The deer park where Gautama Buddha first taught the Dharma is in Sarnath, and so the town is a major pilgrimage site. Within the deer park complex is a large stupa (Dhamekha Stupa) constructed by the Emperor Ashoka (2nd century B.C) and several other Buddhist structures that were added between the 3rd century BC and the 11th century AD.
Fly to Babatpur airport (24kms) from Delhi, Calcutta, Lucknow or Mumbai
Get a train to Varanasi Cantt. (6kms) stn as all major trains from the country pour in from here. Sarnath has a small train stn but it seems usless..
Buses reach to Bus stand near the railway stn cantt.
If you are in Varanasi city, you can take a taxi, auto rickshaw or bus. (higher cost in decending order) to Sarnath. Don't take a cyclerickshaw, its too long and polluted way.
Dhamekh Stupa. Constructed by king Ashoka in 249 BCE to commemorate his pilgrimage to the Deer Park. It is believed that the stupa marks the exact spot where the Buddha first taught the Four Noble Truths to the five ascetics. This was his first teaching after attaining enlightenment.
Mahabodi Dharmshala Temple, Thai Temple and the Burmese Temple. Cheap but Spartan
The Golden Buddha Hotel. A reasonably good quality hotel offering such facilities as ayurvedic massage, a restaurant serving Mediterranean dishes, a peaceful lawn, and outdoor hot tub.
The UPSTC Tourist Bungalow. A drab and uninspiring facility, but in a very convenient location.