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Singapore

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Southeast Asia : Singapore
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Contents

[[File:noframe|250px|frameless|Singapore]]
Location
[[File:LocationSingapore.png|250px|frameless]]
Flag
[[File:Sn-flag.png|108px|frameless]]
Quick Facts
Capital Singapore
Government Parliamentary republic
Currency Singapore dollar (SGD)
Area 704.0 sq km
Population 4,483,900 (December 2006 est.)
Language English (official), Mandarin Chinese (official), Malay (official and national), Tamil (official)
Religion Buddhism, Islam, Christianity, Hinduism, Sikhism, Taoism, Confucianism
Electricity 230V/50Hz (British plug)
Country code +65
Internet TLD .sg
Time Zone UTC +8

Singapore is an island-state in Southeast Asia, connected by bridges to Malaysia. Founded as a British trading colony in 1819, since independence it has become one of the world's most prosperous countries, sporting the world's busiest ship port. Combining the skyscrapers and subways of a modern, affluent city with a medley of Chinese, Indian and Malay influences and a tropical climate, with tasty food, good shopping and a vibrant nightlife scene, this Garden City makes a great stopover or springboard into the region.

Districts

Map of Singapore, with MRT lines and key attractions

Singapore is a small country on a small island, but with over four million people it's a fairly crowded city. The center of the city — consisting roughly of Orchard, the Riverside and a chunk of Chinatown — is known in acronym-loving Singapore as the CBD (Central Business District).

  • Riverside — Museums, statues and theaters, not to mention restaurants, bars and clubs.
  • Orchard Road — Miles and miles of shopping malls.
  • Bugis and Kampong Glam — Bugis and Kampong Glam are Singapore's old Malay district, now largely taken over by mall-shopping, although Arab Street in the Kampong Glam area is well worth a visit for its eclectic mix of unique shops and restaurants.
  • Chinatown — The area originally designated for Chinese settlement by Stamford Raffles.
  • Little India — A piece of India to the north of the city core.
  • Balestier, Newton, Novena and Toa Payoh — Budget accommodations and Burmese temples within striking distance of the center.
  • North and West — The northern and western parts of the island, also known as Woodlands and Jurong respectively, form Singapore's residential and industrial hinterlands.
  • East Coast — The largely residential eastern part of the island contains Changi Airport and many famous eateries. Katong is located in the East Coast and is famous for its Peranakan food, such as laksa. Joo Chiat has some well-restored Peranakan houses with characteristic intricate architecture.
  • Sentosa — A separate island developed into a resort, Sentosa is the closest that Singapore gets to Disneyland.

Addresses

In the centre Singapore's addressing system is fairly normal ("17 Orchard Rd" etc), but the new housing developments on the outskirts may appear more intimidating: a typical address might be "Blk 505 Jurong West St 51 #01-186". Here "Blk 505" is the housing block number, "Jurong West St 51" is the street name, and "#01-186" means floor 1, unit, stall or shop 186. Note that the first digit of both housing block and street number is the neighborhood's number (in this case 5), making it easier to narrow down the right location. There are also 6-digit postal codes, which - considering the small size of the island - generally correspond to exactly one building. For example, "Blk 9 Bedok South Ave 2" is "Singapore 460009".

A very useful tool for hunting down addresses is the free online Singapore Street Directory [1]. Most taxis carry a street directory, which can come in handy in the unlikely event that they don't know your destination. Many are now equipped with GPS navigation systems.

Understand

Bored proboscis monkey, Singapore Zoo

Singapore is a microcosm of Asia, populated by Chinese, Malays, Indians and a large group of workers and expatriates from all across the globe. Singapore has a partly deserved reputation for sterile predictability that has earned it snickering descriptions like William Gibson's "Disneyland with the death penalty" or the "world's only shopping mall with a seat in the United Nations". Nevertheless, the Switzerland of Asia is for many a welcome respite from the poverty, chaos, and crime of much of the Asian mainland, and if you scratch below the squeaky clean surface you'll find more than meets the eye.

Singaporean food is legendary, with bustling hawker centres and 24-hour coffee shops offering cheap food from all parts of Asia, and shoppers can bust their baggage allowances in shopping meccas like Orchard Road and Suntec City. In recent years some societal restrictions have also loosened up, and now you can bungee jump and dance on bartops all night long, although alcohol is very pricey and chewing gum can only be bought from a pharmacy. Gambling casinos will be opening up in about 2009 as part of Singapore's new Fun and Entertainment drive, the aim being to double the number of tourists visiting and increasing the length of time they stay. Watch out for more loosening up in the future.

History

According to legend, Srivijayan prince Sang Nila Utama landed on the island in the 13th century and, catching sight of a strange creature that he thought was a lion, decided to found a new city he called Singapura, Sanskrit for Lion City. (There have never been any lions on Singapore, so the mysterious beast was more probably a tiger.) More historical records indicate that the island was settled at least two centuries earlier and was known as Temasek, Javanese for "Sea Town". However, Sumatran Srivijaya fell around 1400 and Temasek, battered by the feuding kingdoms of Siam and the Javanese Majapahit, fell into obscurity, eventually being absorbed into the Melaka Sultanate and later the Johor Sultanate.

The story of Singapore as we know it today thus began in 1819, when Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles made a deal with a claimant to the throne of the sultan of Johor: the British would support his claim in exchange for the right to set up a trading post on the island. Well-placed at the entrance to the Straits of Malacca, straddling the trade routes between China, India, Europe, and Australia, Raffles' masterstroke was to declare Singapore a free port, with no duties charged on trade. As traders flocked to escape onerous Dutch taxes, the trading post soon grew into one of Asia's busiest, drawing people from far and wide. Along with Penang and Malacca, Singapore became one of the Straits Settlements and a jewel in the British colonial crown, and its economic fortunes received a further boost when palm oil and rubber from neighboring Malaya were processed and shipped out via Singapore. In 1867, Singapore was formally split off from British India and made into a directly ruled Crown Colony.

When World War II broke out, Fortress Singapore was seen as a formidable British base, with massive naval fortifications guarding against assault by sea. However, not only did the fortress lack a fleet as all ships were tied up defending Britain from the Germans, but the Japanese wisely chose to cross Malaya by bicycle instead. Despite hastily turning the guns around, this was something the British had not prepared for at all, and on February 15, 1942, with supplies critically low after less than a week of fighting, Singapore ignominiously surrendered and the colony's erstwhile rulers were packed off to Changi Prison. Tens of thousands perished in the subsequent brutal occupation, and the return of the British in 1945 was less than triumphal — it was clear that their time was up.

Granted self-rule in 1955, Singapore briefly joined Malaysia in 1963 when the British left, but was expelled because the Chinese-majority city was seen as a threat to Malay dominance, and the island became independent on 9 August 1965. The subsequent forty years of iron-fisted rule by Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew saw Singapore's economy boom, with the country rapidly becoming one of the wealthiest and most developed in Asia. Now led by Lee's son Lee Hsien Loong, the ruling People's Action Party (PAP) continues to dominate the political scene, with 82 out of 84 seats in Parliament (over half won unopposed) and opposition politicians regularly bankrupted by defamation suits. Societal restrictions have been loosened up in recent years though, with the government trying to shake off its staid image, and it remains to be seen how the delicate balancing act between political control and social freedom will play out.

Climate

Located a mere 1.5 degrees north of the Equator, the weather is usually sunny with no distinct seasons. Rain falls almost daily throughout the year, usually in sudden, heavy showers that rarely last longer than an hour. However, most rainfall occurs during the northeast monsoon (November to January), occasionally featuring lengthy spells of continuous rain. Spectacular thunderstorms can occur throughout the year, normally in the afternoons, so it's wise to carry an umbrella at all times, both as a shade from the sun or cover from the rain.

Between May and October, forest fires in neighboring Sumatra can also cause dense haze, although this is unpredictable and comes and goes rapidly: check the National Environment Agency's site [2] for current data.

The temperature averages around:

  • 26°C (79°F) daytime, 24°C (76°F) at night in December and January
  • 31°C (89°F) daytime, 26°C (80°F) at night for the rest of the year.

The high temperature and humidity, combined with the lack of wind and the fact that temperatures stay high during the night, can take its toll on visitors from colder parts of the world. Bear in mind that spending more than about one hour outdoors can be very exhausting, especially if combined with moderate exercise. Singaporeans themselves shun the heat, and for a good reason. Many live in air-conditioned flats, work in air-conditioned offices, take the air-conditioned metro to air-conditioned shopping malls connected to each other by underground tunnels where they shop, eat, and exercise in air-conditioned fitness clubs. Follow their example if you want to avoid discomfort.

Holidays

Gong xi fa cai Singapore style
There are a few twists to the Singapore way of celebrating Chinese New Year, particularly the food, which bears little resemblance to the steamy hotpots of frigid northern China. The top dish is bak kwa (肉干), sweet barbecued pork, followed closely by yu sheng (魚生), a salad of shredded vegetables and raw fish enthusiastically tossed into the air by all present. Favorite desserts are crumbly sweet pineapple tarts and gooey steamed nian gao (年糕) cakes. Red packets of money (hong bao) are still handed out generously, but unlike in China, in Singapore you only need to start paying up once married.


New Year decorations, Chinatown

Singapore is a secular city state but thanks to its multicultural population, Singapore celebrates Chinese, Muslim, Indian, and Christian holidays.

The year kicks off with a bang on January 1st and New Year, celebrated in Singapore just as in the West with a fireworks show and parties at every nightspot in town. Particularly famous are the wet and wild foam parties on the beaches of resort island Sentosa — at least those years when the authorities deign to permit such relative debauchery.

Due to the influence of the Chinese majority, the largest event by far is Chinese New Year (or, more politically correctly, Lunar New Year), usually held in February. The whole festival stretches out for no less than 42 days, but the frenzied buildup to the peak occurs just before the night of the new moon, with exhortations of gong xi fa cai (恭喜发财 "congratulations and prosper"), red tinsel, mandarin oranges and the year's zodiac animal emblazoned everywhere and crowds of shoppers queuing in Chinatown. The two following days are spent with family and most of the island comes to a standstill, and then life returns to normal... except for the final burst of Chingay, a colorful parade down Orchard Road held ten days later.

The seventh month of the Chinese lunar calendar — usually August — starts off with a puff of smoke, as "hell money" is burned and food offerings are made to please the spirits of ancestors who are said to return to earth at this time. The climax on the 15th day of the lunar calendar is the Hungry Ghost Festival, when the living get together to stuff themselves and watch plays and Chinese opera performances. Following soon afterwards, the Mid-Autumn Festival on the night of the full moon in September is also a major event, with elaborate lantern decorations — particularly in Jurong's Chinese Garden — and moon cakes filled with red bean paste, nuts, and more consumed merrily.

The Hindu festival of lights, Deepavali, is celebrated around October or November and Little India is brightly decorated for the occasion. The Islamic month of Ramadan and Eid-ul-Fitr or Hari Raya Puasa as it is called here, is a major occasion in Malay parts of town, particularly Geylang Serai on the East Coast.

The Buddhist Vesak Day, celebrating the birthday of the Buddha Sakyamuni, plus the Christian holidays of Christmas Day and Good Friday round out the list holidays.

A more secular manifestation of community spirit occurs on August 9th, National Day, when fluttering flags fill Singapore and elaborate parades are held.

The Singapore Ministry of Manpower maintains the official list of public holidays. [3]

Tourism

  • Singapore Guide, [4]. The official guide from the Singapore Tourism Board.
  • Singapore Infomap, [5]. From the Ministry of Information, Communications and the Arts.

Get in

Banned in Singapore
There's more to the list than just porn and drugs:
- Overhead wires
- Satellite dishes
- Standing water
- Freestanding billboards
- Malaysian newspapers
- Feeding pigeons
- Homosexual activity


Most nationalities can enter Singapore without a visa. Refer to the Immigration and Checkpoints Authority [6] for current guidelines, including a list of the 30+ nationalities that are required to obtain a visa in advance. Entry permit duration (in most cases either 14 or 30 days) depends on nationality and entry point.

Singapore has very strict drug laws, and drug trafficking carries a mandatory death penalty — which is also applied to foreigners. As always, travellers should take care with their baggage and secure it appropriately. The paranoid might also like to note that in Singapore, it is an offense even to have any drug metabolites in your system, even if they were consumed outside Singapore. Hippie types may expect a little extra attention from Customs, but getting a shave and a haircut is no longer a condition for entry.

Duty free allowances for alcohol are 1L of spirits, 1L of wine and 1L of beer per person. Alcohol may not be brought in by persons under the age of 18. Note that cigarettes cannot be brought in duty free. One opened packet (not carton!) is acceptable, but anything more will be taxed. Foreigners can opt to pay the tax or let the customs officers keep the cigarettes until the next departure; locals get to choose between paying or witnessing the cigarettes being destroyed.

Publications by the Jehovah's Witnesses and the Unification Church may not be imported to Singapore. Pornography and pirated goods are also illegal.

By plane

Singapore is one of southeast Asia's largest aviation hubs, so unless you're coming from Peninsular Malaysia or Batam/Bintan in Indonesia, the easiest way to enter Singapore is by air. In addition to flagship carrier Singapore Airlines [7] and its regional subsidiary SilkAir [8], Singapore is also home to Tiger Airways [9], and Jetstar Asia [10], which took over Valuair. In addition to the locals, every carrier of any size in Asia offers flights to Singapore, and there are direct services to Europe, the Middle East, Australia, New Zealand, North America, and even South Africa. Within Asia, Singapore also has excellent connections to the more important cities, particularly those in Indonesia, Thailand, China and India.

Changi Airport

As befits the country's main airport and major regional hub status, Changi Airport (SIN) [11] is big, nice, and well organized, and immigration and baggage distribution is remarkably fast. The airport is split three main terminals (T1, T2 and T3) plus a dedicated Budget Terminal for low-cost airlines (currently only Tiger and Cebu Pacific).

Figuring out which terminal your flight arrives in or departs from can be complicated: for example, Singapore Airlines uses both T2 and T3, and only announces the arrival terminal two hours before landing. Fortunately transfers are quite easy, as the three main terminals are connected with the free Skytrain service, which can be used without passing through immigration. The Budget Terminal, on the other hand, can only be reached by a shuttle bus from the basement of T2.

Note that if one or more of your connecting flights arrives or departs at the Budget Terminal, no transfer facilities are available so you would have to go through arrival immigration and customs, re check-in your luggage and go through departure immigration so always give enough connection time, preferably at least 2-3 hours to complete the process. Those who require visas to enter Singapore must also ensure they have them before transferring to/from the Budget Terminal.

If you have over five hours to spare there are free city tours six times a day. Check in at the Singapore Visitor Centre in either terminal. Even if stuck in the airport there are plenty of ways to kill time, including a movie theater (T2) and a swimming pool and jacuzzi (T1). Internet access is provided free of charge, both wirelessly and via some 200 terminals, there are some X-Boxes set up to keep gamers entertained, and there's live lounge music at times. Food options are varied and generally reasonably priced, with some choice picks including the Peranakan-themed Soup Restaurant (T2 landside) and Sakae Sushi (T2 airside). The free fortnightly Changi Express paper "contains news and information on events and happenings around Asia Pacific, in Singapore, and at Changi Airport".

Terminals T1, T2 and T3 all have airside (i.e., accessible without passing through immigration) transit hotels - tel. +65-6541-9106 or book online via the Ambassador Transit Hotel [12] website. A six-hour "block" for a single/double/triple costs $57.75/64.70/86.65, budget singles (shared bathroom) $40.45, extensions $13.90 per hour. You can rent a shower (without a room) to freshen up for $8.40. The Plaza Premier Lounges [13] also offer a basic but functional gym with shower for $8.40 with a Singapore Airlines boarding pass. There are also SingTel and Starhub payphones that offer unlimited free local calls.

From the airport there are a number of ways to get into the city:

  • Taxi (cab) is easiest - simply follow the signs after clearing customs. Meters are always used in Singapore and prices are reasonable. A trip to the city during the day will be between $20 and $30 including $3-5 airport surcharge. An additional 50% surcharge applies between midnight and 6 AM.
  • Limousines charge a flat $35 to anywhere in the city and are a pretty good deal after midnight, as you can skip the queue and avoid the surcharge. The same pricing applies to chartering van-sized MaxiCabs, which are good for large families or if you have lots of baggage.
  • Shuttle - shared six-seater MaxiCab shuttle service to designated areas/hotels costs $7.00 and can be booked in advance or in the arrivals hall. 6 AM to 2 AM, every 15 to 30 minutes.
  • Subway - MRT trains run from a station between T2 and T3, but you'll need to change trains at Tanah Merah to a city-bound train: just exit through the left hand side door and cross the platform. The 30-minute ride to City Hall station costs $1.40 plus a refundable $1 deposit, and trains run from 5:31 AM to 11:18 PM. All stations except Buona Vista station have elevators.
  • Bus - bus terminals can be found in the basements of T1, T2 and T3. 6 AM to midnight only. Fares are sub-$2.00, exact fare required (no change given).

Seletar Airport

Seletar is Singapore's first civil aviation airport. While later airports like Kallang and Paya Lebar have been closed and turned into a military airbase respectively, Seletar is still in use to this day.

Berjaya Air [14] flights to the Malaysian islands of Redang and Tioman use Seletar (XSP), not Changi (SIN). The only practical means of access to Seletar is taxi; trips from the airport incur a $3 surcharge.

Seletar is also Singapore's private aviation airport so if you own a private jet, you will most likely land here.

By road

Singapore is linked by two land crossings to Peninsular Malaysia:

The Causeway is a very popular and thus terminally congested entry point connecting Woodlands in the north of Singapore directly into the heart of Johor Bahru. While congestion isn't as bad as it once was, the Causeway is still jam-packed on Friday evenings (towards Malaysia) and Sunday evenings (towards Singapore). The Causeway can be crossed by bus, train, taxi, car or foot.

A second crossing between Malaysia and Singapore, known as the Second Link, has been built between Tuas in western Singapore and Tanjung Kupang in the western part of Johor state. Much faster and less congested than the Causeway, it is used by some of the luxury bus services to Kuala Lumpur and is strongly recommended if you have your own car. There is no public transport across the Second Link, and only Malaysian "limousine" taxis are allowed to cross it (and charge RM150 and up for the privilege). Walking across is also not allowed, not that there would be any practical means to continue the journey from either end if you did.

Driving into Singapore with a foreign-registered car is rather complicated and expensive; see the Land Transport Authority's Driving Into & Out of Singapore guide for the administrative details. Peninsular Malaysia-registered cars need to show that they have valid road tax and Malaysian insurance coverage. Other foreign cars need a Vehicle Registration Certificate, Customs Document (Carnet), Vehicle Insurance purchased from a Singapore-based insurance company and an International Circulation Permit. All foreign registered cars and motorcycles can be driven in Singapore for a maximum of 10 days in each calendar year without paying Vehicle Entry Permit (VEP) fees, but after the 10 free days have been utilised, you will need to pay a VEP fee of up to $20/day.

Go through immigration first and get your passport stamped. Then follow the Red Lane to buy the AutoPass ($10) from the LTA office. At the parking area, an LTA officer will verify your car, road tax and insurance cover note and issue you a small chit of paper which you take to the LTA counter to buy your AutoPass and rent an In-vehicle Unit (IU) for road pricing charges (or opt to pay a flat $5/day fee instead). Once that is done, proceed to customs where you will have to open the boot for inspection. After that, you are free to go anywhere in Singapore. Any VEP fees, road pricing charges and tolls will be deducted from your AutoPass when you exit Singapore. This is done by slotting the AutoPass into the reader at the immigration counter while you get your passport stamped.

Driving into Malaysia from Singapore is relatively uncomplicated, although small tolls are charged for both crossing and (for the Second Link) the adjoining expressway. Do be sure to change some ringgit before crossing, as Singapore dollars are accepted only at the unfavorable rate of 1:1.

In both directions, note that rental cars will frequently ban or charge extra for crossing the border.

By bus

Direct to/from Malaysian destinations There are buses to/from Kuala Lumpur (KL) and many other destinations in Malaysia through the Woodlands Checkpoint and the Second Link at Tuas. Unfortunately, there is no central bus terminal and different companies leave from all over the city. Major operators include:

  • Aeroline, +603-62588800, [15]. Luxury buses with meal on-board, power sockets, lounge area etc, to KL and Petaling Jaya. Departures from HarbourFront Centre. From $47 one-way.
  • First Coach, +65-68222111, [16]. No frills, but the buses have good legroom and use the Second Link. Another selling point is convenient public transport: buses depart from Novena MRT in Singapore and arrive right next to Bangsar LRT in Kuala Lumpur. $33.
  • NiCE, +65-62565755, [17]. Executive express buses to KL. Normal NiCE buses RM60, extra-roomy double-decker NiCE 2 buses $47. Departures from Copthorne Orchid Hotel on Dunearn Rd. $33.
  • Transnasional, +602-62947034 (Malaysia), [18]. Malaysia's largest bus operator, offers direct buses from Singapore through the peninsula. Departures from Lavender St. Executive/economy buses RM60/26.
  • Transtar, [19]. Transtar's 16-seater First Class coaches are currently the best around with frills like massaging chairs, onboard attendants and video on demand, but they also cost the most at $65 one-way to KL. More plebeian SuperVIP/Executive buses are $25/39, direct service to Malacca and Genting also available. Departures from Golden Mile Complex, Beach Rd (near Lavender MRT). +65-62999009.

Other operators include:

  • CitiExchange, +65-63981216, [20].
  • Easibook, +65-64440745, [21].
  • Gunung Raya, +65-62947711, [22].
  • Hasry Express, +65-62949306, [23].
  • Konsortium Express, +65-63923911, [24].

In general, the more you pay, the faster your trip. More expensive buses leave on time, use the Second Link, and don't stop along the way; while the cheapest buses leave late if at all, use the perpetually jammed Causeway and make more stops. Book early for popular departure times like Friday and Sunday evening, Chinese New Year, etc, and factor in some extra time for congestion at the border.

An alternative to taking a direct "international bus" is to make the short hop to Johor Bahru to catch domestic Malaysian long-distance express buses to various Malaysian destinations from the Larkin Bus Terminal. Besides having more options, fares may also be lower because you will be paying in Malaysian ringgit rather than Singaporean dollars. The downside is the time-consuming hassle of getting to Johor Bahru.

To/from Johor Bahru

Buses between Johor Bahru and Singapore
Line Stops in Singapore Stops in JB Price
Causeway Link CW-1 Kranji MRT only Larkin via Kotaraya $1.30, RM1.30
Causeway Link CW-2 Queen St only Larkin only $3.20
SBS 170 (red plate) Queen St via Kranji Larkin only $1.70
SBS 170 (blue plate) Kranji MRT Kotaraya only $1.10
SBS 160 Jurong East via Kranji Kotaraya only $1.60
SMRT 950 Woodlands via Marsiling Kotaraya only $1.30
Singapore-Johor Express Queen St only Larkin only $2.40

The most popular options to get to/from Johor Bahru are the buses listed in the table. There's a pattern to the madness: Singaporean-operated buses (SBS, SMRT, SJE) can only stop at one destination in Malaysia, while the Malaysian-operated Causeway Link buses can only stop at one destination in Singapore. Terminals aside, all buses make two stops at Singapore immigration and at Malaysian immigration. At both immigration points, you must disembark with all your luggage and pass through passport control and customs, then board the next bus by showing your ticket. On the Malaysian side, the bus stop is to your left as you exit the immigration post. Figure on one hour for the whole rigmarole from end to end, more during rush hour.

By train

Singapore is the southern terminus of Malaysia's Keretapi Tanah Melayu (Malayan Railway or KTMB) [25] network. It runs two day trains (the Ekspres Sinaran Pagi and Ekspres Rakyat) and a sleeper service (Ekspres Senandung Malam) daily from Kuala Lumpur. From Singapore to Kuala Lumpur, the Sinaran Pagi departs at 08:40, the Ekspres Rakyat at 13:00 and the Senandung Malam at 22:15. There is also a day train (the Lambaian Timur departing Singapore at 06:00) and sleeper (Ekspres Timuran departing at 18:15) daily along the "Jungle Railway" between Singapore and Tumpat, near Kota Bharu in the East Coast of Malaysia. Trains are clean and fairly efficient, but slower than buses.

Trains arrive at the railway station in Tanjong Pagar at the southern edge of the CBD, a bit of a hike from Tanjong Pagar MRT station. It's also possible to get off in Woodlands right after immigration.

The terminal station itself is quite simple, for instance when compared to KL Sentral from which many depart, consisting of an open air restaurant, a money changer, and a ticket counter. If you find yourself in need of an ATM upon arrival just grab a cab and the driver will take you by one, and trips into the city proper should cost but around SD10. The taxi stand is just out the station and to the right.

Note that KTMB tickets in Singapore will be charged in dollars, while those bought in Malaysia will be charged in ringgit at the same rate. A ticket which costs RM10 in Malaysia will thus cost $10 if bought in Singapore! There are three ways to avoid paying double:

  1. Book your tickets as return tickets from Malaysia. For example, KL-Singapore-KL will be charged at the ringgit rate.
  2. Cross the border by road and then board the train at Johor Bahru. Note that making a reservation is highly advisable; the easiest way is to book online.
  3. Buy the cheapest ticket you can from Singapore to JB, then your 'real' ticket from JB onward. Change to your 'real' seat after crossing the border.

Also note that you will not get a Malaysian entry stamp in your passport if you enter the country by train, so don't panic. Passports are checked (but not stamped) by Malaysian immigration before you enter the platform to board the train in Tanjong Pagar but you will only get a Singapore exit stamp at Woodlands station, about half-an-hour's journey away. Coming in from Malaysia, the situation is much more conventional - Malaysia stamps you out in Johor Bahru (you don't even need to get out of the train) and Singapore stamps you in at Woodlands (you will have to disembark and walk through immigration, though).

By taxi

Singapore is one of the few countries that you can enter or leave by taxi. While normal Singaporean taxis are not allowed to cross into Malaysia and vice versa, specially licensed Singaporean taxis permitted to go to the Kotaraya shopping mall (only) can be booked from Johor Taxi Service (tel. +65-6296-7054, $45 one way), while Malaysian taxis, which can go anywhere in Malaysia, can be taken from Rochor Rd ($32 to charter, or $8/person if you share with others). In the reverse direction towards Singapore, you can take taxis from Kotaraya to any point in central Singapore ($30) or Changi Airport ($40). The main advantage here is that you don't need to lug your stuff (or yourself) through Customs at both ends; you can just sit in the car.

A combination ride from anywhere in Singapore to anywhere in Malaysia can also be arranged, but you'll need to swap cabs halfway through: this will cost S$40 and up, paid to the Singaporean driver. The most expensive option is to take a limousine taxi specially licensed to take passengers from any point to any destination, but only a few are available and they charge a steep RM150 per trip. Advance booking is highly recommended, tel. +60-7599-1622.

By boat

Ferries link Singapore with neighbouring Indonesian province of Riau Islands, and the Malaysian state of Johor (regular ferry services to Tioman Island were discontinued late in 2003). Singapore has four ferry terminals which handle international ferries: HarbourFront (formerly World Trade Centre) near the southern part of the Central Business District, Tanah Merah Ferry Terminal on the East Coast, as well as Changi Ferry Terminal and Changi Point Ferry Terminal, at the eastern extremity of the island. Cruise ships use the HarbourFront terminal. HarbourFront and Tanah Merah are managed and operated by the Singapore Cruise Centre [26].

Getting to/away from the ferry terminals:

  • HarbourFront FT: Located next to HarbourFront MRT station.
  • Tanah Merah FT: Get off at Bedok MRT station and catch bus No. 35 to ferry terminal.
  • Changi FT: Get off at Tanah Merah MRT and catch bus No. 9
  • Changi Point FT: Take bus No. 2, 29 or 59 to Changi Village Bus Terminal and walk to the ferry terminal.

To/from Indonesia

To/from Batam: Ferries to/from Batam Centre, Batu Ampar (Harbour Bay), Sekupang and Waterfront City (Teluk Senimba) use HarbourFront FT, while ferries to/from Nongsapura use Tanah Merah FT. Operators at Harbourfront include:

  • Penguin, tel. +65-62714866 in HarbourFront; +62-778-467574 in Batam Centre; +62-778-321636 in Sekupang; +62-778-381280 in Waterfront City, [27]. Virtually hourly ferries to/from Batam Centre and Sekupang, fewer ferries to/from Waterfront City. $16/20 one-way/return before taxes and fuel surcharge.
  • Indo Falcon, tel. +65-62783167, [28] Hourly ferries to Batam Centre, fewer to Waterfront City. This company does not operate to/from Sekupang. Similar fares.
  • Berlian/Wave Master, tel. +65-65468830. Operates 16 trips to/from Batu Ampar. Fares are similar to the other companies.
  • Dino/Batam Fast, tel. +65-62700311 in Harbourfront; +62-778-467793/470344 in Batam Centre; +62-778-325085/6 in Sekupang; +62-778-381150 in Waterfront City, [29]. Also hourly ferries to/from Batam Centre, fewer ferries to/from Sekupang and Waterfront City. $14/20 one-way/return before taxes and surcharges.

At Tanah Merah:

  • Dino/Batam Fast, tel. +65-62700311 in Singapore; Tel: +62-778-761071 in Nongsa, [30]. Around 8 ferries daily to/from Nongsa, the resort area on the northeastern tip of Batam. $16/22 one-way/return before taxes and surcharges.

To/from Bintan: All ferries for Bintan ports of the capital of Riau province Tanjung Pinang, Lobam and Bandar Bentan Telani in Lagoi (for Bintan Resorts) go to/from Tanah Merah. For Tanjung Pinang, there are total of 6 ferries a day, increasing to 9 during weekends. $25/35 one-way/return before taxes and surcharges. Operators include:

  • Dino/Batam Fast, tel. +65-65426310 in Tanah Merah, [31].
  • Penguin, tel. +65-65427105 in Tanah Merah; +62-771-315143 in Tanjung Pinang; +62-770-696120 in Lobam, [32].
  • Indo Falcon, tel. +65-65426786 in Tanah Merah, [33]
  • Berlian/Wave Master, tel. +65-65468830 in Tanah Merah.

For Lobam, Penguin operates one or two ferries daily. No service on Sunday or public holidays. $25/35 one-way/return before taxes and surcharges.

For Bintan Resorts, Bintan Resort Ferries, tel. +65-65424369, [34] operates five ferries on weekdays, increasing to 7 during weekends. $34.60/50.20 one-way/return peak period, $26.60/39.20 one-way/return off-peak including taxes and fuel surcharge.

To other Indonesian islands

  • Tanjung Balai, Karimun: Penguin, tel. +65-62714866 in Harbourfront; +62-777-324300 in Tanjung Balai, [35] and Indofalcon, tel. +65-62783167 in Harbourfront, [36]. Both operate from Harbourfront. Four ferries weekdays, increasing to 6 during weekends between them. $24/33 one-way/return including taxes and fuel surcharge.
  • Tanjung Batu, Kundur: Indofalcon operate from Harbourfront. One ferry daily during weekdays, two during weekends. $33/40 one-way/return including taxes and fuel surcharge.

To/From Malaysia

  • Pengerang: Motor or bum boats shuttle between Changi Point Ferry Terminal at Changi Village, 51 Lorong Bekukong, tel: 65-65452305/1616, and Pengerang, a village in the southeastern tip of Johor. Boats ($7 per person, $2 per bicycle one-way) operate between 07:00 and 16:00 and leave when they reach the 12-passenger quota.
  • Sebana Cove Resort: Ferries to/from Tanah Merah Ferry Terminal operated by Indo Falcon, tel. +65-65426786 in Tanah Merah, [37]. Three ferries daily. $17/24 including taxes and fuel surcharge.
  • Tanjung Belungkor: Cruise Ferries (tel. +65-65468518, 65468675) operates from Changi Ferry Terminal three times daily, departures at 10 AM, 5 and 8 PM. $22 return.

Cruises

Star Cruises [38] offers multi-day cruises from Singapore to points throughout Southeast Asia, departing from HarbourFront FT. Itineraries vary widely and change from year to year, but common destinations include Malacca, Klang (Kuala Lumpur), Penang, Langkawi, Redang and Tioman in Malaysia, as well as Phuket, Krabi, Ko Samui and Bangkok in Thailand. There are also several cruises every year to Borneo (Malaysia), Sihanoukville (Cambodia), Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam) and even some ten-night long hauls to Hong Kong. An all-inclusive two-night cruise may cost as little as $400 per person in the cheapest cabin class if you book early, but beware the numerous surcharges and note that non-residents may be charged significantly higher rates.

Get around

MRT system map

Getting around Singapore is effortless: the public transportation system is among the best in the world and taxis are cheap. Very few visitors rent cars.

If you are staying in Singapore for some time, the ez-link [39] farecard might be a worthwhile purchase. You can store value on it and use it on the MRT trains as well as all city buses at a 15% discount, and you get a $0.25 discount on transfers too. The card costs $15, including $7 of stored value and a $3 refundable deposit, and the card can be "topped up" in increments of at least $10 at the farecard vending machines or 7-Eleven stores.

Alternatively, the Visitors Card [40] also includes ez-link card functionality and a variety of discounts for attractions; prices start at $45 for 3 days.

Single tickets can be purchased for both MRT and buses, but it's a hassle, and in the case of buses it delays everyone else because the driver has to count fare stages to tell you how much you need to pay.

By rail

The MRT (Mass Rapid Transit) and LRT (Light Rail Transit) are trains that are the main trunk of Singapore's transit system. They are a cheap and very reliable mode of transportation, and the network covers most points of interest for the visitor. Single-trip tickets cost from $0.80 to $2.00 plus a $1.00 refundable deposit (just insert your used ticket into machine to get your dollar back). EZ-link cards (described above) are the easiest and most popular way to use the MRT. All lines are integrated, so you do not need to buy a new ticket to transfer.

The MRT stations are clean and usually equipped with free toilets. Underground stations typically have platform doors between the train and the platform so there is no risk of falling onto the tracks. The North-East line is fully automated, so it's worth walking up to the front of the train to look out a tiny window and realize that there is no driver!

By bus

Buses connect various corners of Singapore. SBS Transit [41], Singapore's largest bus company, has a useful bus route finder on their home page, but it does not show services run by competitor SMRT [42], which has its own search system. You can pay cash (coins) in buses, but the fare stage system is quite complex (it's easiest to ask the driver for the price to your destination), you are charged marginally more and there is no provision for getting change. Payment with ez-link card is thus the easiest method: tap your card against the reader at the front entrance of the bus when boarding, and a maximum fare is deducted from the card. When you alight, tap your card again at the exit, and the difference is refunded. Make sure you tap out, or you'll be charged the maximum fare! Inspectors occasionally prowl buses to check that everybody has paid.

After midnight on Fri, Sat and before public holidays only, the NightRider [43] services are a fairly convenient way of getting around, with seven lines running every 15 minutes. All services drive past the major nightlife districts of Boat Quay, Clarke Quay, Mohamed Sultan and Orchard before splintering off. Flat fare $3, EZ-link accepted.

By taxi

Taxicabs use meters and are reasonably priced and honest. You will not spend more than $5-10 for a trip within the city center, and even a trip right across the island from Changi to Jurong will not break the $30 mark. If you are in a group of 3 or 4, it's sometimes cheaper and faster to take a taxi than the MRT.

Taxis charge $2.50 flagfall, and this lasts you 1 km before increments of 10 cents per 200 m. Watch out for surprises though: there are a myriad of peak hour, city center, phone booking, holiday and road pricing surcharges, although most add only a dollar or two to your fare, and these are all clearly shown on the meter. After midnight a 50% surcharge applies. Credit cards are accepted by most but not all cabs, so ask when getting in, and a 15% surcharge applies for this too. During rush hour in the city center, or late at night on the weekends, it's wise to call for a taxi. Telephone numbers for the largest taxi companies are Comfort/CityCab at 6552-1111, SMRT at 6555-8888, Smart at 6485-7700 and Transcab at 6553-3333.

By trishaw

Trishaws, three-wheeled bicycle taxis, haunt the area around the Singapore River and Chinatown. Geared purely for tourists, they aren't really recommended for serious travel and locals do not use them. There is little room for bargaining: short rides will cost $10-20 and an hour's sightseeing charter about $50 per person.

By boat

Bumboat sailing on the Singapore River past the Esplanade Theatres

Tourist-oriented bumboats cruise the Singapore River, offering nice views of the CBD skyscraper skyline. You can also take a ferry to Singapore's largely uninhabited Southern Islands for a picnic and lagoon swimming.

There is also a boat shuttle passengers from Changi Village to Pulau Ubin, a small island off Singapore's northeast coast which is about as close as Singapore gets to unhurried rural living.

By car

Car rental is not a popular option in Singapore. You will usually be looking at upwards for $100 per day for the smallest vehicle, not including gas at around $1.50/litre or electronic road pricing (ERP) fees, and you'll usually need to pay extra to drive to Malaysia. If planning on touring Malaysia by car, it makes more sense to head across the border to Johor Bahru, where both rentals and petrol are half price, and you have the option of dropping your car off elsewhere in the country. That being said, roads in Singapore are in excellent condition and driving habits are generally good with most people following the traffic rules due to stringent enforcement. International Driving Permits (IDPs) are accepted in Singapore for up to 3 months. Take note that if you do intend to rent a car, be sure to drive on the left side of the road (Singapore follows the UK road system), and reading up a bit on road regulations helps too. Note that the legal age for driving in Singapore is 18 - higher than that in neighbouring Malaysia and most Western countries (where it's 16). Don't drink and drive, especially late at night. Traffic police often set up road blocks after midnight to catch errant drivers with a breathalyser test, and if you fail it, you'll face heavy fines, possibly a jail term and you may even be barred from driving in Singapore again. If stopped for a traffic offense, don't even think about trying to bribe your way out.

By thumb

Hitchhiking is almost unheard of in Singapore, and with the country's tiny size and cheap, efficient public transport, there really isn't any reason to even try.

On foot

Singapore is almost certainly the most pedestrian-friendly city in southeast Asia. Sidewalks and pedestrian crossings are in good shape and plentiful, roads are well signposted and drivers are usually very careful — by law, any accident between a pedestrian and a vehicle is presumed to be the driver's fault. Classic walks in Singapore include walking down the river from the Merlion through the Quays, or just strolling around Chinatown, Little India or Bugis.

The one unavoidable downside, though, is the tropical heat and humidity, which leaves many visitors sweaty and exhausted. Therefore, bringing along a packet of tissue or a handkerchief is recommended. Having a bottle of water with you also helps. It's best to get an early start, pop into air-conditioned shops, cafes, and museums to cool off, and plan on heading back to the shopping mall or hotel pool before noon. Alternatively, after sundown, evenings can also be comparatively cool and breezy, especially by the river.

Talk

Who are the people in your neighborhood?
The Big 3 — Chinese, Malays and Indians — get all the press, but there are plenty of other communities with their own little neighborhoods (or shopping malls) in Singapore:
Arabs: Arab Street, of course
Burmese: Peninsula Plaza, on North Bridge Rd
Filipinos: Lucky Plaza, on Orchard Rd
Indonesians: City Plaza, near Paya Lebar MRT
Japanese: Robertson Quay and Clarke Quay, especially the Liang Court shopping mall. Cuppage Plaza, opposite the Somerset MRT and Takashimaya along Orchard Road
Koreans: Tanjong Pagar Rd
Thais: Golden Mile Complex, on Beach Rd


Malay may be enshrined in the Constitution as the 'national' language, but in practice the most common language is English, spoken by almost every Singaporean under the age of 40 with varying degrees of fluency. In addition, all official signs (including road signs) are written in English. However, the distinctive local patois Singlish may be hard to understand at times, as it incorporates slang words and phrases from other languages, including various Chinese dialects, Malay and Tamil. It also incorporates slang from British and American English, and has an odd way of structuring sentences, due to the original speakers being mostly Chinese. Complex consonant clusters are simplified, plurals disappear, verb tenses are replaced by adverbs, questions are altered to fit the Chinese syntax and semirandom particles (especially the infamous "lah") appear:

Singlish: You wan beer or not? -- No lah, drink five botol oreddi.

English: Do you want a beer? -- No, thanks; I've already had five bottles.

Thanks to nationwide language education campaigns, most younger Singaporeans are, however, capable of speaking so-called "Good English" when necessary. To avoid unintentional offense, it's best to start off with standard English and only shift to simplified pidgin if it becomes evident that the other person cannot follow you. Try to resist the temptation to sprinkle your speech with unnecessary Singlishisms: you'll get a laugh if you do it right, but it sounds grating and patronizing if you do it wrong.

Singapore's other official languages are Mandarin Chinese and Tamil. Mandarin is spoken by most of the educated Singaporean Chinese while Tamil is spoken by most of the Indians. Various Chinese dialects (mostly Hokkien, though significant numbers also speak Teochew and Cantonese) are also spoken between ethnic Chinese of the same dialect group. Other Indian languages, such as Punjabi among the Sikhs, are also spoken.

The official Chinese script used in Singapore is the simplified script used in mainland China. As such, all official publications (including local newspapers) and signs are in simplified Chinese and all ethnic Chinese are taught to write the simplified script in school. However, many shop signs and restaurant menus are still in traditional Chinese. This, in addition to the popularity of Hong Kong and Taiwanese pop culture and television serials, means that most Singaporean Chinese are also able to read traditional Chinese even if they cannot write it.

See

Map of central Singapore, with outlines of detailed region maps

Sights in Singapore are covered in more detail under the various districts. Broadly speaking:

  • Beaches and tourist traps: Head to one of the three beaches on Sentosa or its southern islands. Other beaches can be found on the East Coast.
  • Culture and cuisine: See Chinatown for Chinese treats, Little India for Indian flavors, Kampong Glam (Arab St) for a Malay/Arab experience or the East Coast for delicious seafood, including the famous chilli and black pepper crab.
  • History and museums: The Bras Basah area east of Orchard and north of the Singapore River is Singapore's colonial core, with historical buildings and museums.
  • Nature and wildlife: Popular tourist attractions Singapore Zoo, Night Safari, Jurong Bird Park and the Botanical Gardens are all in the North and West. Finding "real" nature is a little harder, but the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve in the same area is Singapore's largest. Pulau Ubin, an island off the Changi Village in the east, is a flashback to the rural Singapore of yesteryear. City parks full of locals jogging or doing tai chi can be found everywhere.
  • Skyscrapers and shopping: The heaviest shopping mall concentration is in Orchard Road, while skyscrapers are clustered around the Singapore River, but also check out Bugis to see where Singaporeans shop.
  • Places of worship: Don't miss this aspect of Singapore, where Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam all exist in sizeable numbers. Religious sites can be easily visited and welcome non-followers outside of service times. Particularly worth visiting include: the vast Kong Meng San Phor Kark See Monastery near Ang Mo Kio, the colorful Sri Mariamman Hindu temple in Chinatown, the psychedelic Burmese Buddhist Temple in Balestier and the stately Masjid Sultan in Arab Street.

Itineraries

  • Three days in Singapore — a three-day sampler set of food, culture and shopping in Singapore, easily divisible into bite-size chunks

Do

While you can find a place to practice nearly any sport in Singapore — golfing, surfing, scuba diving, even ice skating — due to the country's small size your options are rather limited and prices are relatively high. For watersports in particular, the busy shipping lanes and sheer population pressure mean that the sea around Singapore is murky, and most locals head up to Tioman (Malaysia) or Bintan (Indonesia) instead. See also Habitatnews [44] and WildSingapore [45] for news and updates about free tours and events.

Singapore has recently been experiencing a spa boom, and there is now plenty of choice for everything from holistic Ayurveda to green tea hydrotherapy. However, prices aren't as rock-bottom as in neighbors Indonesia and Thailand, and you'll generally be looking at upwards of $70 even for a plain one-hour massage. Good spas can be found in most five-star hotels and on Orchard, and Sentosa's Spa Botanica also has a good reputation. There are also numerous shops offering traditional Chinese massage, which are mostly legit, and "health centres", which are mostly not.

On the cultural side of things, Singapore has been trying loosen up and attract more artists and performances. The star in Singapore's cultural sky is the Esplanade theatre by the Riverside, a world-class facility for performing arts like classical music and the home of the Singapore Symphony Orchestra [46]]. Pop culture options are more limited and Singapore's home-grown arts scene remains rather moribund, but any bands and DJs touring Asia are pretty much guaranteed to perform in Singapore. In summer, don't miss the yearly Singapore Arts Festival [47]. Advance tickets for almost any cultural event can be purchased from SISTIC [48], either online or from any of their numerous ticketing outlets, including the Singapore Visitor Centre on Orchard Rd.

Buy

The Singaporean currency is the Singapore dollar, abbreviated SGD, S$ or just $ (as used throughout this guide). One dollar is divided into 100 cents. There are coins of $0.05 (gold), $0.10 (silver), $0.20 (silver), $0.50 (silver) and $1 (gold), plus bills of $2 (purple), $5 (green), $10 (red), $50 (blue), $100 (orange), $1000 (purple) and $10000 (gold). The Brunei dollar is pegged at par with the Singapore dollar and the two currencies can be used interchangeably in both countries, so don't be too surprised if you get a Brunei note as change. As of November 2007, one euro is worth about $2.10 and one US dollar is worth about $1.45.

Restaurants often display prices like $19.99++, which means that service charge (10%) and sales tax (7%) are not included and will be added to your bill. Tipping is generally not practised in Singapore, although bellhops still expect $2 or so per bag. Taxis will usually return your change to the last cent, or round in your favor if they can't be bothered to dig for change.

ATMs are ubiquitous in Singapore and credit cards are widely accepted (although shops often levy a 3% surcharge, and taxis a whopping 15%). Currency exchange booths can be found in at the airport as well as in every shopping mall and usually offer better rates, better opening hours and much faster service than banks. The huge 24-hour operation at Mustafa in Little India accepts almost any currency at what are probably the best rates in town. Travelers checks are generally not accepted by retailers, but can be cashed at most exchange booths.

GST Refund

A refund of the 7% sales tax is available for visitors leaving Singapore by air subject to various conditions[49]. Note that there is no provision for those who plan to leave Singapore by land or sea to get a GST refund.

Costs

Singapore is expensive by Asian standards but cheap for visitors from most industrialized countries: $50 is a perfectly serviceable daily backpacker budget. Food in particular is a steal, with excellent hawker food available for under $5 for a generous serving. Accommodation is a little pricier, but a bed in a hostel can cost less than $20 and the most luxurious hotels on the island (except maybe the Raffles) can be yours for $300 with the right discounts.

Shopping

Shopping is second only to eating as a national pastime, which means that Singapore has an abundance of shopping malls, and low taxes and tariffs on imports coupled with huge volume mean that prices are usually very competitive. Most stores are open 7 days a week from 10 AM until 9 PM, although smaller operations (particularly those outside shopping malls) close earlier — 7 PM is common — and perhaps on Sundays as well. Keep an eye out for the Great Singapore Sale [50], usually held in June-July, when shopping centres pull out all stops to attract punters. Many stores along the shopping belt of Orchard Road and Scotts Road now offer late night shopping on the last Friday of every month with over 250 retailers staying open till midnight. Public transport operating hours are also be adjusted on these particular Fridays.

  • Antiques: The second floor of the Tanglin Shopping Centre on Orchard and the shops on South Bridge Rd in Chinatown are good options if looking for the real thing (or high-quality reproductions).
  • Books: Borders at Wheelock Place and Kinokuniya at Ngee Ann City, both on Orchard, are the largest bookstores in Singapore. Many second-hand bookstores are located in Far East Plaza and Bras Basah Complex, where you may attempt to bargain if you are buying a lot.
  • Cameras: Peninsula Plaza near City Hall has Singapore's best selection of camera shops. However, there are no great bargains to be had, and many camera stores in Singapore (particularly those in Lucky Plaza and Sim Lim Square) have a reputation for fleecing unwary tourists.
  • Computers: Sim Lim Square (near Little India) is great for the hardcore geek who really knows what he's after (and at slightly cheaper prices), but Funan IT Mall is a better choice for lesser mortals. Challenger is a local chain that provides a great one-stop option for computer and other electronic (but mostly computer) products. There are 8 locations across the island. If you plan on buying a lot, a membership card might be worth the purchase (S$30) to get some discounts.
  • Consumer electronics: Very competitively priced in Singapore. Funan IT Mall (Orchard), Sim Lim Square and Mustafa (Little India) are good choices. Avoid the tourist-oriented shops on Orchard Road, particularly the notorious Lucky Plaza, or risk getting ripped off. Local retailer Harvey Norman also has many stores scattered throughout Singapore. Check out the massive Harvey Norman Mega Superstore at Millenia Walk. For any purchases, remember that Singapore uses 230V voltage with a British-style three-pin plug.
  • Electronic components: For do-it-yourself people and engineers, a wide variety of electronic components and associated tools can be found at Sim Lim Tower (opposite Sim Lim Square), near Little India. You can find most common electronic components (such as breadboards, transistors, various IC's, etc.) and bargain for larger quantities as well.
  • Ethnic knick-knacks: Chinatown has Singapore's heaviest concentration of glow-in-the-dark Merlion soap dispensers and ethnic gewgaws, mostly but not entirely Chinese and nearly all imported from somewhere else.
  • Fashion, high-street: Ngee Ann City (Takashimaya) and Paragon on Orchard have the heaviest concentration of branded boutiques.
  • Fashion, youth: Most of Bugis is dedicated to the young, hip and cost-conscious. Some spots of Orchard, notably the top floor of the Heeren, and Far East Plaza, also target the same market but prices are generally higher. The basements of both Wisma Atria and Ngee Ann City also have loads of options for the young.
  • Fakes: Unlike most South-East Asian countries, pirated goods are not openly on sale and importing them to the city-state carries heavy fines. Fake goods are nevertheless not difficult to find in Little India, Bugis, or even in the underpasses of Orchard Road.
  • Food: Jason's Marketplace in the basement of Raffles City (Orchard) is one of a number of Singapore's best-stocked gourmet supermarkets with a vast array of imported products. Tanglin Market Place in the basement at Tanglin Mall on Tanglin Road also has a great selection of groceries. All of the major supermarkets are owned by a local company called ColdStorage, which also has a large number of ColdStorage-branded supermarkets across the island. Unless you're looking for a unique imported item, ColdStorage will lilkely suffice. Takashimaya's basement (Orchard) has lots of small quirky shops and makes for a more interesting browse. For a more Singaporean (and much cheaper) shopping experience, seek out any neighborhood wet market, like Little India's Tekka Market.
  • Hi-fi stereos: The Adelphi (Riverside) has Singapore's best selection of audiophile shops.
  • Music: The three-story HMV in the Heeren on Orchard is Singapore's largest music store. There is also an HMV in the CityWalk mall linking Raffles City and Suntec City Mall. Gramophone, however, provides much better prices on CDs and has an interesting selection. Numerous branches are scattered across the CBD and Orchard Road. Better Gramophone locations are at Capitol Centre at street level on North Bridge Road (across from St. Andrews Cathedral) and at Ngee Ann City in B2.
  • Scuba gear: The Concourse shopping mall in Bugis has a good selection of dive shops in the basement.
  • Sports goods: Queensway Shopping Centre, off Alexandra Rd and rather off the beaten track (take a cab), seems to consist of nothing but sports goods shops. You can also find foreigner-sized sporty clothing and shoes here. Do bargain! Expect to get 40-50% off the price from the shops in Orchard for the same items. Velocity in Novena is also devoted to sports goods, but is rather more upmarket.
  • Tea: Chinatown has plenty of tea shops, and there are some high-end stores for both Japanese and Chinese varieties in Takashimaya's basement, but Time for Tea in Lucky Plaza (Orchard) may have the best prices.
  • Watches: High-end watches are very competitively priced. Ngee Ann City (Orchard) has dedicated stores from the likes of Piaget and Cartier, while Millenia Walk (Riverside) features the Cortina Watch Espace retailing 30 brands from Audemars Piguet to Patek Philippe, as well as several other standalone shops.

Eat

This guide uses the following price ranges for a typical meal for one, including soft drink:
Budget Under $5
Mid-range $5-20
Splurge Over $20

Singapore is a melting pot of cuisines from around the world, and many Singaporeans are obsessive gourmands who love to makan ("eat" in Malay). You will find quality Chinese, Malay, Indian, Japanese, Italian, French, American and other food in this city-state.

Eating habits run the gamut, but most foods are eaten by fork and spoon: push and cut with the fork in the left hand, and eat with the spoon in the right. Noodles and Chinese dishes typically come with chopsticks, and Indian food can be eaten by hand, but nobody will blink an eye if you ask for a fork and spoon instead. If eating in a group, serving dishes are always shared, but you'll get your own bowl of rice and soup.

Keep an eye out for the Singapore Food Festival [51], held every year in July. During the last three festivals, all visitors to Singapore smart enough to ask for them at any tourist information desk received coupons for free chilli crab, no strings attached!

Local delicacies

Singapore is justly famous for its food, a unique mix of Malay, Chinese and Indian elements.

Peranakan/Nonya cuisine

Culinary borrowings
Many regional terms and the odd euphemism tend to crop up in notionally English menus. A few of the more common ones:

assam 
tamarind (Malay)
bee hoon 
thin rice noodles (Hokkien 米粉)
garoupa 
grouper, a type of fish (Portuguese)
gonggong 
a type of conch (Chinese)
hor fun 
very wide, flat rice noodles (Cantonese 河粉)
kangkung 
water spinach, an aquatic vegetable (Malay)
kway teow 
flat rice noodles (Hokkien 粿条)
lengkuas 
blue ginger (Malay)
mee 
thick egg noodles (Hokkien 麺)
serai 
lemon grass (Malay)
sotong 
squid/cuttlefish (Malay)
spare parts 
offal such as liver, heart, gizzard


The most identifiable cuisine in the region is Peranakan or Nonya cuisine, born from the mixed Malay and Chinese communities of what were once the British colonies of the Straits Settlements (modern-day Singapore, Penang and Malacca).

  • Chilli crab is a whole crab ladled with oodles of sticky, tangy chilli sauce. Notoriously difficult to eat... but irresistibly delicious! Don't wear a white shirt! The seafood restaurants of the East Coast are famous for this. For a less messy but equally tasty alternative, ask for black pepper crab.
  • Kaya is a jam-like spread made from egg and coconut, an odd-sounding but tasty combination. Served on toast for breakfast, canonically accompanied by runny eggs and strong, sweet coffee (kopi).
  • Laksa, in particular the Katong or lemak style, is probably the best known Singaporean dish: a fragrant soup of noodles in a coconut-based curry broth, topped with cockles or shrimp. Note that Singapore laksa is very different from Penang laksa which is made with a tamarind-infused broth instead of coconut, and has a spicy sourish taste.
  • Mee siam is rice flour noodles served with sour gravy made from tamarind, dried shrimp and fermented beans. Usually served with tau pok (bean curd) cubes and hard boiled eggs. Though the Chinese, Malays and Indians all have their own versions, it is the Peranakan version that is most popular with Singaporeans.
  • Popiah or spring rolls come fresh or fried. They consist of boiled turnips, fried tofu, fried shallots and garlic, chopped omelette, chopped stir fried long beans and (optional) chilli sauce, wrapped in a thin rice skin covering and eaten like a fajita.
  • Rojak means a mixture of everything in Malay, and there are two very different types. Chinese rojak is a salad of pineapple, white turnip, cucumber, tau pok (fried bean curd) with thin tiny slices of bunga kantan (torch ginger flower buds), tossed in shrimp paste sauce and sugar, then sprinkled with crushed peanuts. Indian rojak consists of mainly fried fritters made from flour and various pulses with cucumber and tofu, with sweet & spicy sauces.
  • Satay bee hoon is rice vermicelli (bee hoon) served with the same peanut and chilli sauce used for satay, hence the name. Usually see hum (cockles), dried squid and pork slices are added in.

Besides these dishes, the Peranakans are also known or their kueh or snacks which are somewhat different from the Malay versions due to stronger Chinese influences.

Malay cuisine

Malay food originates largely from the migrants from present-day Indonesia. Characterized by heavy use of spices, most Malay dishes are curries, stews or dips of one kind or another and nasi padang restaurants, offering a wide variety of these to ladle onto your rice, are very popular.

  • Nasi lemak (lit. "fat rice") is the definitive Malay breakfast, consisting at its simplest of rice cooked in light coconut milk, some ikan bilis (anchovies), peanuts, a slice of cucumber and a dab of chilli on the side. A larger fried fish or chicken wing are common accompaniments. More often than not, also combined with a variety of curries and/or sambal (see below).
  • Rendang, occasionally dubbed "dry curry", is meat stewed for hours on end in a spicy (but rarely fiery) curry paste until almost all water is absorbed. Beef rendang is the most common, although chicken and mutton are spotted sometimes.
  • Sambal is the generic term for chilli sauces of many kinds. Sambal belacan is a common condiment made by mixing chilli with the shrimp paste belacan, while the popular dish sambal sotong consists of squid (sotong) cooked in red chilli sauce.
  • Satay are barbecued skewers of meat, typically chicken or beef. What separates satay from your ordinary kebab is the slightly spicy peanut-based dipping sauce. The Satay Club at Lau Pa Sat near Raffles Place is one popular location for this delicacy.
  • Mee rebus is egg noodles served in some sweet chilli-based broth, usually with a slice of hard boiled egg and some lime.

Malay desserts, especially the sweet pastries and jellies (kuih) made largely from coconut and palm sugar (gula melaka), bear a distinct resemblance to those of Thailand. But in the sweltering tropical heat, try one of many concoctions made with ice instead:

  • Bubur cha-cha consists of cubed yam, sweet potato and sago added into coconut milk soup. This can be served warm or cold.
  • Chendol is made with green pea noodles, kidney beans, palm sugar and coconut milk.
  • Durian is not exactly a dish, but a local fruit with distinctive odor you can smell a mile away and a sharp thorny husk. Both smell and taste defy description, but eating garlic ice cream next to an open sewer comes to mind. If you are game enough you should try it, but be warned beforehand — you will either love it or hate it. The rich creamy yellow flesh is often sold in places like Geylang and Bugis and elsewhere conveniently in pre-packaged packs, for anywhere from $1 for a small fruit all the way up to $24/kg depending on the season and type of durian. This 'king of fruits' is also made into ice cream, cakes, sweets and other decadent desserts. Note: You're not allowed to carry durians on the MRT and buses and they're banned from many hotels.
  • Ice kachang literally means "ice bean" in Malay, a good clue to the two major ingredients: shaved ice and sweet red beans. However, more often than not you'll also get gula melaka (palm sugar), grass jelly, sweet corn, attap palm seeds and anything else on hand thrown in, and the whole thing is then drizzled with canned condensed milk or coconut cream and colored syrups. The end result tastes very interesting — and refreshing.
  • Kuih (or kueh) refer to a plethora of steamed cake-like, mostly made with coconut milk, grated coconut flesh, glutinous rice or tapioca. They are often very colorful and cut into fanciful shapes, but despite their wildly varying appearance tend to taste rather similar.

Chinese cuisine

Chinese food as eaten in Singapore commonly originates from southern China, particularly Fujian. While "authentic" fare is certainly available, especially in fancier restaurants, the daily fare served in hawker centres has absorbed a number of tropical touches, most notably the fairly heavy use of chilli and the Malay fermented shrimp paste belachan as condiments. Noodles can also be served not just in soup (湯 tang), but also "dry" (干 kan), meaning that your noodles will be served tossed with chilli and spices in one bowl, and the soup will come in a separate bowl.

  • Bak chor mee(肉脞麵)is essentially noodles with minced pork, tossed in a chilli-based sauce with lard, ikan bilis (fried anchovies), vegetables and mushrooms.
  • Bak kut teh (肉骨茶), lit. "pork bone tea", is a simple-sounding soup of pork ribs simmered for hours in broth until they're ready to fall off the bone. Singaporeans prefer the light and peppery Teochew style, but a few shops offer the original dark and aromatic Fujian kind. Bak kut teh is typically eaten with white rice, mui choy (pickled vegetables) and a pot of strong Chinese tea, hence the name — the broth itself doesn't contain any tea. To impress the locals, order some you tiao fritters from a nearby stall and cut them up into bite-sized chunks to dip into your soup.
  • Char kway teow (炒粿条) is the quintessential Singapore-style fried noodle dish, consisting of several types of noodles in thick brown sauce with strips of fishcake, Chinese sausage, a token veggie or two and either cockles and shrimp. It's cheap ($2-3/serve), filling and has nothing to do with the dish known as "Singaporean (fried) noodles" elsewhere! (And which actually doesn't exist in Singapore.)
  • Chee cheong fun is a favorite breakfast consisting of lasagna-type rice noodles rolled up and various types of fried meats including fishballs and fried tofu. The dish is usually topped with a generous amount of sauce.
  • Chwee kway (水粿) is a dish consisting of rice cakes topped with chai po (salted fermented turnips), usually served with some chilli sauce.
  • Fish ball noodles  come in many forms, but the type most often seen is mee pok, which consists of egg noodles tossed in chilli sauce, with the fishballs floating in a separate bowl of soup on the side.
  • Hainanese chicken rice (海南鸡饭) is steamed chicken served with special gently spiced rice and tasty ginger and chilli dipping sauces. The chicken doesn't taste like much, the secret is in the rice and the sauces!
  • Hokkien mee (福建麵) is a style of soupy fried noodles in light, fragrant stock with prawns and other seafood. Oddly, it bears little resemblance to the Malaysian dish of the same name, which uses thick noodles in dark soy.
  • Kway chap (粿汁) is essentially sheets made of rice flour served in some brownish soup, accompanied by a plate of braised pork and pig organs (usually intestines).
  • Prawn noodles (虾麵, hei mee in Hokkien) is a prawn-based dark brown soup served with noodles and a giant tiger prawn or two on top. Some stalls will serve it with boiled pork ribs as well.
  • Steamboat (火鍋), also known as hot pot, is do-it-yourself soup Chinese style. You get a pot of broth bubbling on a tabletop burner, pick meat, fish and veggies to your liking from a menu or buffet table, then cook it to your liking. When finished, add in noodles or ask for rice to fill you up. This usually requires a minimum of two people, and the more the merrier.
  • Wantan mee (雲吞麵) is thin noodles topped with wantan dumplings of seasoned minced pork.
  • Yong tau foo (酿豆腐) literally means "boiled tofu", but it's more exciting than it sounds. The diner selects their favorites from a vast assortment of tofu, fish paste, seafood and vegetables and they are then sliced into bite-size pieces, cooked briefly in boiling water and then served either in broth as soup or "dry" with the broth in a separate bowl. The dish can be eaten by itself or with any choice of noodles. Essential accompaniments are spicy chili sauce and a distinctive brown sweet sauce for dipping.

Indian cuisine

Roti prata (left) and roti telur (center) with a side order of chicken curry

The smallest of the area's minorities, the Indians have had proportionally the smallest impact on the local culinary scene, but there is no shortage of Indian food even at many hawker centres. Delicious and authentic Indian food can be had at Little India, including south Indian typical meals such as dosai, idli, sambar, and others, as well as north Indian meals including various curries, naan bread, and more. In addition, however, a number of Indian dishes have been "Singaporeanized" and adopted by the entire population, including:

  • Fish head curry is, true to the name, a gigantic curried fish head cooked whole until it's ready to fall apart. The head itself is not eaten, as there's plenty of meat to be found inside and all around. Singapore's Little India is the place to sample this. Note that there are two distinct styles, the fiery Indian and the milder Chinese kind.
  • Nasi briyani is rice cooked in turmeric, giving it an orange colour. Unlike the Hyderabadi original, it's usually rather bland, although specialist shops do turn out more flavorful versions. It is usually served with curry chicken and some Indian crackers.
  • Roti prata is the local version of paratha, flat bread tossed in the air like pizza, rapidly cooked in oil, and eaten dipped in curry. Modern-day variations can incorporate unorthodox ingredients like cheese, chocolate and even ice cream, but some canonical versions include roti kosong (plain), roti telur (with egg) and murtabak (layered with chicken, mutton or fish). Strict vegetarians beware: unlike Indian roti, roti prata batter is usually made with eggs.

Hawker centres

Social welfare Singapore style
One thing notably absent from Singaporean cheap eateries is any form of napkins or tissues. The solution to the mystery is in Singapore's lack of government welfare: instead, every hawker centre has a resident invalid or two, who make a living by selling tissues ($1 for a few packets).


Typical hawker centre, Bugis

The cheapest and most popular places to eat in Singapore are hawker centres, essentially former pushcart vendors directed into giant complexes by government fiat. Prices are low ($2-5 for most dishes), hygiene standards are high (every stall is required to prominently display a health certificate grading it from A to D) and the food can be excellent — if you see a queue, join it! Ambience tends to be a little lacking though and there is no air-conditioning either, but a visit to a hawker centre is a must when in Singapore. However, be leery of overzealous pushers-cum-salesmen (especially at the Satay Club in Lau Pa Sat, and Newton Food Centre at Newton Circus) -- Check to see what is on offer.

To order, first chope (reserve) a table by parking a friend by the table, note the table's number, then place your order at your stall of choice. They'll deliver to your table, and you pay when you get the food. Note that some stalls (particularly very popular ones) have signs stating "self-service", meaning that you're expected to get your food yourself — but if it's quiet or you're sitting nearby they'll usually deliver anyway. At almost every stall you can also opt to take away (called "packet" or da pao), in which case they'll pack up your order in a plastic box/bag and even throw in disposable utensils. Once finished, just get up and go, as tables are cleared by hired cleaners.

Every district in Singapore has its own hawker centres and prices decrease as you move out into the boonies. For tourists, centrally located Newton Circus (Newton MRT), Gluttons Bay and Lau Pa Sat (near the River), are the most popular options — but this does not make them the cheapest or the tastiest, and the demanding gourmand would do well to head to Chinatown instead. Some of Singapore's favourite eating places (that are cheap and oh so good!) are located in the heartlands like Bedok, Toa Payoh or Geylang. And if you miss western food, Botak Jones [52] in several hawker centers offer reasonably authentic and generously sized American-restaurant style meals at hawker prices.

Coffee shops

Coffee, see, and tea, oh!
Coffee and tea in hawker centers goes for under a dollar a cup, a steep discount on Starbucks prices, but you'll need to learn the lingo to get what you want. If you order just kopi (the Malay word for "coffee") or teh (Hokkien for "tea") in Singapore, it will definitely be served with a heaped spoonful of sugar, and more often than not with a squirt of condensed milk. Kopi-C or teh-C guarantees the milk dose, while kopi-O/teh-O makes sure it's served without. To get rid of the sugar, you need to ask for it kosong ("plain"), but if you want a plain black cup of joe, you need to ask for kopi-O kosong! If you want your drink cold, just add a peng to the end of the drink name, eg. kopi-O-peng, teh-peng, teh-C-peng, Milo-peng etc. and it will be served with ice.


Despite the name, coffee shops or kopitiam sell much more than coffee — they are effectively mini-hawker centres with perhaps only half a dozen stalls (one of which will, however, sell coffee and other drinks). The Singaporean equivalent of pubs, this is where folks come for the canonical Singaporean breakfast of kopi (strong, sugary coffee), some kaya (egg-coconut jam) toast and runny eggs, and this is also where they come to down a beer or two and chat away in the evenings.

The usual Starbucks and other local cafe chains such as Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf can be found in any shopping mall but an iced coffee or tea can put you back $5 and up, whereas a teh tarik ("pulled" milky tea) (try it flavored with ginger)or kopi coffee runs closer to $1 at any hawker centre.

Food courts

Found in the basement or top floor of nearly every shopping mall, food courts are the gentrified, air-conditioned version of hawker centres. The food is much the same but prices are on average $1-2 higher.

Fast food

International fast food chains like McDonald's, Carl's Jr., Burger King, KFC, MOS Burger, Dairy Queen, Orange Julius, Subway etc are commonly found in various shopping malls. Prices range from $2 for a basic burger and $5 upwards for a set meal. All restaurants are self-service and clearing your table after your meal is optional.

In addition to the usual suspects, look out for these uniquely Singaporean brands:

  • Bengawan Solo, [53]. Singapore version of Indonesian cakes, Chinese pastries and everything in between. The name is taken from the name of a famous river in Java.
  • BreadTalk, [54]. This self-proclaimed "designer bread" chain has taken not just Singapore but much of South-East Asia by storm. Everything is jazzily shaped, funkily named (eg. Crouching Tiger, Hidden Bacon) and baked on premises. Just note that, to the Western palate, most everything is rather sweet.
  • Jollibean, [55]. Fresh soy drinks, beancurd and tasty mee chiang kueh Chinese pancakes.
  • Killiney Kopitiam, [56]. Serves kaya toast, kopi and ginger tea (with ice or without); waiters at the original Somerset location shout your order towards the back with gusto.
  • Old Chang Kee, [57]. Famous for their curry puffs, but their range now covers anything and everything deep-fried. Take-away only.
  • Ya Kun Kaya, [58]. Serves the classic Singaporean breakfast all day long: kaya toast, runny eggs and strong, sweet coffee (plus some other drinks).

Restaurants

Singapore offers a wide variety of full-service restaurants as well, catering to every taste and budget. Being a maritime city one common specialty is seafood restaurants, offering Chinese-influenced Singaporean classics like chilli crabs. While Chinese restaurant food is certainly closer to authentic Chinese fare than hawker food is, it too has not managed to escape local influences and you can find many dishes little seen in China. These are much more fun to go to in a group, but be careful what you order: gourmet items like Sri Lankan giant crab or shark's fin can easily push your bill up to hundreds of dollars. Menus typically say "Market price", and if you ask they'll quote you the price per 100g, but a big crab can easily top 2 kilos. The best-known seafood spots are clustered on the East Coast, but for ambience the riverside restaurants at Boat Quay and Clarke Quay can't be beat.

Singapore also has its share of good Western restaurants, with British and American influenced food being a clear favourite among locals. Most of the more affordable chains are concentrated around Orchard Road and prices are around $10-20 per person for the main course. French and Italian food is also readily available, though prices tend to be on the expensive side.

Thai and Japanese food are also rather popular among Singaporeans so such restaurants are widely available, though good Japanese food tends to come at a very high price. Good Thai food though, is available for reasonable prices and is very much worth a try.

One British import much beloved by Singaporeans is high tea. In the classical form, as served up by finer hotels across the island, this is a light afternoon meal consisting of tea and a wide array of British-style savoury snacks and sweet pastries like finger sandwiches and scones. However, the term is increasingly used for afternoon buffets of any kind, and Chinese dim sum and various Singaporean dishes are common additions. Prices vary, but you'll usually be looking at $20-30 per head. Note that many restaurants only serve high tea on weekends, and hours may be very limited: the famous spread at the Raffles Hotel's Tiffin Room, for example, is only available between 3:30 PM and 5 PM.

Singaporeans are big on buffets, especially international buffets offering a wide variety of dishes from Western to Chinese and Japanese as well as some local food at a fixed price. Popular chains include Sakura [59], Pariss [60] and Vienna [61].

Dietary restrictions

Singapore is an easy place to eat for almost everybody. Many Indians and not a few Chinese Buddhists are strictly vegetarian, so every Indian stall will have a number of veggie options and most hawker centres will have a Chinese vegetarian stall or two, often serving up amazing meat imitations made from gluten. Be on your guard in ordinary Chinese restaurants though, as even dishes that appear vegetarian on the menu may contain seafood products like oyster sauce or salted fish — check with the waiter if in doubt.

Muslims should look out for halal certificates issued by MUIS, the Islamic Religious Council of Singapore. This is found at practically every Malay stall and many Indian Muslim operations too, but more rarely on outlets run by the Chinese, few of whom are Muslims. That said, the popular Banquet [62] chain of food courts is entirely halal and an excellent choice for safely sampling halal Chinese food. Many, if not all, of the Western fast-food chains in Singapore use halal meat: look for a certificate around the ordering area, or ask a manager if in doubt. A few restaurants skimp on the formal certification and simply put up "no pork, no lard" signs; it's your call if this is good enough for you.

Drink

Clarke Quay by night

Singapore's nightlife isn't quite a match for Patpong, but it's no slouch either! Some clubs have 24-hour licenses and few places close before 3 AM. Any artist touring Asia are pretty much guaranteed to stop in Singapore, with superclub Zouk in particular regularly clocking high on lists of the world's best nightclubs. Two new additions to the night scene - St James Power Station and Ministry of Sound give party animals even more reason to dance the night away. Singapore's nightlife is largely concentrated along the three Quays — Boat, Clarke and Robertson — of the Riverside, plus nearby Mohammed Sultan Road. Drinking age is 18, and while this is surprisingly loosely enforced, some clubs have higher age limits.

Friday is generally the biggest night of the week for going out, with Saturday a close second. Sunday is gay night in many bars and clubs, while Wednesday or Thursday is ladies' night, often meaning not just free entrance but free drinks for women. Most clubs are closed on Monday and Tuesday, while bars generally stay open but tend to be very quiet.

For a night out Singapore style, gather a group of friends and head for the nearest karaoke box — major chains include K-Box [63] and Party World. Room rental ranges from $30/hour and up. Note that the non-chain, glitzy-looking, neon-covered KTV lounges may charge much higher rates and the short-skirted hostesses may offer more services than just pouring your drinks. Note that in Singapore, the pronunciation of karaoke follows the Japanese "karah-oh-kay" instead of the Western "carry-oh-key".

Alcohol

Alcohol is widely available but is more expensive than in many other industrialized countries like Japan and Australia due to Singapore's heavy sin taxes, although prices have come down slightly recently. Tax-free at Changi Airport, on the other hand, has some of the best prices in the world; you can bring in up to one liter each of liquor, wine and beer. Careful shopping at major supermarkets will also throw up common basic New World (read: Oz) wine labels on special prices in the mid to late teens.

Prices when eating out vary. You can enjoy a large bottle of beer of your choice at a coffee shop or hawker center for less than $6 (and the local colour comes thrown in for free). On the other hand, drinks in any bar, club or fancy restaurant remain extortionate, with a basic drink clocking in at $10-15 while cocktails would usually be in the $15-25 range. On the upside, happy hours and two-for-one promotions are common, and the entry price for clubs usually includes several drink tickets. Almost all restaurants in Singapore allow bringing your own (BYO) wine and cheaper restaurants without a wine menu usually don't even charge corkage, although in these places you'll need to bring your own bottle opener and glasses. Fancier places charge $20-50, although many offer free corkage days on Monday or Tuesday.

Tourists flock to the Long Bar in the Raffles Hotel to sample the original Singapore Sling, a sickly sweet pink mix of pineapple juice, gin and more, but locals (almost) never touch the stuff. The tipple of choice in Singapore is the local beer, Tiger, a rather ordinary lager. To sample speciality beers, head to Brewerkz at Riverside Point or Paulaner Brauhaus, a German microbrewery at Millenia Walk.

Tobacco

Tobacco is heavily taxed, and you are not allowed to bring more than one opened pack (not carton, but single pack!) of cigarettes into the country. This is particularly strictly enforced on the land borders with Malaysia. Many public places including hawker centres have restrictions on smoking, and it is prohibited in public transport as well. There is a total ban on smoking in all air-conditioned places, and strict limitations on where you can smoke outside as well (eg. bus stops and all except the designated sections of hawker centres are off limits). The designated zone should be marked with a yellow outline, and may have a sign reading "smoking zone".

Prostitution

Prostitution is tolerated in six designated districts, most notably Geylang, which — not coincidentally — also offers some of the cheapest lodging in the city. The industry maintains a low profile (no go-go bars here) and is not a tourist attraction by any stretch of the word. Legally practising commercial sex workers are required to register with the authorities and attend special clinics for regular sexually transmitted disease screening. However, please be prudent and practice safe sex--although most sex workers will insist on it anyway.

Orchard Towers, on Orchard Road, has been famously summarized as "four floors of whores" and, despite occasional crackdowns by the authorities, continues to live up to its name. Beware that the prostitutes working here are usually not registered, so the risk of theft and STDs is significantly higher, and not a few of the "women" are actually transsexuals.

Sleep

This guide uses the following price ranges for a standard double room:
Budget Under $80
Mid-range $80-200
Splurge Over $200

Accommodation in Singapore is expensive by South-East Asian standards. Particularly in the higher price brackets, demand has been outstripping supply recently, but cheap hotels and hostels remain affordable and available.

Budget

Backpackers' hostels can be found primarily in Little India, Bugis and East Coast. Around $20 for a dorm bed.

Cheap hotels are clustered in the Geylang, Balestier and Little India districts, where they service mostly the type of customer who rents rooms by the hour. Prices start as low as $15 for a "transit" of a few hours and $40 for a full night's stay. A few budget hotel chains of note include:

  • Fragrance Hotel, +65-63456116, [64]. Chain of 13 affordable hotels and one backpackers' hostel. Rooms from $58, discounts on weekends and for ISIC holders.
  • Hotel 81, +65-67678181, [65]. A chain of 18 cheap, functional hotels that are not a bad option for backpackers willing to pay a small premium for privacy, with rates starting at $49 for two.

Mid-range

Much of Singapore's mid-range accommodation is in rather featureless but functional older hotels, with a notable cluster near the western end of the Singapore River. There has, however, been a recent surge of "boutique" hotels in renovated shophouses here and in Chinatown and these can be pretty good value, with rates starting from $100/night.

Splurge

Raffles Hotel

Singapore has a wide selection of luxury accommodation, including the famed Raffles Hotel. You will generally be looking at upwards of $300 for a room in a five-star hotel, which is still a pretty good deal by most standards. Hotel rates fluctuate quite a bit: a large conference can double prices, while on weekends in the off season heavy discounts are often available. The largest hotel clusters can be found by the riverside (good for sightseeing) and around Orchard Road (good for shopping).

Long-term

Apartment hotels in Singapore include Ascott [66], which also operates under the Somerset brand. Prices are competitive with hotels but quite expensive compared to apartments.

Renting an apartment in Singapore will generally require a working visa. While over 80% of Singaporeans live in government-subsidized Housing Development Board (HDB) flats, their availability to visitors is limited, although JTC's SHiFT [67] scheme makes some available with monthly rents in the $700-1000 range. Most expats, however, turn to private housing blocks known as condos, where an average three-bedroom apartment will cost you anything from $2,000 per month for an older apartment in the suburbs to $20,000 for a top-of-the-line deluxe one on Orchard Road. Most condos have facilities like pools, gyms, tennis court, carpark and 24-hour security. As the supply of studio and one-bedroom apartments is very limited, most people on a budget share an apartment with friends or colleagues, or just sublet a single room. Landed houses, known as bungalows, are incredibly expensive in the centre (rents are regularly measured in tens of thousands) but can drop if you're willing to head out into the woods — and remember that you can drive across the country in 30 minutes.

One or two-month security deposits are standard practice and for monthly rents of under $2500 you need to pay the agent a commission of 2 weeks per year of lease. Leases are usually for two years, with a "diplomatic clause" that allows you to terminate after one year. Singapore Expats [68] is the largest real estate agency geared for expats and their free classifieds are a popular choice for hunting for rooms or apartment-mates. You might also want to check the classified ads in the local newspapers.

Learn

Singapore's universities are generally well-regarded and draw exchange students from near and far.

  • National University of Singapore (NUS), [69]. Singapore's oldest university. One of the premier universities in Asia and a popular choice for exchange students.
  • Nanyang Technological University (NTU), [70]. The second university in this island state, more geared towards technical studies.
  • Singapore Management University (SMU), [71]. The third, newest, and the only publicly-funded private university in Singapore. Founded in collaboration with the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania, it is geared towards business and economics.
  • Singapore Institute of Management University (UniSIM), [72]. The fourth 'second-chance, but not second-rate' private university. The school offers a wide range of first degrees, from the arts to business to technology studies.

A number of foreign universities, business schools and specialized institutes have also setup their Asian campuses in Singapore.

  • SP Jain Center Of Management (SPJCM), [73]. International campus of the business school in Mumbai.
  • INSEAD Asia, [74]. The Asian campus of European business school, INSEAD.
  • University of Chicago Graduate School of Business, [75]. The Asian campus of the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business.
  • DigiPen Institute of Technology, [76]. The Asian campus of the DigiPen Institute of Technology, Redmond, Seattle, Washington.

Cooking

  • Palate Sensations, +65-64799025 (), [77]. A culinary studio specialized in hands-on cooking classes and courses, corporate bonding classes and private dining. On the website is available a complete calendar of the classes and courses and you can directly contact Lynette, the owner, to arrange a private class or a dining session.

Work

Casual work is nearly impossible to come by, as you must have a work permit (WP) or employment pass (EP) to work in Singapore. In practice, receiving a work permit requires that you have a firm job offer and the sponsoring company applies on your behalf; however, highly skilled people can apply for an Employment Pass Eligibility Certificate (EPEC), which allows you to stay in Singapore for a maximum of one year while you look for a job.

When the employment is terminated, you will get a social visit pass (a visitors visa with no employment rights) which allows you to stay for no longer than 14 days. You can look for another job during this time, but don't overstay your visa, and do not think about working without the right papers, this will result in a short stay in the local prison, with added fines, possibly caning and certain deportation. For more information, contact the Ministry of Manpower [78].

Once you have been working in Singapore for a year or so, applying for permanent residence (PR) is fairly straightforward. If granted — and the rule of thumb is, the higher your salary, the more likely you are to get it — you can stay in Singapore indefinitely (as long as you can show some income every 5-10 years) and can change jobs freely.

Stay safe

Fine-tuning the MRT

Singapore is one of the safest major cities in the world in terms of crime and personal safety. Most people, including single female travellers, will not face any problems walking along the streets alone at night. Nevertheless, as with any other city, one should still use some commonsense and avoid areas that look particularly deserted. In addition, while there is no need to be paranoid, one should still be wary of pickpockets in crowded areas.

Singapore's squeaky cleanliness is achieved in part by strict rules against activities that are tolerated in other countries. For example, jay-walking, spitting, littering, and drinking and eating on public transport are prohibited. Locals joke about Singapore being a fine city because heavy fines are levied if one is caught committing an offence. Look around for sign boards detailing the Don'ts and the fines associated with these offenses, and heed them. Enforcement is however sporadic at best, and it is a common sight to see locals openly litter, spit, smoke in non-smoking zones, etc. Chewing gum, famously long banned, is now available at pharmacies for medical purposes (e.g. nicotine gum) if you ask for it directly, show your ID and sign the register. (Importing it is, theoretically, still an offense though.)

For some crimes, most notably illegal entry and overstaying your visa for over 90 days, Singapore imposes caning as a punishment. Other offenses which have caning as a punishment include vandalism (just ask Michael P. Fay), robbery, molestation and rape. Do note that having sex with a girl under the age of 16 is considered to be rape under Singapore law, regardless of whether the girl consents to it and would land you a few strokes of the cane. This is no slap on the wrist: strokes from the thick rattan cane are excruciatingly painful, take weeks to heal and scar for life.

Singapore also continues to uphold the death penalty for crimes such as murder, kidnapping, unauthorised possession of firearms and drug trafficking.

Oral and anal sex, long banned under colonial-era sodomy statutes, was legalized for heterosexuals in October 2007. Homosexual contact, however, remains illegal, with a theoretical punishment of life in prison and/or caning. Though this law is rarely enforced and there is a fairly vibrant gay community, gays should still expect legalized discrimination and unaccepting attitudes from locals and government officials.


Public demonstrations are almost unheard of in Singapore - should any occur, they may be treated with heavy-handed tactics, so avoid them at all costs.

Be aware of illicit activities in Geylang and surrounding areas. Open gambling (which is illegal) and petty crime are common.


Travel Warning WARNING: Singapore treats drug offences extremely severely. The death penalty is mandatory for those convicted of trafficking, manufacturing, importing or exporting more than 15g of heroin, 30g of morphine, 30g of cocaine, 500g of cannabis, 200g of cannabis resin and 1.2kg of opium. If you possess these quantities (and possession means you had control of them, regardless of how they ended up with you), you are deemed to be a trafficker and therefore subject to the death penalty. For unauthorised consumption, there is a maximum of 10 years' jail or fine of S$20,000, or both. Note that you can be charged for unauthorised consumption as long as traces of illicit drugs are found in your system, even if you can prove that they were consumed outside the country.

Emergency numbers

  • Ambulance: 995
  • Fire: 995
  • Police: 999
  • Singapore General Hospital: 6222 3322
  • Drug & Poison Information Centre: 6423 9119

Stay healthy

Tap water is safe for drinking and sanitation standards are very high. As a tropical country, Singapore is hot and humid so drink a lot of water. The lowest temperature ever recorded in Singapore was way back in 1934, when it hit a low of 19.4 degrees Celsius (66.9 degrees Fahrenheit.)

Malaria is not an issue, but dengue fever is endemic to the region. Singapore maintains strict mosquito control (leaving standing water around will get you fined), but the government's reach does not extend into the island's nature reserves, so if you're planning on hiking bring along mosquito repellent.

Medical care

The standard of medical care in Singapore is uniformly excellent and Singapore is a popular destination for medical tourism (and medical evacuations) in the region. Despite the lower prices, standards are often as good as those in the West at both public and private clinics, making this a good place to get your jabs and tabs if heading off into the jungle elsewhere. You'll still want to make sure your insurance is in order before a prolonged hospitalization and/or major surgery.

  • Mount Elizabeth Hospital, Mount Elizabeth (off Orchard Rd), +65-67372666, [79]. Singapore's largest private hospital and a popular destination for medical tourists.
  • Singapore General Hospital, College Road, 1st-3rd Hospital Avenue (MRT Outram Park), [80]. Singapore's oldest and largest public hospital.
  • Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 11 Jalan Tan Tock Seng (MRT Novena), +65-62656011, [81]. One of Singapore's largest public hospitals, fully equipped to handle most anything. Specialist departments here include a one-stop Travellers' Health & Vaccination Centre for immunizations, malaria prophylaxis, pre-trip and post-trip evaluations and general advice. Flat $10 fee for consultation and nurse attendance (read: jabs) - tel. +65-63572222, open 8 AM-1 PM and 2-5 PM weekdays, 8 AM-noon Sat, no appointment needed.

Restrooms/toilets

Nearly all shopping centers, hotels, MRT stations, bus interchanges, and hawker centers are likely to have public restrooms/toilet facilities available. Being clean, McDonald's restrooms are popular too, and the staff do not make a fuss. Public facilities may charge 10 to 20 cents per entry, and a packet of tissue may come in handy if the toilet paper has run out. Most toilets use bowls, but there is usually one squatting cubicle in every public toilet.

Respect

What's in a name?
- Chinese place their family name first, so Phua Chu Kang is Mr. Phua for business and Chu Kang (or just CK) to his friends. Many have Western names, so he may also be known as Herbert Phua.
- Malay names are given name + bin or binti (son/daughter) + father's name. Mohammed bin Abdullah would usually be called Mr. Mohammed.
- Indian names are complex, but the south Indian (Tamil) names usually found in Singapore have two patterns: either given name + s/o or d/o (son of/daughter of) + father's name, or father's initial + given name. Given names are often long and may be abbreviated, so Ramanathan s/o Sellapan uses the name S.R. Nathan and would addressed as Mr. Nathan. The foolproof method is to ask the person how they'd like to be addressed.


Singaporeans don't go much for formal politeness and what would be decent behavior at home (wherever home might be) is unlikely to offend anyone in Singapore either. In Singapore, unlike much of southeast Asia, women wearing revealing clothing or men wearing shorts and slippers are perfectly acceptable, although upmarket bars and restaurants may enforce dress codes. Toplessness for women, though, is not acceptable anywhere, even on the beach.

Casual conversation — for example, greeting a shopkeeper — isn't really done in Singapore, and you may get strange looks if you try. No offense is intended, Singaporeans are just protective of their personal space and showing courtesy by trying not to impose on others. Furthermore, the local dialect with its heavy Chinese influences may appear brusque or even rude, but "You want beer or not?" is in fact more polite in Chinese -- after all, the person asking you the question is offering you a choice, not making a demand!

At rush hour, be prepared for a lot of pushing on the MRT (even just to get off) and everyone racing for the empty seat. This is normal, despite signs asking people to be a little more courteous. Just go with the flow.

Beware of taboos if bringing gifts. Any products (food or otherwise) involving animals may cause offence and are best avoided, as are white flowers (usually reserved for funerals). Knives and clocks are also symbols of cutting ties and death, respectively, and some Chinese are superstitious about the number four. Many Singaporean Muslims and some Hindus abstain from alcohol.

Business

Singaporeans are punctual, so show up on time. The standard greeting is a firm handshake. However, conservative Muslims avoid touching the opposite sex, so a man meeting a Malay woman should let her offer her hand first and a woman meeting a Malay man should wait for him to offer his hand. If they opt to place their hand on the heart and bow slightly instead, just follow suit.

For men, standard business attire is a long-sleeved shirt and a tie, although it's common to skip the tie and open the shirt's collar button instead. Jackets are rarely worn, because it's simply too hot most of the time. Women usually wear Western business attire, although a few prefer Malay-style kebaya and sarong.

Business cards are always exchanged when meeting for the first time: hold yours with both hands by the top corners, so the text faces the recipient, while simultaneously receiving theirs. (This sounds more complicated than it is!) Study the cards you receive and feel free to ask questions; when finished, place them on the table in front of you, not in a shirt pocket or wallet, and do not write on them or otherwise show disrespect.

Business gifts are generally frowned on as they whiff of bribery. Smalltalk and beating around the bush is neither necessary nor expected, and most meetings get straight down to business.

Contact

By phone

The international telephone country code for Singapore is 65. There are three main telecommunication providers in Singapore: SingTel [82], StarHub [83] and MobileOne (M1), [84].

Public phones can be found all across the island. They are either coin-operated pay phones (10 cents for a three-minute local call), card phones operated by phone cards in denominations of $3, $5, $10, $20 and $50, or credit card phones. Phone cards are available at all post offices and from phonecard agents. Most coin-operated pay phones are for local calls only, there are some which accept coins of larger denominations and can be used for overseas calls. Credit card phones are usually found at the airport or in some major hotels.

International dialing To make an IDD call from Singapore, dial the access code 001 (for SingTel), 002 (for M1), and 008 (for StarHub), followed by the country code, area code and party's number. Recently the providers have started offering cheaper rates for calls using Internet telephony routes. The access codes for this cheaper service are 019 and 013 for Singtel and 018 for Starhub.

Calling cards are also available for specific international destinations and are usually cheaper. Hello Card from Singtel offers a very cheap rate to 8 countries (Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand).

Mobile phones are carried by almost everyone in Singapore (including many young children!). Prepaid SIM cards are available from the three main telecommunication providers and are sold in 7-Eleven convenience stores and phone shops, just bring your own GSM 900/1800 (or buy a cheap used phone in Singapore). You will need to show ID. A local phone call costs between 5-25 cents per minute, whereas each local text message (SMS) costs about 5 cents (international SMS cost about 15-25 cents). You may also be charged for incoming calls. All 3 service providers have both GSM 900/1800 and 3G (W-CDMA) networks and roaming onto these may be possible, subject to agreements between operators.

By net

Internet cafes are scattered about the island, but not particularly common since almost all locals have at least dial-up access, and most have high-speed access at home, work, and/or school. However, public libraries offer cheap Internet access.

The first phase of the nationwide free Wireless@SG system is now operating and visitors are free to use the system, although they must register and receive a password via e-mail or a mobile phone first. See the Infocomm Development Authority website [85] for a current list of hotspots. Commercial alternatives include McDonalds, which offers free WLAN at most outlets; Starhub, a member of the Wireless Broadband Alliance with hotspots at Coffee Bean cafes; and Singtel, which has hotspots at most Starbucks cafes. Roaming or prepaid rates are on the order of $0.10/minute.

Cope

Embassies, high commissions and consulates

Singapore is a good place to collect visas for the region. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs [86] maintains a complete searchable database of diplomatic institutions.

  • Australia High Commission, 25 Napier Road, +65-67379311.
  • Canada High Commission, One George Street, #11-01, +65-68545900.
  • People's Republic of China Embassy, 150 Tanglin Road, +65-64180328.
  • Denmark Embassy, 101 Thomson Road, #13-01 United Square, +65-62503383.
  • Finland Embassy, 101 Thomson Road, #21-03 United Square, +65-62544042.
  • France Embassy, 101-103 Cluny Park Road, +65-68807800, [87].
  • German Embassy, 50 Raffles Place, #12-00 Singapore Land Tower, +65 98170414, [88].
  • India High Commission, 31 Grange Road, +65-67376777, [89]. Warning: Only issues visas to residents of Singapore, and all visa applications are handled by Serangoon Travel in Tekka Mall, Little India.
  • Indonesia Embassy, 7 Chatsworth Road, +65-67377422, [90].
  • Ireland Consulate, 541 Orchard Road, #08-02 Liat Towers, +65-67323430.
  • Japan Embassy, 16 Nassim Road, +65-62358855, [91].
  • Malaysia High Commission, 301, Jervois Road, +65-62350111, [92].
  • Nepalese Consulate, No 1, North Bridge Road, #18-5 High Street Road, +65-63399967.
  • New Zealand High Commission, 13 Nassim Road, +65-62359966.
  • Norway Embassy, 16 Raffles Quay, #44-01 Hong Leong Building, +65-62207122.
  • Philippines Embassy, 20 Nassim Road, +65-67373977.
  • Royal Netherlands Embassy, 541 Orchard Road, #13-01 Liat Towers, Singapore 238881, +65-67371155.
  • South Africa High Commission, 15th Floor Odeon Towers, 331 North Bridge Road, +65-65401177.
  • Sri Lankan High Commission, #13-07/12 Goldhill Plaza, 51 Newton Road, Singapore 308900, +65-62544595-7.
  • Sweden Embassy, 111 Somerset Road, #05-08 PUB Building, Devonshire Wing, +65-67342771.
  • Swiss Embassy, 1 Swiss Club Link, +65-64685788.
  • United Kingdom High Commission, 100 Tanglin Road, +65-64739333, [93].
  • United States of America Embassy, 30 Hill Street, +65-63380251.

Hair cuts

Singaporeans are particular about their hair and there is no shortage of fancy hair salons charging from $20 up for the latest Chinese popstar look. If you are willing to splurge, there is Passion Hair Salon at Palais Renaissance with celebrity hairstylist David Gan (hairstylist of Zhang Ziyi and other famous celebrities) doing the haircut. Le Salon at Ngee Ann City offers haircuts up to S$2000. The middle range hair salons located in town or in the heartlands, offer haircuts with hair wash as well as other frills. Chains include Supercuts and Toni and Guy salons located all over Singapore. For a more backpacker-friendly price, every shopping mall in Singapore has a branch of EC House [94] or one of its many imitators, offering fuss-free 10-minute haircuts for $10, although the hairdressers are mostly happy to spend as long as necessary on your hair, within reasonable limits. Most HDB estates have barbershops which charge $8 to $10 for adults and less for students and children.

Laundry

Laundromats are few and far between in Singapore, but full-service laundry and dry cleaning shops can be found in every shopping mall. Unfortunately turnaround times are usually upwards of three days unless you opt for express service. Hotels can provide one-day laundry (at a price), whereas hostels often have communal self-service washing machines.

  • Systematic Laundromat, Robertson Walk #01-22, +65-67380031. 11 AM -late. Your basic self-service laundromat.

Photo processing

Practically every shopping mall has a photo shop that will process film, print digital pictures and take passport photos. Many pharmacies and supermarkets also have self-service kiosks which print digital photos from CD, SD-card, USB drive, etc.

Sports

The Singapore Sports Council [95] runs a chain of affordable sports facilities. Facilities are somewhat sparse but prices are unbeatable, with eg. swimming pools charging $1 for entry and access to ClubFITT gyms only $2.50. The main downside is the inconvenient location of most facilities out in the suburbs and an inexplicable ban on bringing any reading material! (MP3 players are OK.)

Major private gym chains include California Fitness [96], Fitness First [97] and Planet Fitness [98]. Facilities are better and locations more central, but the prices are also much higher as non-members have to fork out steep day pass fees (around $40). If you're staying around for a while, Planet Fitness can arrange a membership for as little as one month, but the others require at least a 3-month commitment.

Some of the parks [99] offer rental of bicycles and inline skates ($3-6/hour, open till 8pm). Especially rewarding for skaters and cyclists is the 10 km long stretch along East Coast Park with a paved track and lots of rental shops, bars and cafes around the McDonalds. Along the track one can find toilets and showers. Furthermore every park has a couple of fitness stations.

Get out

Singapore makes a good base for exploring South-East Asia, with nearly all of the region's countries and their main tourist destinations — Bangkok, Phuket, Angkor Wat, Ho Chi Minh City and Bali, just to name a few — under two hours away by plane.

For day or weekend trips from Singapore, the following are popular:

  • Bintan — Indonesian island just 45 minutes away by ferry, offering both high-end resorts and the "real Indonesia" experience.
  • Johor Bahru — Malaysian city just across the Causeway, popular for cheap eats and shopping.
  • Kuala Lumpur — Malaysia's vibrant capital. 35 min by plane, 4 hours by bus or overnight by train.
  • Malacca — Once one of the three Straits Settlements, now a sleepy colonial town.
  • Tioman — The nearest of Malaysia's East Coast paradise islands, reachable by bus & ferry or plane.
  • Batam — The nearest Indonesian island to Singapore, just a short ferry trip away. It is mainly an industrial island with factories owned by Singapore companies wanting to exploit some cheap labour. Also famous among Singaporeans for its illegal but cheap vice trades.

For those who can afford more time to travel, here are several destinations popular among Singaporeans:

  • Bali — One of Indonesia's biggest tourist draws with its nice beaches and good food. About 2 1/2 hours away by plane.
  • Bangkok — Thailand's capital and considered a food and shopping paradise by many Singaporeans. It is about a 2 hours flight away.
  • Langkawi — An island in the Malaysian state of Kedah, just south of the Thai border, famed for endless beaches. Just over an hour by plane.
  • Penang — One of the Straits Settlements, with a rich history and fabulous food. About 12 hours away by coach, or 1 hour if you choose to fly.
  • Ipoh — The capital of the Malaysian state of Perak, it is famous among Singaporeans for its food. 7-8 hours away by coach.
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