) 587-2200
FAX: [34] (91) 587-2303
consulate(s) general: Barcelona
Flag description 
three horizontal bands of red (top), yellow (double width), and red with the national coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band; the coat of arms includes the royal seal framed by the Pillars of Hercules, which are the two promontories (Gibraltar and Ceuta) on either side of the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar

Economy

Economy - overview 
Spain's mixed capitalist economy supports a GDP that on a per capita basis is 80% that of the four leading West European economies. Its center-right government successfully worked to gain admission to the first group of countries launching the European single currency on 1 January 1999. The AZNAR administration has continued to advocate liberalization, privatization, and deregulation of the economy and has introduced some tax reforms to that end. Unemployment has been steadily falling under the AZNAR administration but remains high at 11.3%. The government intends to make further progress in changing labor laws and reforming pension schemes, which are key to the sustainability of both Spain's internal economic advances and its competitiveness in a single currency area. A general strike in mid-2002 reduced cooperation between labor and government. Adjusting to the monetary and other economic policies of an integrated Europe - and further reducing unemployment - will pose challenges to Spain over the next few years.
GDP 
purchasing power parity - $828 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 
2% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita 
purchasing power parity - $20,700 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector 
agriculture: 4%
industry: 31%
services: 65% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line 
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share 
lowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 25% (1990) (1990)
Distribution of family income - Gini index 
33 (1990)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 
3% (2002 est.)
Labor force 
17.1 million (2001)
Labor force - by occupation 
services 64%, manufacturing, mining, and construction 29%, agriculture 7% (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 
11.3% (2002 est.)
Budget 
revenues: $105 billion
expenditures: $109 billion, including capital expenditures of $12.8 billion (2000 est.)
Industries 
textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools, tourism
Industrial production growth rate 
1.2% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production 
211.64 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source 
fossil fuel: 57%
hydro: 12%
other: 3% (2000)
nuclear: 28%
Electricity - consumption 
201.16 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 
7.832 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 
12.166 billion kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products 
grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish
Exports 
$122.2 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities 
machinery, motor vehicles; foodstuffs, other consumer goods
Exports - partners 
EU 71.3% (France 19.5%, Germany 11.8%, Portugal 10.0%, Italy 9.0%, UK 8.9%), Latin America 6.1%,US 4.4%, (2001)
Imports 
$156.6 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports - commodities 
machinery and equipment, fuels, chemicals, semifinished goods; foodstuffs, consumer goods (1997)
Imports - partners 
EU 63.9% (France 16.8%, Germany 15.5%, Italy 9.1%, Benelux 7.3%, UK 7.0%), OPEC 7.3%, US 4.6%, Japan 2.5%, Latin America 4.2%
Debt - external 
$90 billion (1993 est.)
Economic aid - donor 
ODA, $1.33 billion (1999)
Currency 
euro (EUR); Spanish peseta (ESP)
note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by the financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions with the member countries
Currency code 
EUR; ESP
Exchange rates 
euros per US dollar - 1.1324 (January 2002), 1.1175 (2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); pesetas per US dollar - 149.40 (1998), 146.41 (1997)
Fiscal year 
calendar year

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use 
17.336 million (1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular 
8.394 million (1999)
Telephone system 
general assessment: generally adequate, modern facilities; teledensity is 44 main lines for each 100 persons
domestic: NA
international: 22 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to adjacent countries
Radio broadcast stations 
AM 208, FM 715, shortwave 1 (1998)
Radios 
13.1 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations 
224 (plus 2,105 repeaters)
note: these figures include 11 television broadcast stations and 88 repeaters in the Canary Islands (1995)
Televisions 
16.2 million (1997)
Internet country code 
.es
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 
56 (2000)
Internet users 
7.89 million (2002)

Transportation

Railways 
total: 15,171 km
broad gauge: 12,781 km 1.668-m gauge (6,434 km electrified)
standard gauge: 525 km 1.435-m gauge (525 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 1,837 km 1.000-m gauge (617 km electrified); 28 km 0.914-m gauge (28 km electrified) (2001)
Highways 
total: 346,858 km
paved: 343,389 km (including 9,063 km of expressways)
unpaved: 3,469 km (1997)
Waterways 
1,045 km (of minor economic importance)
Pipelines 
crude oil 265 km; petroleum products 1,794 km; natural gas 1,666 km
Ports and harbors 
Aviles, Barcelona, Bilbao, Cadiz, Cartagena, Castellon de la Plana, Ceuta, Huelva, La Coruna, Las Palmas (Canary Islands), Malaga, Melilla, Pasajes, Gijon, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands), Santander, Tarragona, Valencia, Vigo
Merchant marine 
total: 144 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,364,751 GRT/1,962,764 DWT
ships by type: bulk 10, cargo 31, chemical tanker 10, container 10, liquefied gas 2, livestock carrier 1, passenger 2, petroleum tanker 24, refrigerated cargo 8, roll on/roll off 35, short-sea passenger 8, vehicle carrier 3
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Croatia 1, Cuba 2, Denmark 1, Germany 7, Italy 1, Netherlands 1, Norway 6, Uruguay 3 (2002 est.)
Airports 
133 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways 
total: 93
over 3,047 m: 15
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 23
under 914 m: 27 (2002)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
Airports - with unpaved runways 
total: 59
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 14
under 914 m: 43 (2002)
Heliports 
7 (2002)

Military

Military branches 
Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, Civil Guard, National Police, Coastal Civil Guard
Military manpower - military age 
20 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability 
males age 15-49: 10,520,561 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service 
males age 15-49: 8,403,430 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually 
males: 281,043 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure 
$8.6 billion (2002)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 
1.15% (2002)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international 
Spain and UK are discussing "total shared sovereignty" over Gibraltar, subject to a constitutional referendum by Gibraltarians, who have largely expressed opposition to any form of cession to Spain; Spain controls the coastal enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, which Morocco contests, as well as the islands of Penon de Alhucemas, Penon de Velez de la Gomera, and Islas Chafarinas; Morocco rejected Spain's unilateral designation of a median line from the Canary Islands in 2002 to explore undersea resources and to interdict illegal refugees from Africa
Illicit drugs 
key European gateway country for Latin American cocaine and North African hashish entering the European market; destination and minor transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin

Variants

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