Difference between revisions of "Slovakia"
Revision as of 15:36, 5 August 2014
Slovakia  or Slovak Republic (Slovak: Slovensko or Slovenská republika, both names are officially recognized), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is surrounded by Austria to the west, Czech Republic to the northwest, Hungary to the south, Poland to the north and Ukraine to the east. Slovakia is a modern democratic country and is a member of the European Union.
The main reasons to visit Slovakia are its natural beauty, vivid history and great opportunities for relaxation (and due to the small size of the country, it is quite easy to combine all three). For the same reasons Lonely Planet put it in as number 5 on its Best in Travel 2013 - Top 10 countries list , being best for "culture, adventure and off the beaten track".
Slovakia has nine national parks, which cover a relatively big portion of the country and feature the tallest part of the Carpathian Mountain Range, the High Tatras, which offer great opportunities for mountain and winter sports as well as great vistas. Geologically, a sizable part of Slovakia is made out of limestone, which in combination with many springs and rivers has resulted in formation of numerous caves (12 open to the public, several of which are UNESCO listed) and the beautiful rocky formations, canyons and waterfalls of the Slovak Paradise and Slovak Karst. Even outside these areas, there are some beautiful landscapes, and all of Slovakia is covered by thousands of well-marked hiking trails.
For history lovers, Slovakia has the highest number of castles and chateaux per capita in the world, ranging from simple ruins to well-preserved habitable castles with furnishings, so if you are a fan of medieval history, look no further. There are also numerous gothic and baroque cities and towns across Slovakia, including the capital. There are also well-preserved examples of wooden folk architecture, including churches made entirely out of wood and the tallest wooden altar in the world.
There are numerous mineral and thermal springs in Slovakia, and around some of these world-famous spas have been built that offer great curative therapies or just simple relaxation. You can also chill out, swim and sunbathe at the shores of several local lakes and pools or try AquaCity waterpark if you are feeling more adventurous. In particular, Bratislava boasts a lively nightlife as well and is a popular partying destination.
Much of the central and northern part of Slovakia is rugged and mountainous. Gerlachovský štít at 2,655 m (8,711 ft) in the High Tatras is the highest peak. The Tatra Mountains in the north, shared with Poland, are interspersed with many scenic lakes and valleys. These areas experience lower temperatures and traditionally people here lived off sheep farming.
The lowlands are in the south with the lowest point of the Bodrog River being 94 m (308 ft) above sea level. The soil here is much more fertile, especially the area between Small Danube and Danube, and was more agricultural. The weather is gentler and especially summers can get surprisingly warm.
The area that is present-day Slovakia has been settled since early Paleolithic era. Before the inward migration of Slavs and Huns, the most important cultures were the Celts, Germanic tribes (Quadi) and partially also the Roman Empire which had its limes (border) established right on Danube River and sometimes raided the north, deep into the modern Slovak territory. To this day, artefacts and evidence of the presence of these cultures can be found.
The Slavic tribes, that invaded the area in the 6th century created a succession of influential kingdoms here. During this era, lasting until the early 10th century when the Great Moravian Empire disintegrated and disappeared under the onslaught of the Magyar tribes, local Slavs adopted Christianity – initially that of Eastern (Byzantine) rite but finally in the Western (Catholic) form.
Since 10th century region of present Slovakia became a part of the Kingdom of Hungary which situation subsequently lasted for a thousand years. During medieval times many fort castles have been built, ruins of some of which remain to this day. In 1526 throne of Hungary was acquired by the German-Austrian House of Habsburg and since this year Hungary – including Slovakia – has shared its fate with Austrian and Bohemian (Czech) lands. This personal union gradually evolved into the Austrian Empire (1804), after 1867 transformed into a dual state: the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. This "Danubian Monarchy", lasting until 1918, was a multinational state with many cultures and languages living together which had a great influence on the shaping of the entire region and forms a common cultural history shared by many Central European nations.
Similarly to other European nations, Slovaks also experienced their own "national awakening" during the 19th century. From year 1848 onward Slovak intellectuals and politicians repeatedly have raised demands for autonomy but without positive result. Slovak-Hungarian tensions were finally solved after WWI when Slovaks broke up Hungarian supremacy and joined the closely related Czechs to form new Czechoslovak Republic (1918). During WWII, Czechoslovakia briefly split, with the Czechia being occupied (Protectorate Bohemia and Moravia) by the Nazis while Slovaks forming their own war state (Slovak Republic), close ally of Nazi Germany. Following the chaos of World War II, restored Czechoslovakia became a communist country (1948) within Soviet-ruled Eastern Block. An attempt (led by politician of Slovak origin) to create more liberal "socialism with human face", the so-called Prague Spring, was crushed in August 1968 by Soviet-led Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia. The only remaining result of that liberal era was federalization of Czechoslovakia, i.e. creating of the Slovak Socialistic Republic formed in contemporary borders. Soviet influence collapsed in 1989 and Czechoslovakia once again became free.
But newly acquired political freedom also brought a new rise of nationalism and quarrels between the two parts of the federation. For many years overshadowed by their north-western Czech neighbors, political representatives of Slovaks decided to strike out on their own. The Slovaks and the Czechs agreed to separate peacefully on 1 January 1993 and Slovakia (Slovak Republic) became a country in its own right. This dissolution is known as Velvet Divorce. Nevertheless, both countries remain close culturally and after 1998 there is a high level of political and economical cooperation.
Historic, political, and geographic factors have caused Slovakia to experience more difficulty in developing a modern market economy than some of its Central European neighbors, but now it boasts one of the fastest growing economies in Europe and has been a member of the European Union and the NATO since 2004. Slovakia is now a member of the Schengen agreement, and the country has adopted the Euro on 1 January 2009.
There are some similarities between the Czech and Slovak cultures but the two nationalities remain distinct. One of the most striking differences is that while Czechs are largely atheists, Slovaks are largely Catholics, like their Polish neighbours.
Hungarian-speaking minority, 8.5% of the population, is concentrated mostly in southern Slovakia.
In the eastern part of the country, there are many Romas/Gypsies and some Rusnacs/Rusins and Ukrainians. There are also some Czechs, Poles and still some Germans living in Slovakia.
Slovakia has a temperate climate with sunny hot summers and cold, cloudy, humid and snowy winters. The climate is continental, with four seasons, and while the overall climate is mild, there is a considerable temperature difference between summer and winter months.
It is generally warmer in southern regions and the lowlands, where summer temperatures can climb above 30°C (86°F) on hotter days, and where rain is more common in winters than snow, which usually melts in a few days.
Northern, and especially mountainous regions have a colder climate, with summer temperatures not exceeding 25°C (77°F). Especially in the mountains, snow is common in winters and it can get quite cold.
If you are planning on visiting the mountains, please note that, as in any mountainous region, the weather can change dramatically in a matter of minutes and it can rain (or snow!) even in summer. Take appropriate equipment and don't underestimate the weather.
Holidays and Festivals
Slovakia is a predominantly Catholic Country, so major Christian holidays are observed, as well as some other holidays. Unless indicated otherwise, these days are public holidays and banks and most amenities and shops will be closed. However, big shopping malls are usually closed only around Christmas and Easter.
Religious people will go to mass, and it might be the only time when its likely to see people in traditional clothing in some villages, but this is increasingly less common. Everyone will be dressed up, though.
Throughout Slovakia, kraslice are prepared, which are egg shells adorned with ornaments and painted over with colours. These, along with sweets and money are given to boys, who visit friends' and neighbours' houses, where it is their job to make sure the women will be healthy and prosperous the following year by spraying them with water or perfume and beating them with a willow wand adorned with ribbons. It is called oblievacka and sibacka. It tends to involve copious amounts of alcohol, food and wet T-shirts, and is not taken seriously by anyone. In recent years it became less popular. No matter what gender you are, do not wear clothes you like when venturing outside on Easter Monday as you might have water thrown or perfume sprayed at you (even if you're a guy, since you might get splashed as a side-effect). If you want to protest, make sure to do so in waterproof clothing.
Slovakia is a member of the Schengen Agreement.
There are no border controls between countries that have signed and implemented this treaty - the European Union (except Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Ireland, Romania and the United Kingdom), Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland. Likewise, a visa granted for any Schengen member is valid in all other countries that have signed and implemented the treaty. But be careful: not all EU members have signed the Schengen treaty, and not all Schengen members are part of the European Union. This means that there may be spot customs checks but no immigration checks (travelling within Schengen but to/from a non-EU country) or you may have to clear immigration but not customs (travelling within the EU but to/from a non-Schengen country).
Please see the article Travel in the Schengen Zone for more information about how the scheme works and what entry requirements are.
Recognised refugees in possession of a valid travel document issued by the government of any one of the above countries/territories are exempt from obtaining a visa for Slovakia (but no other Schengen country, except Germany and Hungary) for a maximum stay of 90 days in a 180 day period.
Slovakia became a part of Schengen area only relatively recently, and local cross-border transport services might be limited in certain areas, though this is improving, and in some places it is very easy to cross over. You should have ID with you anyway, but to avoid hassle, make sure to keep an ID on you in border regions.
If you need a visa, always apply at an embassy beforehand. There are zero chances you will get a visa at a Slovak border, no matter how you enter or what your nationality is.
From the Czech Republic
Drivers entering Slovakia from the Czech Republic using the D2 motorway from Prague have to buy a toll sticker at the nearest rest area after the border (provided you don't already have one). The short stretch between the border itself and the nearest rest area is toll-free. See information about motorway toll below in the "Get around" section.
Drivers entering Slovakia using the motorway from Vienna can continue without a toll sticker on the motorway into Bratislava, since motorways within the capital are toll-free. The same does not apply to drivers entering from Hungary (see below). However, if you plan to drive on the motorways further into Slovakia, a toll sticker is of course needed.
Sadly, drivers entering Slovakia using the motorway from Budapest to Bratislava have to buy a toll sticker right at the border, since it is required for a 10km-long stretch of motorway, before it enters Bratislava and becomes toll-free. If you only intend to visit Bratislava, it would be foolish to buy a toll sticker just for 10 kilometers of a toll road; and it would be equally foolish to risk a hefty fine without a sticker. Instead, exit the motorway on the last exit in Hungary (Rajka), just before the border, and continue to Bratislava using the old road. It is not possible to avoid the toll road (U-turn, exit) once you cross the border into Slovakia. You have to leave the motorway before the border.
Border checks are still part of life when entering from Ukraine. There are two road border crossings from Ukraine: (Malyj Bereznyj-Ubľa and Uzhhorod-Vyšné Nemecké). The former is for cars (not trucks), pedestrians and cyclists, and the latter is for motorized traffic only (including heavy trucks). Always expect long waiting times at this border crossing. Both crossings are open round the clock.
From The Czech Republic
As parts of former Czechoslovakia, the trains between the Czech Republic and Slovakia are frequent. EC trains operate every two hours from Prague to Bratislava and Žilina. There is one daily train from Prague to Banská Bystrica, Zvolen, Poprad and Košice. All these cities have a direct overnight sleeper car connection from Prague.
Cheap tickets Včasná jízdenka Evropa can be bought at the Czech Railways e-shop , at least 3 days in advance. The price begins at €15 for seat or €26 for couchette. Please note that such e-ticket is valid only on the one specified train!
If you want greater flexibility or cannot buy in advance over the Internet, you can get a significant discount at a railway station if you buy a return ticket called CityStar. Such international return ticket is valid for one month on any train (and cannot be bought over the Internet at all).
There are three daytime and one overnight train from Berlin to Bratislava. Cheap tickets can be bought at German Railways e-shop , when bought at least 3 days in advance. The price begins at €29.
There are currently two railway routes from Vienna Hauptbahnhof station to Bratislava, terminating at different stations - one at Bratislava hlavná stanica (Main station) via Marchegg and the other at Bratislava-Petržalka station via Bruck an der Leitha and Kittsee. Each route has hourly regional trains. You can use EURegio ticket for €15 – a return ticket valid 16 days, common for both routes. Travel time: 1 hour.
There is an overnight through car from Warszawa to Bratislava via Czech territory. Direct train connection from Poland is very poor, a bus is a better alternative. There are only few local trains between Žilina (SK) and Zwardoń (PL). There's no international passenger traffic at Nowy Sącz–Prešov and Sanok–Medzilaborce lines.
If you really want to travel from Poland by train, prepare for a full-day trip with a lot of train changes. It's cheaper to buy Polish ticket only to border point (Skalité Gr.) and then buy a Slovak domestic ticket at conductor (€1.50 surcharge).
There are EC trains from Budapest to Bratislava running every two hours and two IC trains a day from Budapest and Miskolc to Košice. Unlike trip from Poland, it wouldn't be cheaper to buy the Slovak section at conductor. Instead, there is a bilateral return discount of 60% (i.e. a return ticket is cheaper that a one-way ticket).
From Ukraine and Russia
There is a daily direct sleeper car from Moscow, Kiev and Lvov to Košice, Poprad and Bratislava. The journey is very long – 2 nights from Moscow and Kiev and 1 day and night from Lvov – because of poor rail state in western Ukraine, lengthy customs process at UA/SK border and bogie changing (Ukraine has different gauge than Europe).
It is much more cheaper to buy Ukrainian or Russian ticket only to the Ukrainian border station Chop, then buy a ticket from Chop to the first Slovak station Čierna nad Tisou, and then buy a Slovak domestic ticket at conductor (€1.50 surcharge). But then you have no berth reservation for the Slovak section and you have to change to seat car in Chop.
Another option is to buy CityStar ticket in Russia (or Slovakia were its prices are cheaper) which can be however is valid only for group up to 5 members. CityStar ticket than servers as one-month valid two-way ticket between the stations and is offered with a discount for each next passenger on the ticket. Of course you have to buy berth ticket additionally as well.
Among many others, there are regular services from Vienna, Prague and Budapest to Bratislava; and from Uzhhorod, Ukraine to the eastern Slovak town of Michalovce and from Krakow, Poland through Zakopane, Poland to Poprad.
Buses from Poland and Ukraine are the best option, they are faster and more frequent than trains.
From Budapest the travel is 3 hours, the bus stop for 5 minutes at Györ and in a small restaurant in the road.
On foot, by bicycle
Since the implementation of the Schengen Agreement (2007), hikers are allowed to cross the internal Schengen borders everywhere. This is especially important to hikers in the High Tatras, entering from Poland.
There's a pontoon ferry accessible to cars and pedestrians between Angern an der March, Austria and Záhorská Ves, which operates from 5 AM to 10 PM. Toll is €1 for pedestrians (over 15) and cyclists alike. This border crossing is only important to local commuters and recreational cyclists along the Morava river.
There are two more cross-border bridges on the Morava river suitable for cyclists. One is the recently built Cyklomost slobody (English: Bicycle Bridge of Freedom, German: Fahrradbrücke der Freiheit) between Schlosshof, Austria and Devínska Nová Ves, a suburb of Bratislava. As the name implies, this bridge is for pedestrians and cyclists only. Another bridge lies further to the north between the villages of Hohenau an der March, Austria and Moravský Svätý Ján. This one is also open for cars (under 7.5 metric tonnes). However, absolutely no traffic is allowed on this bridge between midnight and 5 AM, as a wildlife conservation measure.
Sadly, the cross-border bridge between Dürnkrut, Austria and Gajary, still depicted on roadmaps by the Austrian publisher Freytag & Berndt does not exist since 1945!
For those entering from Ukraine, there is also a pedestrian-and-cyclists-only border crossing between the small villages of Mali Selmentsi and Veľké Slemence (48.511086 N, 22.154059 E), open only at daytime between 8 AM and 8 PM and only for citizens of the European Economic Area and Ukraine. Holders of different passports will be rejected! This border crossing is of no particular importance to tourists; its main advantage is the absence of queues, which are ubiquitous at border crossings for cars, especially at those on major routes. Instead of waiting several hours, you can get to the other side in a matter of minutes through this border crossing.
Conversely, the biggest road border crossing from Ukraine (Uzhhorod-Vyšné Nemecké) is open for motorized traffic only! No pedestrians and cyclists are allowed. The easiest workaround is to find someone who'll get you across the border in their car. Even if you have a bicycle, you'll surely quickly find someone willing to help. Alternately, you can make a detour to the south, to the pedestrian border crossing described in the previous paragraph, or to the north to a border crossing Mali Bereznyj-Ubľa, which is open for all nationalities and round the clock.
The budget airline Ryanair operate flights to Bratislava from various European cities, inluding London, Birmingham, Edinburgh, Liverpool, Dublin, Rome (Ciampino) and Brussels (Charleroi), and a few others. These flights can be quite cheap, so if you are arriving from outside Europe, you might end up saving a lot of money by flying to a bigger airport and then connecting to Bratislava. However these flights do not operate daily, so you may be better flying into Vienna. Norwegian Air Shuttle operate flights from Copenhagen and Oslo, and there are also flights to Moscow and Tel Aviv with UTAir and Sun d'or Airlines respectively. Local airline Danube Wings operates flights to Kosice.
The alternative is Vienna Airport, which is just 35 km (22 mi) from Bratislava. It provides a more convenient way of arriving to Slovakia by the major airlines, but can be more expensive. It also operates a much greater number of long-haul flights. Buses leave for Bratislava hourly, going from Vienna Airport straight to the city center or to main bus station in Bratislava. Alternatively, you can take a taxi which will cost around €70. Buses take about an hour, taxis about half that.
If you plan to visit only the eastern half of the country (which also includes the High Tatras), an alternative is to fly to the Košice airport, the second largest airport in Slovakia, which has scheduled flights from Vienna, Prague and London. Košice lies only about 1.5h by train from the High Tatras. Poprad, a town right underneath the slopes of the High Tatras, also has an international airport of its own, but it is mainly used by charter flights and private jets. Scheduled flights to and from Poprad are infrequent and expensive. The Poprad airport is also unreachable by public transport; the only option is to ride a cab. The Sliač airport in the central Slovakia has currently no scheduled flights at all.
Other options include airports in Prague and Budapest, with both cities about 4 hours away from Bratislava by public transport. There are also direct flights operated between Prague and Kosice, in conjunction with flights to Prague providing the most convenient access by plane to the Eastern part of the country.
You can also fly to Krakow if you want to go to the Tatra Mountains. Buses from Krakow run to several Slovak towns around the Tatra mountains and Orava.
CP offers an exceptionally useful website with integrated timetables for all trains and buses in Slovakia, including all intra-city and inter-city transports. Anywhere you want to go in Slovakia, this should be your first point of reference, as it lists every single bus and train in Slovakia. It is also useful for international travel from/to Slovakia.
Train is by far the best option to travel across Slovakia, provided you don't have a private vehicle. Frequent long-haul trains connect all important cities, but there are less local trains, even at main lines. For local transport a bus is generally a better alternative. Trains are fairly priced, with the prices competitive with buses, and cheap by Western standards. For regular tickets, pricing depends only on the distance traveled, and most trains do not require a reservation (and thus do not sell out, though you may have to stand if it is crowded). They are reliable, but delay-prone: it is not usual for a typical run from Kosice to Bratislava to accumulate a delay of more than 30 minutes by the time it reaches Bratislava, so do not plan close connections. Trains are also very safe, but watch out for pickpockets at major stations and steer clear of money scams. Also, sporadic robberies occur to sleeping passengers traveling the overnight long-liners.
In Slovakia, the highest class of train is the InterCity service (category "IC"), offering Western-style comfort in all cars. IC trains link Bratislava, Žilina, The High Tatras and Košice and have compulsory reservations. These have fewest stops and can save you from the crowds: ordinary long-distance trains (in which reservation is only optional) do get crowded, usually on Fridays and Sundays or around holidays. Unlike other trains in Slovakia, the price for InterCity tickets changes over time; the sooner you buy, the cheaper (and vice versa). Pricing is available in a PDF online.
Ordinary long-distance fast trains, called Rychlik (category "R") trains, stop in most major cities along the main Bratislava - Zilina - Kosice route, with several other branches also serving other parts of Slovakia. These trains typically carry a wide variety of cars offering various quality levels on the same train. If you find yourself unhappy with the comfort of the car you are seated in, it may be worth a walk through the train to see what else is available. Most seating is in 6-person coupes, though most trains also carry one or two cars with open seats. These open seating cars are typically the most modern and offer good air conditioning, power ports, and sometimes free wifi. The coupe cars vary in quality, from heavily worn old-style bench seating with no air conditioning to newly renovated cars with air conditioning and power outlets. Because reservations on these trains cost only 1 Euro, and they can sometimes be crowded, it is often a good idea to purchase a seat reservation. When looking for your reserved seat, look on the doors of each car for the car number, and then look for the slips of paper beside each seat indicating the reservation. If you do not have a reservation, you may sit in any open seat that does not have a reservation card near its seat number, or a card that indicates that it is not reserved for that portion of the trip.
Travelling in the 1st class is generally not a good idea, since the price difference is great and the difference in the quality of service is negligible. If you're afraid of the train getting crowded, buy a reservation instead of a 1st class ticket. First class train car can also be packed at peak times and there's a good chance of you having to stand in the aisle (just like you'd have to in the 2nd class), even though you paid almost twice as much money.
Riding a EuroCity (EC) train does not require a reservation, but a special surcharge (€1.50) has to be paid when travelling on a domestic ticket (international tickets are exempt from this surcharge). Two EC lines pass through Slovakia: Prague - Žilina - Košice and Prague - Bratislava - Budapest. If you buy an ordinary domestic ticket from, say, Košice to Žilina and don't explicitly specify you'd like to ride an EC train, it won't include the EC surcharge. Fortunately, it's not a big deal if you're caught on an EC train without the surcharge, since you can pay it on board to the conductor, with no extra fine.
Many of these long-distance trains typically carry a Restaurant Car, which offers a good selection of food and drinks at prices that are very reasonable and comparable to similar food in a regular restaurant. Some trains will offer a full restaurant with sit-down service and table-cloths, while others will be more of a bistro-car type setting, but all will offer some variety of main dishes, snacks, and desserts. Spending an afternoon enjoying a meal or a drink in the restaurant car can be a great way to take in the High Tatras during that part of the route.
Major stations sell international tickets, seat/couchette/sleeper reservations and accept payments by card. Same is true for smaller stations where cross-border traffic is expected, such as the station Devínska Nová Ves (on the border with Austria), and for several stations of the Tatra Electric Railway, which is targeted primarily at tourists. Smaller stations (served only by local commuter trains), which only sell domestic tickets, do not sell reservations and do not accept payments by card.
Tickets can also be bought over the Internet at SlovakRail. Domestic tickets bought online are now (since 2013) valid for any train or a combination of trains on a given date, same as tickets bought at a station. There is a very limited offer of outgoing international tickets on the SlovakRail website, so normally the only option is to buy international tickets at a station.
Bus connections are usually slower than trains, but can get you where trains cannot, and some private companies also offer discounts for travellers with a foreign ISIC card (state-run companies do not, unless you're a Slovak citizen). Tickets for long-haul routes- 100km+ (including to/from the Czech Republic or within the Czech Republic) can be bought from AMSBus after compulsory registration (English version is also available). The travel from Bratislava to Nitra is a rare example of a route where buses are significantly faster and cheaper than trains.
Buses are punctual, and it is therefore advisable to arrive at the bus station in advance, the time specified in the timetable is the time it leaves the station. Most tickets are bought directly from the driver, so you will probably need cash. Though the bus driver will give you change, especially for shorter (cheaper) journeys, it is advisable to have some smaller denominations.
Turancar and Student Agency are good examples of private bus companies which are pretty reliable, comfortable (as they use new buses often with on-board entertainment LCD screens), running on time and offering student discounts for foreigners with ISIC.
The road network is extensive and in an overall good condition. Most major roads (especially in the Western parts) are two lane and in good repair, however the majority of the minor roads are one lane, and maintenance standard of this can vary from good to rather bumpy. Vehicles drive on the right side of the road and the speed limits are in general 50 kmh (31 mph) in a village/town, 90 kmh (56 mph) outside build-up areas and 130 kmh (81 mph) on motorways. However trucks and cars with caravans/trailers are limited to 80km/h (50 mph) outside build-up areas or on motorways and motorcycles are limited to 90km/h (56 mph) on motorways.
Wearing seatbelts in cars and vans is compulsory and children aged 11 or younger or lower than 150cm must be placed on the rear seat or on the passenger seat in a proper child seat (of course with the airbag disabled, in case the child seat is rear-facing).
Headlights must be switched on when driving at all times, regardless of weather conditions or whether it is a night or day, so switch them on. This is not necessary if your car is equipped with daytime running lamps , which are sufficient at daytime.
In winter, snow and ice is common on the roads, and winter tires are recommended (compulsory if road is covered by snow or ice). In extreme weather some minor mountain roads might require snow chains.
Slovakia has a zero tolerance policy towards alcohol. Do NOT drink and drive. If nothing else, then because the penalties are severe.
Fines for traffic offences are now much higher than in the neighbouring Austria, especially for speeding. Sadly enough, a western car registration plate can still attract more attention from police officers, so it's another good reason to abide the law.
Wearing helmets is compulsory for both driver and passenger on motorcycles of any size, and goggles must also be worn by the driver of motorcycles with engines larger than 50cc.
Police presence is frequent on the roads, and especially the major roads, in both marked and unmarked vehicles.
If you intend to drive on the motorways please note that vehicles under 3.5 tonnes must show a mandatory sticker (vignette) covering road toll, in the upper right corner on the car's windshield. The vignette can be purchased from most petrol stations and is valid for 10 days (€10), for a month (€14) or longer (yearly vignette is valid from 1st of January until 31st of January next year, €50). Vignette consists of two parts - sticker that is placed on your windshield and a control coupon where you are required to write your license plate number. If stopped by police on the motorway (quite rare) you have to show this coupon as well. Please note that that the vignette is compulsory on all motorways from the point of entry, and if you are caught without one you will be subject to a hefty fine. If you are renting a car, it most likely is included in the rental, but remember to check or inquire when renting/booking. The motorway bypass around Bratislava (starting on D2 near Lamac and ending on D1 near Zlate Piesky) can be used legally without having the sticker.
The driving style in Slovakia is, especially compared to countries in Western Europe, more aggressive and of lower standard. One should be aware of other cars speeding, which is quite frequent, and overtaking on your side of the road, especially in the more mountainous areas of the country.
If you understand Slovak, many private radio stations include a great traffic coverage as a part of their news, which will inform you about any obstructions on the road, car accidents, traffic jams and even police presence so it is certainly worth tuning in.
Renting a car is a convenient, efficient and relatively cheap (prices starts a approx. 65€/day at car rental chains) way to explore Slovakia, especially if you intend to visit more remote areas, where train and bus services may be more sporadic.
Make sure you have a good map (can be bought at any petrol station) as navigating using signs only may be tricky sometimes. GPS maps coverage is usually great even in small towns and villages.
Hitchhiking in Slovakia (slovak: stopovanie or autostop) is best done by asking around at gas stations. It used to be that most people only speak Slovak (and possibly understand other Slavic languages) so it was difficult for foreigners who don't speak Slavic languages. However, nowadays most of the young people speak English and almost as many speak German.
Keep in mind that trains and buses in Slovakia are cheap for Westerners, and (apart from extremely rural areas where people are generally less wary of hitchhikers) it might take a while for someone to pick you up. Therefore, hitchhiking can only be recommended if it's your hobby, not primarily as a means to save money. You can find some offers if you travel from Slovakia and into Slovakia as well on specialized web pages. The biggest hitchhikers page in Slovakia is stopar.sk. There you can find offers in English, German, French, Polish, Czech and Hungarian language and it is free.
There is a long tradition of hiking and mountain walking in Slovakia, and it is an extremely popular sport. The Slovaks have always lived in a close relationship with the nature, and during the Communist period, when travelling abroad was severely restricted, hiking became a national pastime. Most people you meet will have gone on a hike at least once in their life, and many do so regularly, and can give you advice about the most interesting local trails. The trail network is also very well maintained. The quality and efficiency of the sign-posting system is unique in European (and probably World) context.
Every route is marked and signposted, different trails being given a different colour. There are four colours used - red, blue, green and yellow. Longest and most strenuous trails are usually marked red, and it is possible to traverse from north-eastern Dukla Pass all the way to the west (Bradlo, near Bratislava) along the Slovak National Uprising Heroes trail (750km) along one such red-marked path. However, the trails are numerous, suitable for various levels of fitness, and many lead through beautiful scenery. In towns, you will usually see a signpost, with arrows pointing in different directions, marking the colour of the path and the average walking times to the nearest set of destinations. All you need to do is to follow the colour, there will be a mark every hundred metres or so, and consists of a 10-cm-by-10-cm square three-section mark where the edges are white and the chosen path's colour in the middle.
It is also possible (and highly recommended) to purchase hiking maps of smaller slovak regions. These are based on sets of former military maps, have a very good resolution (1:50000 or 1:25000) and can be purchased from most kiosks, information centres and bookstores for bargain price of between €1.50-2.50. These are published by the Slovak Tourist Club (KST), which maintains all the trails, and show all the marked trails in the area, including the average walking times, which makes route planning very easy and efficient. If you want to plan your hike before you can use a great online map on Hiking.sk or Cykloserver.cz. The latter one features also bicycle trails and covers also the entire Czech Republic.
In mountain areas, you should also buy an insurance for mountains. Emergency rescue service is not covered by normal travel insurance. It costs about 0.50 EUR / day and can be bought in hotels, online ( Mountain rescue service ) or using SMS.
Travelling around by bicycle is arguably the best way to see and enjoy most of this beautiful country. There are caveats, though. Stick to secondary roads with low traffic, as drivers may show little sympathy to cyclists. You can plan your journey using the maps of Cykloserver.cz, which show both official (dark violet) and recommended (light violet) trails. Second, road bikes and their riders might suffer on minor Slovak roads of inferior quality. A touring bike is a better alternative. Wearing a safety helmet is required for cyclists of all ages riding on public roads outside built-up areas, and for children under 15 also within built-up areas.
Don't hesitate to complement your journey by taking a train through uninteresting or dangerous sections. A single bicycle ticket costs €1.50 (regardless of the distance) and a day ticket costs €2.50. Almost all trains in Slovakia transport bicycles without hassles, except for InterCity and EuroCity trains, in which a bike either requires a prior reservation (€2.50) or they do not take bikes at all. Day tickets for bikes are not valid in IC an EC trains. Unfortunately, low-floor trains are a rare occurrence in Slovakia (and so far only on regional lines), so be prepared to hoist your bike high up to put it inside the train. Moreover, many railway employees still view cyclists as a nuisance and can be quite unwelcoming.
For further cycling tips, check the "Do" section.
The official and most widely-spoken language is Slovak. Slovaks are very proud of their language, and thus, even in Bratislava you will not find many signs written in English (outside of the main tourist areas). Also, most older people except some in Bratislava are unable to converse in English, but most of them knows Russian; most young people speak at least some English, as it has been taught in most schools since 1990. Czech and Slovak are mutually intelligible, yet distinctive languages (at first, one might think they are dialects of each other).
Slovak is written using the same Roman characters that English uses (with some added accents or diacritics), so Western travellers won't have any trouble reading signs and maps. While some words are tongue twisters, the knowledge of the alphabet including the letters with diacritics will go a long way, as the pronounciation is almost always the same for each letter in every word. Standard Slovak is spoken with stress always on the first syllable (but it may be on the penultimate syllable in some dialects in the east).
Since the territory of Slovakia was under Hungarian influence for centuries, there is a significant Hungarian-speaking minority of 9.7%. Most of the Hungarians live in southern regions of the country and some of them speak no Slovak. Other Slovaks however normally do not speak or understand the Hungarian language.
While you can make do with English and German in Bratislava, in smaller towns and villages your only chance is trying to approach younger people that speak some English. Older residents may know some German. People born between 1935 and 1980 will have learned Russian in school, though few Slovaks will appreciate being spoken to in Russian as this language has some negative connotations due to the Communist era. Due to the significant tourism growth in the North and the East of Slovakia, English is becoming more widely used and you may try Polish. Other Slavic languages, especially Russian, Serbian, Croatian, and Slovene may also work. In the east Rusyn, a Ukrainian dialect close to Polish is spoken. It is also intelligible with Russian to some extent. Attempts to speak Slovak will be very appreciated.
If you speak the international language Esperanto, you can take advantage of the network of Esperanto delegates scattered across Slovakia.
Slovakia has the euro (€) as its sole currency along with 24 other countries that use this common European money. These 24 countries are: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain (official euro members which are all European Union member states) as well as Andorra, Kosovo, Monaco, Montenegro, San Marino and the Vatican which use it without having a say in eurozone affairs and without being European Union members. Together, these countries have a population of more than 330 million.
One euro is divided into 100 cents. While each official euro member (as well as Monaco, San Marino and Vatican) issues its own coins with a unique obverse, the reverse, as well as all bank notes, look the same throughout the eurozone. Every coin is legal tender in any of the eurozone countries.
Automatic teller machines (ATM, "bankomat" in Slovak, pl. "bankomaty") are widely available in Slovakia except in smaller villages, and obtaining money there should not present a problem. In most of small villages you can gain money at local postal offices (cashback). Credit cards and debit cards such as Visa, Mastercard, Visa Electron, Cirrus Maestro are widely accepted both in shops and restaurants in bigger cities.
Slovak cuisine focuses mostly on simple and hearty recipes. Historically, what is now considered genuinely Slovak has been the traditional food in the northern villages where people lived off sheep grazing and limited agriculture - in the harsh conditions many crops don't grow, and herbs are more accessible than true spices. Therefore, the staple foods mostly involve (smoked) meat, cheese, potatoes and flour. This does not make the food bland, however, and much of it is quite filling and flavoursome, though can be a bit heavy. As no strong spices or truly exotic ingredients are used, sampling local wares is a safe and rewarding experience.
Some dishes are authentically Slovak, many others are variations on a regional theme. A lot of cheese is typically consumed, out of meats pork and poultry products are the most common, with some beef and game dishes, most common accompaniments being potatoes and various types of dumplings. Since Slovakia is a land-locked country, fish and sea-food options are limited (carp is served at Christmas, trout is the most common fish). Soups are quite common both as an appetiser and, as some are quite filling, as a main dish.
If you are a vegetarian, the variety of food in the cities should be decent. However, when venturing out into the countryside, the offer may be limited as vegetables are mostly considered a side and/or eaten mostly raw or in salads. Also, be aware that even though some dishes will be in the vegetarian section of the menu, this merely means that they're not predominanty meat-based and still might be prepared using animal fats or even contain small pieces of meat, so make your requirements clear. Fried cheese with ham or Cesar salad(!) are good examples. Still, almost every restaurant in the country will serve at least the staple choice of fried cheese (the normal, non-ham variety) with fries, which is a universally popular. There should be a good selection of sweet dishes as well, with pancakes, dumplings filled with fruits, jams or chocolate and sweet noodles with nuts/poppy seeds/sweet cottage cheese most common. Seeking out the nearest pizzeria is also a good and accessible option mostly everywhere.
The main meal of the day is traditionally lunch, though this is changing especially in cities due to work schedules, and dinner is increasing becoming the main meal there.
In establishments where you sit in (cafes and restaurants), it is common to tip around 10% or at least round the amount up to the nearest euro or note (depending on amount). Tips are not included in the bill, if there is a percentage shown on your bill, this is usually the VAT. Tip is added to the bill and should be handed to the waiter while you pay, before you leave the table. Tipping is not compulsory, so if you are not satisfied with the service, don't feel obliged to tip! You will not be hassled if you don't. Tipping is not common in over-the-counter establishments, bars or for other services.
It should be noted that in all but the most exclusive restaurants it is not customary to be shown to your table by the staff. So when you enter, do not hang out by the door, but simply pick a table of your choice and enjoy. Once you are comfortably seated, waiting staff will be over shortly to give you the menu and let you order drinks.
Again with the possible exception of the most exclusive establishments, there is mostly no dress code enforced in restaurants and informal clothing is fine. Hauling yourself into a restaurant for well-deserved meal after a day of hiking/skiing in your sporty clothes might attract a few frowns, but you certainly won't be turned away. Generally, anything you would wear for a stroll in town is perfectly fine. You don't need a jacket or closed shoes and in summer shorts are also acceptable.
Bryndzové halušky is a Slovak national dish made out of potato dumplings and special kind of unpasteurized fermented sheep cheese called 'bryndza'. This meal is unique to Slovakia and quite appetising (and surprisingly filling), and you should not leave Slovakia without trying it. Please note that while this dish will usually be listed in the vegetarian section of the menu, it is served with pieces of fried meaty bacon on top, so if you are a vegetarian make sure to ask for halušky without the bacon. Halušky can be found in many restaurants, however, the quality varies as it is not an easy dish to prepare. If you at all can, seek out an ethnic Slovak restaurant (this can be harder than it sounds), or at least ask locals for the best place in the vicinity. In the northern regions you will find also authentic restaurants called 'Salaš' (this word means sheep farm in Slovak and many take produce directly from these), which serve the most delicious and fresh variety. Sometimes, a variety with smoked cheese added on the top is available. A separate dish called strapačky might also be available where sauerkraut is served instead of bryndza, but it is not as typical (this will also come with bacon on top).
A salaš will usually serve also other typical Slovak dishes, and many will offer several varieties of sheep cheese to buy as well. They are all locally produced, delivious, and well worth buying if you are a cheese fan. Verieties include bryndza (primarily used to make 'Bryndzové halušky', but it is a soft spreadable cheese which is very healthy and often used as a spread), blocks of sheep cheese (soft and malleable, delicious on its own or with salt), parenica (cheese curled in layers into a small peelable roll, sold smoked or unsmoked) and korbáčiky (this word means hair braids in Slovak, and korbáčiky are threads of cheese woven into a pattern resembling a basic braid). Some of these cheeses are available to buy in supermarkets as well but these are mass produced and not as good.
Most other dishes are regional, and their varieties can be found elsewhere in Central Europe. These include kapustnica, a sauerkraut soup typically eaten at Christmas but served all year round in restaurants. It is flavoursome and can be mildly spicy based on what sausage is used. Depending on the recipe it may also include smoked meat an/or dried mushrooms.
Various large dumplings called pirohy can be found and depending on the filling can be salty or sweet. Fillings include sauerkraut, various types of cheese or meat or simply fruits or jam. They closely resemble Polish pirogi.
Goulash is a regional dish made with cuts of beef, onions, vegetables and squashed potatoes with spices, which is very hearty and filling. Depending on the thickness it can be served as a soup (with bread) or as a stew (served with dumplings). Goulash can be sometimes found outdoors during BBQs or at festival markets, where it is prepared in a big cauldron, sometimes with game instead of beef - this is the most authentic. A variety called Segedin goulash also exists, which is quite distinct and prepared with sauerkraut. Goulash can be quite spicy.
Apart from kapustnica and goulash, which are more of a main dish, other soups are quite popular as an appetiser. Mushroom soup is a typical Christmas dish in many parts, and there are several soups made out of beans or bean sprouts. In restaurants, the most common soups are normal chicken and (sometimes) beef broth, and tomato soup and garlic broth (served with croutons, very tasty, but don't go kissing people after) are also very common. Some restaurants offer certain soups to be served in a small loaf of bread ('v bochniku'), which can be an interesting and tasty experience.
Other typical streetfood includes lokše, potato pancakes served with various fillings (popular varieties include duck fat and/or duck liver pate, poppy seeds or jam) and langoš, which is a big deep fried flat bread most commonly served with garlic, cheese and ketchup/sour cream on top. A local version of a burger is also common, called cigánska pečienka (or simply cigánska). This is not made out of beef, however, but instead pork or chicken is used and is served in a bun with mustard/ketchup and (sometimes) onions, chilies and/or diced cabbage. If you are looking for something sweet, in spa cities such as Piešťany, you will find stands selling spa wafers, which are usually two plate-sized thin wafers with various fillings. Try chocolate or hazelnut.
Especially in the western parts, lokše can be found in a restaurant as well, where they are served as side for a roasted goose/duck (husacina), which is a local delicacy.
Other foods worth trying are chicken in paprika sauce with dumplings ('paprikas'), Schnitzel ('Rezeň' in Slovak, very common dish. 'Čiernohorsky rezeň' is a variety that is made with potato dumpling coating used instead of batter and is very good) and Svieckova (sirloin beef with special vegetable sauce, served with dumplings). From the desert section of the menu, try plum dumplings (sometimes other fruit is used, but plums are traditional); this is a good and quite filling dish on its own as well.
In some parts of the countryside, there is a tradition called zabíjačka, where a pig is killled and its various meat and parts are consumed in a BBQ-like event. This is a lot more historic celebration than you are likely to find in mostly modern Slovakia, but if you have an opportunity to attend, it may be an interesting experience, and the meat and sausages are home-made, delicious and full of flavour. If you can find home-made hurka (pork meat and liver sausage with rice) or krvavnicky (similar to hurka, but with pork blood) on offer elsewhere, they are both very good. There is also tlačenka (cold meat pressed together with some vegetables, served similar to ham), which is served cold with vinegar and onion on top, and can be bought in supermarkets as well.Various other type of sausages and smoked meats are available commercially.
A thick fried slice of cheese served with French fries and a salad is also a common Slovak dish. It is served in most restaurants, and worth trying out, especially the local variety made from smoked cheese ('udeny syr'/'ostiepok') or 'hermelin' (local cheese similar to Camembert). This is not considered a substitute for meat.
There is a good variety of bakery products, including various sweet pastries- try the local fillings of poppy seeds and/or (sweet) cottage cheese (tvaroh). Strudel (štrúdla) is also popular, try the traditional apple and raisins filling or fancier sweet poppy seeds and sour cherries version. For something savoury, try pagáč, which is a puff pastry with little pork cracklings. Local bread is excellent, but please note that some of the several varieties are sprinkled with caraway seeds. You may or may not like this! Baguettes and baguette shops/stands are very common and you will be able to choose from a variety of fillings.
For dessert, visit the local cukráreň. These establishments, though slowly merging into cafes, exclusively specialise in appeasing your sweet tooth and serve a variety of cakes, as well as hot and cold drinks and (sometimes) ice-cream. The cakes resemble similar fare in the Czech Republic or their Viennese cousins. The selection is diverse and on display, so just pick one you like the look of, perhaps a 'krémeš' (a bit of pastry at the bottom, thick filling of vanilla custard, topped with a layer of cream or just chocolate) or 'veterník' (think huge profiterole coated in caramel), selection of tortas etc.
When you are shopping in the supermarket, remember to pick up Tatranky and/or Horalky, two brands of similar wafers with hazelnut filling and lightly coated in chocolate that the locals swear by.
For more information visitSlovensko.
Italian restaurants and pizzerias are extremely popular in Slovakia, and have become ubiquitous. Even if you don't go to an ethnic Italian restaurant, there will be a pizza or pasta dish on almost every restaurant menu. Italian (and generally Mediterranean)ice cream is also very popular.
Chinese and Vietnamese cuisine is also becoming more common everywhere, and kebab/gyros (a bun with sliced bits of meat) stands are very common.
In bigger cities, you will find selection of ethnic restaurants including Chinese, Thai, Japanese, Italian, French and many others. Moreover, as mentioned above, many Austrian, Czech, Hungarian and Polish dishes with Slovakian twist are commonplace.
International fast food establishments can be found in Slovakia as anywhere else in the world, McDonald's can be found in many bigger and smaller cities, KFC and Subway can only be found in larger cities (mostly in big shopping malls). Burger King used to have a single restaurant in Bratislava, but it closed in 2012. Please note that when these fast-food chains arrived shortly after the Velvet Revolution of 1989, they marketed themselves as a cool and trendy dining option for the higher-income people (unlike the USA, where it is more common for lower income classes to eat in McDonald's) and their food is still priced at premium compared to other options of eating out in Slovakia. A full meal (soup/starter + main course) in a cheaper restaurant will cost 1-1.5x the price of a meal combo in McDonald's and might prove a better value. Still, these establishments are reasonably popular, especially with the younger generation. If your plan is to save money by eating fast food, look for restaurants and stalls not affiliated with any international brand.
In Bratislava, there is also local fast food named Richman, which is sold in stalls mainly at Šafárikovo námestie  and some other locations in the city centre. It is a kebab-like food (meat, vegetables and sauces in a bun), with processed meat or sausages instead of typical kebab meat.
For non-alcoholic drinks try Vinea, a soft drink made from grapes, in both red and white and also non-carbonated. Kofola, a Coke-type soft drink, is also very popular among locals and is available both on tap and bottled. Slovakia is one of three countries in the world where Coca-cola is not the number one in the market.
Mineral waters are some of the best in the World, come in numerous varieties and each has unique positive health effects (e.g. getting rid of heartburn, improving digestion etc) depending on the type of minerals naturally found in the water. There are many types available from shops and supermarkets, for example Budiš, Mitická, Slatina, Rajec, Dobrá Voda, Zlatá studňa, Mattoni etc. Others are only available directly from the many natural mineral springs common all across the country. As these are true 'mineral' waters, they will invariably contain minerals, and the taste will differ according to the brand/spring. If you don't like one, try a different brand! You may also try mineral waters with various flavourings, ranging from raspberry to 'mojito'.
In contrast to what you might be used to, sparking water is the default option, so if you prefer still you might have to look for this specifically. The level of carbonation is marked by the label. Dark blue or Red label usually indicates carbonated ones ("perlivá"), a green label indicates mildly carbonated ones ("mierne perlivá") and white, pink or baby blue indicates those without carbon dioxide ("neperlivá"). Due to the excellent local choice and quality of the water, international brands are not as common.
In restaurants, serving of a free glass of water is not a part of the culture, so remember that if you ask for one it is quite likely that you will be brought (most likely sparkling) mineral water instead (and charged for it).
Out of hot drinks coffee is available everywhere, mostly in three varieties (cafes in cities will offer more) - espresso, 'normal' coffee which is served medium-sized, small and black and Viennese coffee which is 'normal' coffee with a dollop of cream on top. Cappuccinos are quite common as well. Coffee is served with sugar and cream/milk on the side. Hot chocolate is popular as well. Tea rooms are quite popular as a place to chill out in major cities. These usually have a laid-back, vaguely oriental ambiance, and offer a great variety of black, green, white and fruit teas. Schisha might be on offer as well. A part of this culture spread to the other catering establishments, most of which will now offer a choice at least between fruit and black tea. Note that black tea is served with sugar and lemon in Slovakia, serving of milk or cream is not common. Some places may offer a beverage called 'hot apple', which tastes a bit like softer hot apple juice.
Drinking is very much a part of the Slovak culture and some form of alcohol will be served at most social occasions. However, the locals mostly hold their liquor well and BEING visibly drunk is frowned upon, so be aware of your limits. Note that some locally brewed spirits may be stronger than what you are used to, and that the standard shot glass in Slovakia is 40ml, which may be more than you are used to if arriving from Western Europe. If you order double vodka, you will get almost 1dl of it! Alcohol in general is cheap compared to Western Europe or the US. There are no special shops, and alcoholic beverages can be purchased in practically any local supermarket or food store. You can legally drink and purchase alcohol if you are 18 years or older, but this is not very strictly enforced. You still might be IDed in some city clubs if you look very young, however.
For beers, there are a great variety of excellent local brews that are similar in style and quality to Czech beers (which are also widely available), and beer is mostly the local drink of choice. Try out the Zlatý Bažant, Smädný Mních, Topvar and Šariš. Šariš is also available in a dark version that is thicker and heavier on your stomach. If the local tastes do not satisfy, "Western" beers are sold in the bigger restaurants and pubs. As elsewhere, small local breweries are gaining popularity among beer enthusiasts. One of the best known brands is the Kaltenecker. Especially in the biggest towns and touristy regions, many pubs now offer a range of beers from small breweries, also from the Czech Republic.
Slovakia has also some great local wines. Many are similar to Germanic Riesling styles but the relatively young, local varieties (Devin, Palava, Dunaj, Hron) are becoming more and more popular. There is a number of wine-growing regions in the south with centuries worth of tradition, including the area just outside Bratislava (the towns of Modra, Pezinok and surrounding area). If you can, try to visit one of the local producer's wine cellars, as many are historical and it is a cultural experience as of itself. You might also be offered home-made wine if you are visiting these areas, as many locals ferment their own wines. The quality obviously varies. Look for wines labeled "Neskory Zber" or "Vyber z hrozna" which indicate a high quality wine (it corresponds to the German labeling of "Spaetlaese" and "Auslaese" respectively).
Every year at the end of May and beginning of November, an event called Small Carpathian Wine Road takes place in Small Carpathian Wine Region (between Bratislava and Trnava), where all the local producers open their cellars to the public. Buy a ticket in the nearest cellar and you will receive a wine glass and admission into any cellar in the region, where you can sample the best produce from the previous year.
There are also sweeter wines grown in South-Eastern border regions called Tokaj. Tokaj is fermented out of the special Tokaj grape variety endemic to the region (part of which is in Hungary and part in Slovakia) and it is a sweet dessert wine. Tokaj is considered a premium brand with a world-wide reputation and is arguably some of the best Central Europe has to offer. Other Slovak wines might not be widely known outside the region but they are certainly worth a try. The best recent wine years in Slovakia were 1997, 2000, 2003 and 2006. Around the harvest time in the autumn, in the wine-producing regions, young wine called burčiak is often sold and popular among the locals. As burčiak strenghtens with fermentation (as it becomes actual wine), its alcohol content can vary quite wildly.
Slovakia produces good spirits. Excellent is the plum brandy (Slivovica), pear brandy (Hruškovica) or herb liquor Demänovka. But the most popular alcohol is Borovička, a type of gin. Fernet, a type of aromatic bitter spirit is also very popular. In some shops you may try a 25 or 50 ml shot for very little money, so as to avoid buying a big bottle of something of unknown flavour, then decide whether to buy or not to buy. However the general rule of thumb when buying liquor in a supermarket is - the more expensive the better. Some liquors are trying to look like they are made of fruit but they are instead just aromatized/coloured alcohol. International brands are also available, but at a price premium (still cheaper than in most Western countries, however).
If you are a more adventurous type, you can try some home-made fruit brandys that the locals sometimes offer to foreigners. Slivovica is the most common, but also pear brandy, apricot brandy, or raspberry brandy can be found. Drinking is a part of the tradition, especially in the countryside. If you are visiting locals, don't be surprised if you are offered home-made spirit as a welcome drink nor that the host may be quite proud of this private stock. The home-made liquors are very strong (up to 60% alcohol), so be careful. If Slivovica is matured for 12 or more years, it can become a pleasant digestive drink.
In winter months, mulled wine is available at all winter markets and mulled mead is also common. A mixed hot drink called grog, which consists of black tea and a shot of local 'rum' is very popular, especially in the skiing resorts, and really warms you up.
Slovakia offers many excellent spas and water parks. If you enjoy stinking mud and are willing to pay for it, the best, most famous (and most expensive) spa is located in Piešťany. Important spas are also in Trenčianske Teplice, Rajecké Teplice, Bardejov, Dudince and Podhájska.
If it's too boring for you and you'd welcome some water slides and fun, try water parks in Bešeňová, Liptovský Mikuláš, Poprad, Turčianske Teplice, Oravice, Senec and Dunajská Streda. Significantly cheaper are classical open-air pools, some of the best are in Veľký Meder and Štúrovo.
The most luxurious hotels can mostly be found in major cities such as Bratislava and Košice and in the major tourist destinations like the High Tatras or the spa towns (the situation here is unique as the price of the hotel usually includes some of the spa procedures). These hotels offer Western style comfort and prices.
There will at least one hotel available in every major town or tourist area, but the quality varies. Some of the mid-range hotels were built during the Communist era in the corresponding architecture style, which might make them look less appealing from the outside, though the interiors might be perfectly adequate.
Budget hostels are mostly concentrated in the major cities, and you can expect typical hostel prices as in the rest of (Central) Europe. If you are venturing outside of cities, there are numerous mountain huts available for short-term rent in the mountain areas. Especially in touristy areas there will be many private rooms available for rent, look out for 'Zimmer Frei' signs. This typically does not include breakfast.
When hiking, official maintained mountain cabins offer cheap accommodation for hikers on trails in all of the national parks and many of the protected landscape areas. They have a limited number of beds (if any) and generally limited capacity, so for the more frequented places during the high season an advance booking might be necessary and is recommended. If you don't manage to book a bed, you might be allowed to still stay overnight, sleeping on the floor in designated areas. Either way, you will probably want to bring your own sleeping bag. The facilities, due to the location, are limited, but there will be a shared toilet and possibly a shower. There's usually a kitchen that serves several hearty hot dishes and a number of drinks at pretty reasonable prices. For more information about prices and contact for mountain cabins in High Tatras see here. Several mountain ranges (not the High Tatras) also feature unstaffed shelter huts (Slovak: útulňa), where you can legally sleep for free. Don't look for comfort, however. The following is a typical example: 
Pitching a tent in a national park or a protected landscape area is illegal, but several national parks have officially designated places where you can pitch a tent for a single night (provided you don't leave any mess, of course). Unfortunately, this doesn't include the High Tatras, where the only legal option to sleep during a multi-day trek is in a mountain chalet. If you do pitch a tent in a national park outside of a designated area, there is always a possibility you'll be woken up by a park warden, demanding a fine. This is especially true in the Tatra Mountains and Low Tatra Mountains.
Pitching a tent outside national parks and protected landscape areas is in the legal grey area. Under Slovak law, you always require prior consent from the owner of the land to camp on it. Anyway, this rule is not enforced and you'll be okay if you only stay one night on any place, steer clear of private houses and commercial buildings and leave reasonably soon in the morning. If you do plan to stay longer and with a larger group of people, you'll need an official permit, of course.
Another option is to sleep in one of numerous camping grounds in Slovakia. (non-exhaustive list):
The most important universities in Slovakia include:
At the secondary schooling level, there are several bilingual schools in Slovakia. The International Baccalaureate program with international recognition and transferability that is taught entirely in English can be studied at Gymnazium Jura Hronca and The British International School in Bratislava.
A number of Slovak language courses and/or private tutors should be available in most major cities.
Video to help you learn about Slovakia can be found at High Tatras TV .
Slovakia is a member of the European Union so if you are a citizen of another member state, you can legally reside and work in Slovakia without restrictions. The most popular website for job listings is profesia.sk
Most Embassy offices will advise European Citizens as well. Average salary in 2009 was €750 a month. Best paid are IT experts with average salary over €1500 a month (construction workers earn around €560 a month and waiters €340 a month).
If you are from outside the EU, you will need a visa to work in Slovakia, and it's best to contact your and/or Slovak embassy for more information. Teaching English as a second language is a popular work option. Note that unless you are applying for certain positions in international firms and similar organisations where English/German might do, you will probably need a working knowledge of Slovak for most other jobs.
Slovakia is generally safe, even by European standards, and as a visitor you are unlikely to encounter any problems whatsoever. Violent crime is especially uncommon, and Slovakia sees less violent crime per capita than many European countries. Pickpockets are an issue, even though much smaller than in the popular destinations of Western Europe. However, the biggest fear for a traveler is most probably the roads.
While Slovakia has undertaken an expansive road network upgrades since the end of the 90's there are still a lot of roads that are poorly lighted, and are very narrow outside of the main routes. Avoid driving through the mountain passes of central and northern Slovakia when possible, especially in the winter. If you plan to drive you must not be under the influence of alcohol. Penalties are very severe if you are caught in such an act.
When visiting cities, exercise the same caution as you would in any other European city - use common sense, be extra careful after the dark, stay aware of your surroundings, keep your belongings in sight and avoid drunks and groups of young men. Pickpockets sometimes can be found in bigger crowds and at major train/bus stations.
When visiting mountainous areas of Slovakia, especially the High Tatras, let the hotel personnel or other reliable people know where exactly you are going, so that rescuers can be sent out to find you if you don't return. The relative small area and height of the High Tatras is very deceptive - it is steep and difficult terrain with unpredictable weather. Never hike alone and use proper gear. The mountain rescue service is a good source of additional and current information, take their warnings seriously. In an event of emergency they can be contacted by calling 18300 or the universal 112. Make sure your medical insurance coverage includes the mountain activities before you venture forth, as a rescue mission in the inaccessible terrain may prove expensive.
Also note that the weather in the High Tatras is prone to sudden changes, especially during spring and autumn.
Slovakia is one of the few countries left in Europe, where the likes of bears and wolves still live in the wild. While no one has died from a bear attack in the last 100 years, a few attacks occur each year. Your chance of encountering one as a tourist is very low, but the possibility exists. A bear will avoid you if it knows you're there, so the best way to avoid this is by making your presence known by talking loudly/singing/clapping etc, especially in an area where it can't readily see you from a distance. If you see a bear, do not run, but leave the area slowly in the opposite direction. If you see one from your hotel - possibly feeding from the rubbish bins - which is a bit more common, though still unlikely - DO NOT approach or feed it.
No vaccination is necessary to visit or stay in Slovakia although if you plan to visit countryside areas, tick vaccination is recommended. Also Hepatitis "A" and "B" vaccination is advisable as with all European countries.
Ticks can be found in the countryside forests and also sometimes in larger parks, and in some areas they may carry tick-borne encephalitis. As they reside in bushes and taller grass (when they fall of the trees). Therefore, when going hiking try to avoid thick undergrowth and always check all over your body when you return (ticks tend to seek warm spots). Remove the tick as soon as possible, by gently wiggling it out of the bite by its head (never break off or squeeze the body as the head will stay lodged in skin and might become infected). Do not touch the tick at any stage with bare hands, use tweezers and latex gloves.
Most of the food and drink is perfectly safe, the hygiene standards in Slovakia are the same as elsewhere in Western/Central Europe.
Tap water is drinkable everywhere - according to one study, water used as tap water in the Bratislava-Vienna region is the cleanest in the world. If you prefer mineral waters, you can choose from a multitude of brands, since Slovakia has quite possibly the highest number of natural mineral water springs per capita.
The High Tatras might not be the biggest or the most tallest mountain range, but some trails feature strenuous climbs, rocky terrain, and the weather may prove unpredictable. Indeed, the mountains of Slovakia claim several lives every year, also in the summer. Take proper gear, do not overestimate your abilities, and use common sense.
Never venture off the marked hiking trails in the national parks (unless you're a skilled mountain climber and with a proper permit)! It is foolish, as well as illegal. In wooded areas, where chances of injury are lower, hiking off the marked trail carries a heightened risk of encoutering a bear. Bears know where the hiking trails are and avoid them at all costs. See the above section for tips, should you run across one.
If you decide to swim in the local rivers/natural pools/lakes, as many locals do, remember that unless expressly stated otherwise, these activities are not supervised by a life guard, and you are doing so at your own risk.
The standard of health care is quite high, but the language barrier might be a problem as not many doctors speak English. However, this should not be a problem in major towns, which have a Fakultná nemocnica.
There are no over-the-counter drugs sold in Slovakia in supermarkets or drug stores, you will need to head to a pharmacy even if you just need an aspirin. In even smaller cities, there should be one open 24/7. Look out for the nearest green cross sign - even if this particular pharmacy is closed, a sign in the door will point you towards the nearest open one. If you need a specific medicine, make sure you have your prescription ready as many drugs require it.
Slovaks are friendly and peaceful people living in a free democratic state. There is not a single issue that would provoke hostility or real trouble. Usually the worst thing that could happen is that you would be thought a bit boorish and the history explained to you over another beer. However, it pays to be respectful and sensitive when discussing certain topics.
Remember that Slovakia is a separate nation that has been independent since 1993 when Czechoslovakia split into the Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic. It is also a 'young nation', as for most of its history it was a part of other multinational states such as Austria-Hungary or Czechoslovakia. Therefore, some people may be sensitive when it comes to nationality issues. There is no hostility or resentment when it comes to the Velvet divorce that split Czechoslovakia, and the two nations remain very amicable. Do not refer to Slovakia as a part of another state and you should be fine.
Slovakia's position during WWII was quite complex, and this topic is best avoided when speaking to nationalists. Similarly, the decades of Communism left its mark on the country and this can be a sensitive topic. Slovakia, while formerly a part of the Soviet bloc, has never been a part of the USSR or the Russian Empire. Please remember this.
Out of the more current issues, the relations with the Roma/Gypsy minority are sometimes strained and people may hold strong views on the subject. Do not venture into a debate unless you are intimately acquainted with the problem.
Slovaks are quite hospitable, and if they invite you into their home, expect to be well looked after and offered a variety of food and drinks. If you are invited in for lunch, expect a 2-3 course meal just as for dinner, as lunch is traditionally the main meal of the day. It is considered polite to bring a small gift for the host, such as a bottle of wine or good spirit, a box of chocolates, or a small bouquet of flowers. Never money.
Most people do not use their outdoor shoes inside for hygienic reasons, so take your shoes off in the hallway when entering somebody's home. Don't worry, they will find you a spare pair of slippers to keep your feet warm.
When dining in a restaurant with the host's family, it is customary for them to pick the bill. This might not happen, but don't be surprised if they do.
When being introduced to or meeting someone, even of the opposite sex, and even for the first time, it is not uncommon to kiss each other on the cheek once or twice (depending on the region) instead of shaking hands. It is not common between two males, but is quite normal for women. Do not be alarmed, and remember that this is not a sexual gesture.
The international calling code for Slovakia is +421.
In case of an emergency, call the universal number 112. You can also call directly on 150 for fire brigade, 155 in a medical emergency or 158 for the police.
Slovak phones operate on the GSM standard, which covers most of the country, and 3G is also becoming increasingly widespread. The coverage is surprisingly good, and you will often have signal even in mountain areas, unless you are in a deep ravine. There are three main operators - Orange, T-mobile and O2, and they all use 900 or 1800Mhz standard, which might not be compatible with some U.S. phones operating on 1900Mhz.
They all offer a variety of prepaid cards with various "pay as you go" schemes (some market research is advised, if you want the best deal) and incentives. If you have an unlocked phone, these are easy to pick up in any phone shop, or you can purchase a cheap phone with a prepaid card included.
There are still some phone boxes available, but with mobile phones now commonplace, they are declining in number. Also note that you might need to purchase a prepaid card to use some of them.
Wifi and broadband can be found more or less everywhere, and there will be an internet cafe/gaming room available somewhere even in smaller towns. Also, hostels, pubs, cafes, and some public institutions such as libraries or government buildings offer (usually free) wifi.
Mobile internet is available from 6 € / month via O2 provider or 3G prepaid mobile internet at 10-15€ for 5 GB. Broadband internet is available in most of the cities and some villages, prices depend on a location, in bigger cities you can get internet as cheap as 16€ per 100 Mbit/s downstream and 4 Mbit/s upstream from Orange (or slower from T-com or UPC).
All foreign embassies are located in Bratislava, in the old town part of the city. A list of embassies in Slovakia with contact information can be found on the country's web site  If your home country does not have an embassy in Slovakia, the nearest embassy can probably be found in Vienna in Austria, which is readily accessible by train, bus or car from Bratislava.