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===Consonants===
 
===Consonants===
Many Hindi consonants come in three different forms: '''aspirated''', '''unaspirated''' and '''retroflex'''.
+
Many Sanskrit consonants come in three different forms: '''aspirated''', '''unaspirated''' and '''retroflex'''.
  
 
Aspiration means "with a puff of air", and is the difference between the sound of the letter "p" in English '''''p'''in'' (aspirated) and ''s'''p'''it'' (unaspirated).  In this phrasebook, aspirated sounds are spelled with an h (so English "pin" would be ''phin'') and unaspirated sounds without it (so "spit" is still ''spit'').  Hindi aspiration is quite forceful and it's OK to emphasize the puff: ''b'''h'''arti''.
 
Aspiration means "with a puff of air", and is the difference between the sound of the letter "p" in English '''''p'''in'' (aspirated) and ''s'''p'''it'' (unaspirated).  In this phrasebook, aspirated sounds are spelled with an h (so English "pin" would be ''phin'') and unaspirated sounds without it (so "spit" is still ''spit'').  Hindi aspiration is quite forceful and it's OK to emphasize the puff: ''b'''h'''arti''.
  
Hindi retroflex consonants, on the other hand, are not really found in English.  They should be pronounced with the tongue tip curled back.  Practice with a native speaker, or just pronounce as usual — you'll usually still get the message across.
+
Sanskrit retroflex consonants, on the other hand, are not really found in English.  They should be pronounced with the tongue tip curled back.  Practice with a native speaker, or just pronounce as usual — you'll usually still get the message across.
  
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="1"  
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="1"  
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|ह||h||as in '''h'''im.
 
|ह||h||as in '''h'''im.
 
|}
 
|}
 
===Stress===
 
For emphasizing words don't stress them by voice (which would be regarded as a sign of aggressiveness) but add a ''to'' after them.
 
 
: ''yeh kyā hai?'' ("what's this?") → ''yeh to kyā hai?'' - ("what is '''this'''?")
 
 
Voice should always be very low and with few changes in pitch, loudness and stress (British speakers must be aware of this especially: their tone sounds extreme to German ears, and in turn, even German sounds extreme to Hindi speakers, so please: ''relax''!).
 
 
One of the only stresses found in Hindi is the last long syllable prior to the last syllable (e.g. in "dhānyavād" stress "dhā"). But it is a mild stress which occurs naturally, so don't force it. Don't even think about it!
 
 
शुभकामनाएँ! / śubhkāmnāe<sup>n</sup>! / Good luck
 
 
==Hindi Phrases==
 
 
===Cultural Notes===
 
'''Greetings:''' There are no time elemental greetings in Hindi such as good morning, good afternoon, etc. And each religion has its own greetings. It is considered very gracious to address a person by ''their'' respective greetings, but not necessary. ''Namaste'' is the most ubiquitous greeting, and though of Hindu origin is now mostly secular. It is said with hands folded and a small gesture of bowing - but don't go overboard Japanese style! Namaste literally means "I bow to you." Namaste can be described as the "aloha" of India, as it is used both for Hello and Goodbye. The original religious significance was of bowing to the soul (''ātmā'') within another. It is custom to touch the feet of someone older than you when saying Namaste.  ''Namaskār'' has the same meaning, but is used less often in Hindi, though it is common in other Indian languages such as Gujarati and Bengali. Namaskār is thought of as more formal, and as such is used more often when addressing a group or a person of importance. The Sikhs also fold their hands and bow, but have their own greetings. ''Sat srī akāl'' is the most common, which comes from the Punjabi ਸਤਿ ਸ੍ਰੀ ਅਕਾਲ meaning "God alone is Truth." Though Sikhism is mostly centered in the Punjab region of India, Punjabi greetings are used by Sikhs all over the world, as Punjabi (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) is the language of the Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh Scripture. A longer, more formal greeting used exclusively between Sikhs is the greeting proscribed by Sri Guru Gobind Singh (the 10th and final Guru of Sikhism): ''vāhegur&#363; jī ka khālsa, vāhegur&#363; jī fateh'' from the Punjabi ਵਾਹਿਗੁਰੂ ਜੀ ਕਾ ਖਾਲਸਾ, ਵਾਹਿਗੁਰੂ ਜੀ ਕੀ ਫਿਤਹ,  meaning "(The) Khalsa (a 'baptized' Sikh) belongs to God and to God alone belongs Victory." After meeting someone for the first time ''āpse milkar bahut <u>kh</u>u&#347;ī huī.'' may be said, meaning "after meeting you much happiness has happened (to me)."
 
 
'''Civilities:''' In Western cultures saying phrases like ''please'', ''thank you'', ''you're welcome'', ''excuse me'', ''sorry'', etc. are so ingrained into us from a young age that we say them without a second thought. Not so for Indians. Saying such phrases in an inappropriate circumstance might even embarrass the person, or cheapen the gravity of the phrase itself. These phrases are only said in a sincere sense. For example, don't say धन्यवाद (thank you) after a clerk hands you your grocery bag, but when someone goes out of their way to do something nice for you. Sometimes English words themselves are used; due to the British colonial influence, especially in urban areas and among the upper class. In this case use them as you would in English. Just remember that like Germans, and the French, they sometimes have trouble with English ''th'' sounds and therefore pronounce ''th'' as थ. When someone is in your way, instead of saying ''excuse me,'' or ''zara suniye'', just let out an aspirated ''ts'' sound with your tongue behind your teeth to attract their attention. This might seem rude, but is no more rude than children saying "pssst" to get a friend's attention during class! In conclusion, though Hindi has corresponding words to ours, this does not meant that the context in which they are used also correspond likewise. Don't let all of this lead you to believe Indians are cold though - nothing could be further from the truth! These sentiments are merely communicated through body language rather than verbally. To show your thanks, a simple smile will do the trick. Other common gestures include the infamous "head bobble"; and a hand gesture made by swiftly swinging the wrist so your palm is facing the sky and your forefingers slightly elongated. Before travellling to India, rent some Bollywood films so that if a spontaneous Bhangra breaks out in the streets, you'll be ready to join in! All kidding aside, they can demonstrate body language and customs far better than any book is able to, all while acclimatizing you to the language as well.
 
 
'''Prefixes & Suffixes:''' With the words for "yes" and "no" ''jī'' (जी) may be added before to give it a more polite tone. Sometimes speakers will simply reply with ''jī'', as an affirmation of something someone says. ''Jī'' is added to a person's name as a sign of respect. For example; in India Mahatma Gandhi is known simply as ''Gandhiji'' (गांधीजी). Another suffix which is indispensable is ''vāla'' (-वाला), often rendered in English as "-wallah". Many books devote whole chapters to vāla. With nouns it gives the meaning "the one or thing that does" and with verbs, it indicates something is about to happen. Examples:
 
 
* noun - shop (दुकान ''dukān'') + ''vāla'' = shopkeeper (दुकानवाला ''dukānvāla'')
 
* verb -  to come (आना ''āna'') + ''vāla'' = (the) ... is coming (... आनेवाला है ''... ānavāla hay'')
 
 
'''English Loan Words:''' The British Empire's influence spread into the language itself, and this continues today with American culture being exported throughout the world. So, an English word or phrase may almost always be inserted into any Hindi sentence. You will often hear Indians, whom while talking in Hindi, pepper their sentences with English words. Sometimes they'll even alternate sentences, going from Hindi to English, and back to Hindi! Upon meeting an Indian, many times you may not even get to practice your Hindi, because they want to practice ''their'' English on ''you''! English loan words are particularly used for modern inventions/technologies, so words like TV, computer and microwave are the same as in English apart from the slight change of accent. However; this is mostly in the cities, and learning some Hindi will have been all the more rewarding when in rural or non-tourist areas, as well as allowing you to communicate with a wider variety of people in the cities.
 
 
'''Gender & The 2nd Person Pronoun:''' Certain words have different endings depending on your gender. If you are a man say these with an -a suffix, and if you're a woman, -ī. However; when addressing the person respectively with ''āp'' (आप), the masculine ending takes the plural form. This is not all that different from the behavior of other Indo-European languages, c.f. German ''Sie'', which like ''āp'' is also both the respectful 2nd person pronoun ''and'' plural form of address. The other two forms are the familiar ''tum'' (तुम) and intimate ''t&#363;'' (तू). These change the forms of certain words. ''Tum'' is for friends and peers, ''t&#363;'' for small children (within the family); between 'significant others' in private; traditionally to lower castes; in the past, slaves; and, paradoxically, when supplicating to the gods/God (c.f. Greek mythology). As a general rule, stick with ''āp'', until you become more familiar with the language and culture. Forget about ''t&#363;'' altogether, at the best using it would be a ''faux pas'' and at the worst, ''very'' offensive. For those reasons as well as practical ones, this section will only use the ''āp'' form.
 
 
===Basics===
 
{{infobox|Accha! OK? TK!|One of the most useful words to know is ''accha''. It is both an adjective and interjection. Its meanings include (but are not limited to!): good, excellent, healthy, well, OK, really?, awesome!, hmm..., a-ha!, etc.! If you learn no other word, remember this one.
 
 
Another common all-purpose word is ''ṭhīk hai'', pronounced and occasionally even spelled out as "TK". It is used in the same manner, meaning: OK/all right, yes/understood (affirmation), right/correct, etc. Sometimes shortened to just ''ṭhīk''.}}
 
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="1"
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|English
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Hindi
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Transliteration
 
|-
 
|Hello (used esp. when answering the phone)||हेलो||helo
 
|-
 
|Hello/Goodbye ||नमस्ते||namaste
 
|-
 
|Hello/Goodbye ||नमस्कार||namaskār
 
|-
 
|Hello/Goodbye (Hindu, respectful)||प्रणाम||praņām
 
|-
 
|Hello/Goodbye (Hindu, colloquial)||राम राम||rām rām
 
|-
 
|Hello/Goodbye (Sikh)||सत श्री अकाल||sat  &#347;rī akāl
 
|-
 
|Hello/Goodbye (Sikh, formal)||वाहिगुरू जी का खाल्स||vāhegur&#363; jī ka khālsa 
 
|-
 
|Hello/Goodbye (Sikh, reply)||वाहिगुरू जी की फ़तह||vāhegur&#363; jī kī fateh
 
|-
 
|See you later||फिर मिलेंगे||phir milenge
 
|-
 
|How are you?||आप कैसे/कैसी हैं?||āp kaise/kaisī hai<sup>n</sup>?
 
|-
 
|How are you? ||आप ख़ैरियत से है?||āp khairiyat se hai<sup>n?
 
|-
 
|I am fine||मैं ठीक हूँ||mai<sup>n</sup> ṭhīk hū<sup>n</sup>
 
|-
 
|OK/fine (colloq.)||ठीक है||&#7789;hīk hai
 
|-
 
|Fine, and you? (more formal reply)||ठीक, आप सुनाइये||ṭhīk, āp sunāiye
 
|-
 
|What is your name?||आपका नाम क्या है?؟||āpka nām kya hai?
 
|-
 
|My name is ___ .||मेरा नाम ___ है।||mera nām ___ hai.
 
|-
 
|Nice to meet you (formal).||आपसे मिलकर बहुत ख़ूशी हुई।||āpse milkar bahut khushi huī
 
|-
 
|Nice to meet you too (reply).||मुझे भी||mujhe bhī
 
|-
 
|Yes||हाँ||haa<sup>n</sup>
 
|-
 
|No/not||नहीं||nahī<sup>n</sup>
 
|-
 
|Do you speak English?||आपको अंग्रेज़ी आती है?||āpko angrezī ātī hai?
 
|-
 
|Is there someone here who speaks English?||क्या किसी को अंग्रेज़ी आती है?||kya kisī ko angrezī ātī hai?
 
|-
 
|I don't speak Hindi.||मुझे हिन्दी नहीं आती है।||mujhe hindī nahī<sup>n</sup> ātī hai.
 
|-
 
|I can't speak Hindi||मैं हिन्दी नहीं बोल  सकता हूँ।||mai<sup>n</sup> hindī nahī<sup>n</sup> bol sakta h&#363;<sup>n</sup>.
 
|-
 
|I speak some Hindi.||मुझे कुच हिन्दी आती है।||mujhe kuch hindī ātī hai।
 
|-
 
|I don't understand.||मैं समझा/समझी नहीं।||mai<sup>n</sup> samjha/samjhī nahī<sup>n</sup>
 
|-
 
|Speak more slowly||धीरे धीरे बोलिये||dhīre dhīre boliye
 
|-
 
|Come again?||फिरसे?||phirse?
 
|-
 
|What does "..." mean?||"..." का मतलब कया है?||"..." ka artha/matlab kya hai?
 
|-
 
|How do you say "..."?||"..." कैसे कहते हैं?||"..." kaise kahate hai<sup>n</sup>?
 
|-
 
|Where are you from?||आप कहाँ से हैं?||āp kaha<sup>n</sup> se hai<sup>n</sup>?
 
|-
 
|I'm from ...||मैं ... से हूँ||mai<sup>n</sup> ... se hū<sup>n</sup>
 
|-
 
|Please ||कृपया||k&#7771;p-ya
 
|-
 
|Thank you ||धन्यवाद||dhanyavād
 
|-
 
|Thank you||थैंक्यू||thainkyū
 
|-
 
|Thank you very much||बहुत बहुत ...||bahut bahut ...
 
|-
 
|You're welcome||आपका स्वागत है||āpka svāgat hai
 
|-
 
|You're welcome (lit. don't mention it)||कोई बात नहीं||koī bāt nahī<sup>n</sup>
 
|-
 
|Excuse me (getting s.o.'s attention)||सुनिये||suniye
 
|-
 
|Pardon me ||क्षमा कीजिये||kṣama kījiye
 
|-
 
|Pardon me/I'm sorry||माफ़ कीजिये||maaf kijiye
 
|-
 
|Where is the toilet?||टॉयलेट कहाँ है?||ṭāyaleṭ kaha<sup>n</sup> hai?
 
|-
 
|Where is the toilet? ||शौचालय कहाँ है?||śaucālay kaha<sup>n</sup> hai?
 
|-
 
|Good!, really?, nice, etc.||अच्छा||accha
 
|-
 
|Just one minute||एक मिनट||ek minaṭ
 
|}
 
 
===Forms of Address===
 
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="1"
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|English
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Hindi
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Transliteration
 
|-
 
|-Ji (''q.v. ut supra''||जी||jī
 
|-
 
|Mr.||मिस्टर||misṭar
 
|-
 
||Mrs.||मिसेज़||misez
 
|-
 
||Mr. ||श्री||śrī
 
|-
 
||Mrs. ||श्रीमती||śrīmatī
 
|-
 
||Mr. (Sikh, ਸਰਦਾਰ)||सरदार||sardār
 
|-
 
||Mrs. (Sikh, ਸਰਦਾਰਨੀ)||सरदारनी ||sardārnī
 
|-
 
|Sir ||महोदय||mahodaya
 
|-
 
|Dr.||डॉक्टर||ḍākṭar
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
===Interrogatives===
 
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="1"
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|English
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Hindi
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Transliteration
 
|-
 
|how/of what kind?||कैसा?||kaisa
 
|-
 
|how much/many?||कितना/कितने?||kitna/kitne
 
|-
 
|what?||क्या?||kyā?
 
|-
 
|when?||कब?||kab?
 
|-
 
|where?||कहाँ?||kahā<sup>n</sup>?
 
|-
 
|who?||कौन?||kaun?
 
|-
 
|which?||कौनसा?||kaunsa?
 
|-
 
|why?||क्यों?||kyo<sup>n</sup>?
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
===Numbers===
 
 
The numerals used to write in decimal are called Indo-Arabic numerals. Developed in India, they were borrowed by the Arabs, and gradually spread to Europe. The similarities are hard to miss. Here are their respective numerals.
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="1"
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Roman
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Devanagari
 
|-
 
|0||०
 
|-
 
|1||१
 
|-
 
|2||२
 
|-
 
|3||३
 
|-
 
|4||४
 
|-
 
|5||५
 
|-
 
|6||६
 
|-
 
|7 ||७
 
|-
 
|8 ||८
 
|-
 
|9 ||९
 
|}
 
<br>
 
<br>
 
<br>
 
Hindi numbers ending in 9 are named as "un" (-1) plus the next multiple of ten. Instead of naming powers of a thousand, Hindi has unique names for a thousand, a hundred thousand, ten million etc. These peculiarities don't seem to have effected the proliferation of Indian mathematicians.
 
 
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="1"
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Numeral
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Hindi
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Transliteration
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Numeral
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Hindi
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Transliteration
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Numeral
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Hindi
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Transliteration
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Numeral
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Hindi
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Transliteration
 
|-
 
|0||शून्य||shUnya, bi.ndi||25||पच्चीस||paccīs||50||पचास||pacās||75||पचहत&#2381;तर||pachattar
 
|-
 
|1||एक||ek||26||छब्बीस||chabbīs||51||इक&#2381;यावन||ikyāvan||76||छिहत&#2381;तर||chihattar
 
|-
 
|2||दो||do||27||सत्ताईस||satāīs||52||बावन||bāvan||77||सतहत&#2381;तर||sathattar
 
|-
 
|3||तीन||t&#299;n||28||अट्ठाईस||aṭṭhāīs||53|| तिरपन||tirpan||78||अठहत&#2381;तर||a&#7789;hhattar
 
|-
 
|4||चार||chār||29||उनतीस||untīs||54||च&#2380;वन||cauvan||79||उन&#2381;यासी||unyāsī
 
|-
 
|5||पांच||p&#257;nc||30||तीस||tīs||55||पचपन||pacpan||80||अस&#2381;सी ||assī
 
|-
 
|6||छह, छै, छः||cheh, chai, cheḥ||31||इकत्तीस||ikttīs||56||छप&#2381;पन||chappan||81||इक&#2381;यासी||ikyāsī
 
|-
 
|7||सात||sāt||32||बत्तीस||battīs||57||सत&#2381;तावन||sattāvan||82||बयासी||bayāsī
 
|-
 
|8||आठ||ā&#7789;h||33||तैंतीस||taintīs||58||अट&#2381;ठावन||a&#7789;&#7789;hāvan||83||तिरासी||tirāsī
 
|-
 
|9||नौ||nau||34||चौंतीस||cauntīs||59||उनसठ||unsa&#7789;h||84||च&#2380;रासी||caurāsī
 
|-
 
|10||दस||das||35||पैंतीस||paintīs||60||साठ||sā&#7789;h||85||पचासी||pacāsī
 
|-
 
|11||ग्यारह||gyāreh||36||छत्तीस||chattīs||61||इकसठ||iksa&#7789;h||86||छियासी||chiyāsī
 
|-
 
|12||बारह||bareh||37||सआंतीस||saintīs||62||बासठ||bāsa&#7789;h||87||सात&#2381;तासी||sattāsī
 
|-
 
|13||तेरह||tereh||38||अड़तीस||aṛtīs||63||तिरसठ||tirsa&#7789;h||88||अट&#2381;ठासी||a&#7789;&#7789;hāsī
 
|-
 
|14||चौदह||caudeh||39||उनतालीस||untālīs||64||च&#2380;&#2306;सठ||cainsa&#7789;h||89||नवासी||navāsī
 
|-
 
|15||पंद्रह||pandreh||40||चालीस||cālīs||65||पै&#2306;सठ||painsa&#7789;h||90||नब&#2381;बे||nabbe
 
|-
 
|16||सोलह||soleh||41||इकतालीस||iktālīs||66||छियासठ||chiyāsa&#7789;h||91||इक&#2381;यानवे||ikyānave
 
|-
 
|17||सत्रह||satreh||42||बयालीस||bayālīs||67||सरसठ||sarsa&#7789;h||92||बानावे||bānave
 
|-
 
|18||अठारह||a&#7789;hāreh||43||तै&#2306;तालीस||taintālīs||68||अ&#2396;सठ||a&#7771;sa&#7789;h||93||तिरानवे||tirānave
 
|-
 
|19||उन्नीस||unnīs||44||चवालीस||cavālīs||69||उनत&#2381;तहर||unhattar||94||च&#2380;रानवे||caurānave
 
|-
 
|20||बीस||bīs||45||पै&#2306;तालीस||paintālīs||70||सत&#2381;तर||sattar||95||पचानवे||pacānave
 
|-
 
|21||इक&#2381;कीस||ikkīs||46||छियालीस||chiyālīs||71||इकहत&#2381;तर||ikhattar||96||छियानवे||chiyānave
 
|-
 
|22||बाईस||bāīs||47||सै&#2306;तालीस||saintālīs||72||बहत&#2381;तर||behattar||97||सत&#2381;तानवे||sattānave
 
|-
 
|23||तेईस||teīs||48||अ&#2396;तालीस||a&#7771;tālīs||73||तिहत&#2381;तर||tihattar||98||अट&#2381;ठानवे||a&#7789;&#7789;hānave
 
|-
 
|24||चौबीस||caubīs||49||उनचास||uncās||74||च&#2381;हत&#2381;तर||cauhattar||99||निन&#2381;यानवे||ninyānave
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
 
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="1"
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Numeral
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Hindi
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Transliteration
 
|-
 
|100||सौ||sau
 
|-
 
|200||दो सौ||do sau
 
|-
 
|300||तीन सौ||tīn sau
 
|-
 
|1000||हज़ार||hazār
 
|-
 
|2000||दो हज़ार||do hazār
 
|-
 
||3000||तीन हज़ार||tīn hazār
 
|-
 
|1,00,000||लाख||lākh
 
|-
 
|1,00,00,000||करोड़||karo&#7771;
 
|-
 
|1,00,00,00,000||अरब||arab
 
|-
 
|1,00,00,00,00,000||?||(''sunkh'')?
 
|-
 
|number _____ (''train, bus, etc.'')||नब&#2306;र _____ ट्रेन, बस, ...||nambar _____ &#7789;ren, bas, ...
 
|-
 
|1 half||आधा||ādhā
 
|-
 
|less||कम/थोड़ा||kam/tho&#7771;a
 
|-
 
|more|| अधिक/ज्यादा||adhika/jyada
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
===Time===
 
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="1"
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|English
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Hindi
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Transliteration
 
|-
 
|now||अब, अभी||ab, abhī
 
|-
 
|later||बाद में, फिर||bād me<sup>n</sup>, phir
 
|-
 
|before||पहले||pehle
 
|-
 
|morning||सुबह, सवेरा||subeh, savera(early morn.)
 
|-
 
|afternoon||दोपहर||dopehar; sa pehar
 
|-
 
|evening||शाम||shām<!--These two are poetic, Sanskritic in origin: sa.ndhya, sa.njha-->
 
|-
 
|night||रात||rāt
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
 
 
====Clock time====
 
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="1"
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|English
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Hindi
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Transliteration
 
|-
 
|one o'clock AM||रात में एक बजे||rāt me<sup>n</sup> ek baje
 
|-
 
|two o'clock AM||रात में दो बजे||rāt me<sup>n</sup> do baje
 
|-
 
|noon||दोपहर||dopehar
 
|-
 
|one o'clock PM||दोपहर एक बजे||dopehar ek baje
 
|-
 
|two o'clock PM||दोपहर दो बजे||dopehar do baje
 
|-
 
|midnight||आधी रात||ādhī raat
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
====Duration====
 
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="1"
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|English
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Hindi
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Transliteration
 
|-
 
|minute||मिनट||minaṭ
 
|-
 
|hour||घंटा||ghanṭa
 
|-
 
|day||दिन||din
 
|-
 
|week||हफ़्ता||hafta
 
|-
 
|month||महीना||mahīna
 
|-
 
|year||साल||sāl, varSha
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
====Days====
 
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="1"
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|English
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Hindi
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Transliteration
 
|-
 
|Today||आज||āj
 
|-
 
|Yesterday/Tomorrow (depends on context/tense)||कल||... kal
 
|-
 
|Day after tomorrow/yesterday||परसों||parso<sup>n</sup>
 
|-
 
|Week||हफ़्ता||hafta
 
|-
 
|This week||इस हफ़्ते||is hafte
 
|-
 
|Last week||पिछले हफ़्ते||pichle hafte
 
|-
 
|Next week||अगले हफ़्ते||agle hafte
 
|-
 
|Two weeks||दो हफ़्ते||do hafte
 
|-
 
|Month||महीना||mahīna
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
 
The Hindu days of the week are each ruled by a planet, and corresponding exactly to ancient cultures in the West, i.e. Sunday = Ravivār (Lord of the Sun's day [lit. time or period]). Thursday/O.N. Þorsdagr, Thor's day = Guruvār (Lord of Jupiter's day), Saturday/Saturn's day = Śhani's (Lord of Saturn's day), etc.  Unlike her Western counterparts, in India, Astrology is still a vital part of Hindu culture. Though attitudes may vary on its validity, priests are still consulted, as per tradition, for an auspicious day to hold a wedding. -वार, meaning ''day, time, or period'' is often dropped colloquially.
 
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="1"
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Day
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Hindi
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Transliteration
 
|-
 
|Sunday||इतवार/रिववार||itvār, ravivār (Sun)
 
|-
 
|Monday||सोमवार||somvār (Moon); pīr
 
|-
 
|Tuesday||मंगलवार||mangalvār (Mars); mangal
 
|-
 
|Wednesday||बुधवार||budhvār (Mercury); budh
 
|-
 
|Thursday||गुरुवार/बृहस्पितवार||guruvār (Jupiter)/b&#7771;haspitvār
 
|-
 
|Friday||शुक्रवार||śukravār (Venus)
 
|-
 
|Saturday||शिनवार||śanivār (Saturn)
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
====Months====
 
 
India has two main calendars in use, though other groups like the Parsis have their own calendar as well. The Western (Gregorian) calendar is used for day to day and business affairs, and the Hindu calendar is used by religious communities.
 
<br>
 
 
 
=====Gregorian Calendar=====
 
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="1"
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Name
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Hindi
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Transliteration
 
|-
 
|January||जनवरी||janvarī
 
|-
 
|February||फ़रवरी||farvarī
 
|-
 
|March||मार्च||mārc
 
|-
 
|April||अप्रैल||aprail
 
|-
 
|May||मई||maī
 
|-
 
|June||जून||jūn
 
|-
 
|July||जुलाई||julāī
 
|-
 
|August||अगस्त||agast
 
|-
 
|September||सितम्बर||sitambar
 
|-
 
|October||अक्तूबर||aktūbar
 
|-
 
|November||नवम्बर||navambar
 
|-
 
|December||दिसम्बर||disambar
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
=====Hindu Calendar=====
 
 
The Hindu Calendar (विक्रम संवत्) is named after a legendary king of Ujjain who is supposed to have founded the Vikramditya (विक्रमादित्य) era c. 56 BCE. The year 57 BCE was the first year of this (संवत् ''saṃvat'') era. Thus, to calculate the current date of the Hindu calendar add 57 years. Today the Hindu Calendar is used mainly for religious purposes and calculating festivals. Because it is based on the lunar month, every 30 months an "impure" intercalary leap month is added during which no ceremonies are performed. The Hindi names are variations of the original Sanskrit ones.
 
 
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="1"
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Name
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Hindi
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|№ of Days
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Gregorian Equivalent
 
|-
 
|Caitra||चैत||30||(March - April)
 
|-
 
|Baisākh||बैसाख||31||(April - May)
 
|-
 
|Jeṭh||जेठ||31||(May - June)
 
|-
 
|Asā&#7771;h||असाढ़||days||June-July
 
|-
 
|Sāvan||सावन||31||(July-August)
 
|-
 
|Bhādo<sup>n</sup>||भादों||31||(August-September)
 
|-
 
|Kvār||क्वार||30||(September-October)
 
|-
 
|Kātik||कातिक||30||(October-November)
 
|-
 
|Aghan||अगहन||30||(November-December)
 
|-
 
|Pūs||पूस||30||(December-January)
 
|-
 
|Māgh||माघ||30||(January-February)
 
|-
 
|Phagun||फागुन||30||(February-March)
 
|-
 
|Malmās||मलमास||?||?
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
====Writing Time and Date====
 
Give some examples how to write clock times and dates if it differs from English.
 
The time's are written exactly as in English , that is hours followed by minutes.
 
12:45am will thus be दोपहर के 12 बजकर पैंतालीस मिनट , note that बजकर would indicate something like O'Clock in English . मिनट is just a literal translation of Minutes.
 
 
===Colors===
 
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="1"
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Color
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Hindi
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Transliteration
 
|-
 
|color||रंग||rang
 
|-
 
|colorful||रंगिरंगा||bahut bahAna, rangabirangī
 
|-
 
|colorless||बेरंग||berang
 
|-
 
|black||काला||kālā
 
|-
 
|white||सफ़ेद||safed/shwet
 
|-
 
|red||लाल||lāl
 
|-
 
|pink, rosy||गुलाबी||gulābī
 
|-
 
|orange||नारंगी||nārangī
 
|-
 
|saffron||केसिरया||kesirayā
 
|-
 
|yellow||पीला||pīla
 
|-
 
|green||हरा||harā
 
|-
 
|blue||नीला||nīlā
 
|-
 
|turquoise||फ़िरोज़ी||firozī
 
|-
 
|purple||बैंगनी, जाम्नी||bainganī, jāmnī
 
|-
 
|brown||भूरा||bhūrā
 
|-
 
|gray||स्लेटी||sle&#7789;ī
 
|-
 
|golden||सुनहरा||sunaharā
 
|-
 
|silver||चांदी||cāndī (also the metal)
 
|-
 
|shiny||चमकीला||camkīlā
 
|-
 
|deep, dark||गहरा||gaharā
 
|-
 
|pale, light||हल्का||halkā
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
===Transportation===
 
 
====Travel Vocabulary====
 
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="1"
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|English
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Hindi
 
!bgcolor=#EEEEEE|Transliteration
 
|-
 
|Train||ट्रेन, रेलगाड़ी||ṭren, relgāṛī
 
|-
 
|Train Station||स्टेशन||sṭeśan
 
|-
 
|Bus||बस||bas; baṛī
 
|-
 
|Bus Station||बस का अड्डा||bas ka aḍḍa
 
|-
 
|Bus Stop||बस स्टाप||bas sṭāp
 
|-
 
|Rickshaw||रिक्शा||rickśa
 
|-
 
|Auto Rickshaw||आटो||āṭo
 
|-
 
|Taxi||टैक्सी||ṭaiksī
 
|-
 
|Car||गाड़ी, कार||gāṛī, kār
 
|-
 
|Airplane||हवाई जवाज़||havAi jahAja
 
|-
 
|Airport||हवाई अड्डा||havāī adda
 
|-
 
|}
 
 
====Bus and Train====
 
 
; How much is a ticket to ... ? : _____ जाने का टिकट कितना है?  _____ jaane ka ticket kitna hai?
 
; One ticket to ... : एक टिकट की ... दीजिये  : Ek ticket ki ... dijiye
 
; Where does this train go? : रेलगाड़ी किधर  जाती है? : RailgaRi kidhar jaathi hai?
 
; Where is the train/bus to _____? : ; Where is the train/bus to _____? : ("yah treen kidhar ka?")
 
; Does this train/bus stop in _____? : Does this train/bus stop in _____? (''_____rukthai?'')
 
; When does the train/bus for _____ leave? : When does the train/bus for _____ leave? (''_____ ki train/bus kab/kis samay nikalegi?'')
 
; When will this train/bus arrive in _____? : When will this bus arrive in _____? (''Treen ____ kab phoncthai?'')
 
 
====Directions====
 
; How do I get to _____ ? : _____  &mdash; ____ tak kaise jaoON?
 
; ____the train station? : रेलवे स्टेशन_____? &mdash; railway station
 
 
; ____the bus station? : बस अड्डे____? &mdash; bas aḍḍa...?
 
; ____the airport? : हवाई अड्डे____? &mdash;  اڈّا...؟ &mdash;
 
; ____Town square? : चौक____? &mdash; chowk
 
; ____Hotel? : _____ होटल...? &mdash; hotel
 
; Where can I find (some)____: (कुछ) ____ कहाँ मिलेंगे? &mdash; (kuch) ... kidharai? (?)
 
; ____hotels? : होटलें____ &mdash; hotelEIN
 
; ____restaurants? : रेस्ट्राँ____? &mdash; restRON
 
; ____bars? : शराब ख़ाने...? &mdash; sharaab khaNE
 
; ____sites to see? : ...sites to see? (''...'')
 
; Can you show me on the map? : मुझे नक़्शे में दिखा दीजिये &mdash; mujhe nakSHE mEIN dikhaa deejiYE
 
; Can you tell me the way to _____? : मुझे _____ का रास्ता बताइए? &mdash; &mdash; muJHE _____ kaa rasta bataIYE
 
; street : सड़क &mdash; saDak
 
; path : रास्ता &mdash; raastaa
 
; Turn left. : बायीं तरफ़ मुड़िये &mdash; bāyī<sup>n</sup> muDiye
 
; Turn right. : दाहिनी तरफ़ मुड़िये &mdash; dāhinī muDiye
 
; right : दाहिना &mdash; dāhina
 
; left : बायाँ &mdash; bāyā
 
; straight ahead : सीधे &mdash; sīdhe
 
; towards the _____ : _____ की ओर &mdash; _____ kee OR
 
; past the _____ : _____ के अगले &mdash; _____ ke agle
 
; before the _____ : _____ के पिछले &mdash; _____ ke piCHHle
 
; Watch for the _____. : _____ देखो &mdash; _____ dekho
 
; intersection : चौराहा &mdash; chOWraahaa
 
; north : उत्तर &mdash; uttar
 
; south : दक्षिण &mdash; dakshin
 
; east : पूर्व &mdash; pūrv
 
; west : पश्चिम &mdash; paścim
 
; uphill : चढ़ाई &mdash; chaDHai
 
 
====Taxi====
 
; Taxi! : टैकसी &mdash; taiksi
 
; Take me to _____, please : _____ जाना है &mdash; ____jaanaa hAI
 
; How much does it cost to get to _____? : ____ जाने को कितना लगता है? &mdash; ____ jaane ko kitnaa lagtaa hAI
 
 
===Lodging===
 
 
; Do you have any rooms available? : Do you have any rooms available? (''...'')
 
; How much is a room for one person/two people? : How much is a room for one person/two people? (''...'')
 
; Does the room come with... : Does the room come with... (''...'')
 
; ...bedsheets? : ...bedsheets? (''charaapaaii kai loI'')
 
; ...a bathroom? : ...a bathroom? (''snaanaghara'')
 
; ...a telephone? : ...a telephone? (''telipone'')
 
; ...a TV? : ...a TV? (''teevee'')
 
; May I see the room first? : May I see the room first? (''phela,kumra dhaik lon? '')
 
; Do you have anything quieter? : Do you have anything quieter? (''apkai pas aur chupchap/shA.nta/sthira he?'')
 
; ...bigger? : ...bigger? (''Aur Bharra'')
 
; ...cleaner? : ...cleaner? (''Aur Shuddha'')
 
; ...cheaper? : ...cheaper? (''Aur Sustha'')
 
; OK, I'll take it. : OK, I'll take it. (''Teeke, lailaithein'')
 
; I will stay for _____ night(s). : I will stay for _____ night(s). (''____raath raingai'')
 
; Can you suggest another hotel? : Can you suggest another hotel? (''Aur koi hotel pathadiyijeeai'')
 
; Do you have a safe? : Do you have a safe? (''surakShita sthAna hoga?'')
 
; ...lockers? : ...lockers? (''sharAna sthAna'')
 
; Is breakfast/supper included? : Is breakfast/supper included? (''jalapAna/raathka bhojana-byAlu dhArana he?'')
 
; What time is breakfast/supper? : What time is breakfast/supper? (''kaleva/byAlu kis samaya he?'')
 
; Please clean my room. : Please clean my room. (''kamra shuddha kurlo.'')
 
; Can you wake me at _____? | Can you wake me at _____? (''____time pe jugana'')
 
; I want to check out. : I want to check out. (''mainai nikalna he'')
 
 
===Money===
 
; Do you accept American/Australian/Canadian dollars? : Do you accept American/Australian/Canadian dollars? (''American/australian/canadian doelur mAnthai/svIkara karthai he?'')
 
; Do you accept British pounds? : Do you accept British pounds? (''British pound svIkara karthaihe?'')
 
; Do you accept credit cards? : Do you accept credit cards? (''CreditKaard svIkara karthaihe?'')
 
; Can you change money for me? : Can you change money for me? (''rupaya parivartna karthaihe?'')
 
; Where can I get money changed? : Where can I get money changed? (''paisa parivartna kidhar karloo?'')
 
; Can you change a traveler's check for me? : Can you change a traveler's check for me? (''traveler check parivartna kurlaiga?'')
 
; Where can I get a traveler's check changed? : Where can I get a traveler's check changed? (''traveler check kiddhar parivartna karoo'')
 
; What is the exchange rate? : What is the exchange rate? (''parivartna ka bHaoon kitnae?'')
 
; Where is an automatic teller machine (ATM)? : Where is an automatic teller machine (ATM)? (''AeTeeEmm kiddhare?'')
 
 
===Eating===
 
; A table for one person/two people, (please). : एक/दो लोग/-ओं के लिये जगह चाहिये &mdash; ek/do log/-o<sup>n</sup> ke liye jagah cāhiye
 
; Can I look at the menu, please? : मेणयू कर्ड दीजिये &mdash; munoo dhaiklon
 
; Can I look in the kitchen? : Can I look in the kitchen? (''...'')
 
; Is there a house specialty? : Is there a house specialty? (''...'')
 
; Is there a local specialty? : Is there a local specialty? (''...'')
 
; I'm a vegetarian. : मैं शाकाहारी हूँ &mdash; mai<sup>n</sup> śākāhārī
 
; I don't eat pork. : मैं सुअर का मांस नहीं खाता/-ती &mdash; mai<sup>n</sup> suar ka māns nahī<sup>n</sup> khāta/-ī
 
; I don't eat beef. : मैं गाय का मांस नहीं खाता/-ती &mdash; mai<sup>n</sup> gāy (gā‘ī) māns nahī<sup>n</sup>  khāta 
 
; I only eat kosher/halal food. : मैं सिर्फ़ कोशर/हलाल खाना खाता &mdash; mai<sup>n</sup> sirf kośar/halāl khāna khāta (?)
 
; Can you make it "lite", please? (''less oil/butter/lard'') : Can you make it "lite", please? (''...'')
 
; fixed-price meal : एक दाम का खाना &mdash; ek dām ka khāna (?)
 
; à la carte : आ-ला कार्ट &mdash; ā-lā kārṭ
 
; breakfast : नाश्ता &mdash; jalapAna
 
; lunch : दोपहर का खाना &mdash; dopehar ka khāna; sa-pehar ka khāna
 
; tea (''meal'') : शाम का खाना &mdash; sa.ndhya ka khāna
 
; dinner : रात का खाना &mdash; rāt ka khāna
 
; I want _____. : मैं _____ चाहिये &mdash; mai<sup>n</sup> _____ cāhiye
 
; I want a dish containing _____. : मैं _____ का खाना चाहिये &mdash; &mdash; mai<sup>n</sup> _____ ka khāna cāhiye (?)
 
; meat : मांस &mdash; māns
 
; chicken : मुर्ग़ &mdash; chi.nganA, murgi
 
; beef : गाय का मांस &mdash; gāy ka māns
 
; fish : मछली &mdash; machlī
 
; lamb : भेड़ का मांस &mdash; bheṛ ka māns
 
; cheese : पनीर &mdash; panīr, chIja
 
; eggs : अंडा &mdash; anḍa
 
; lentils : दाल &mdash; dāl
 
; (fresh) vegetables : (ताज़ा) सब्ज़ी &mdash; tarakAri, bhAji
 
; (fresh) fruits : (ताज़ा) फल &mdash;  pHal
 
; bread : रोटी, नान, पराँठा... &mdash; roṭī, parā<sup>n</sup>ṭha...
 
; rice : चावल &mdash; cāval
 
; sweetmeats : लड्डू &mdash; laḍḍū
 
: samosa : समोसा &mdash; samosa
 
; spice(s) : मसाला &mdash; mirchi
 
; chutney : चटनी &mdash; caṭnī
 
; curry : सालन, कढ़ी &mdash; sālan, kaṛhī (< Tamil &#2965;&#2993;&#3007;) 
 
; ghee (clarified butter) : घी &mdash; ghī
 
; May I have a glass/cup/bottle of _____? : मेरे लिये एक ग्लास/प्याला/बोतल _____ लाना &mdash; ميرے &#65247;&#65164;&#64431; mere liye ek glās/pyāla/boṭal _____ lāna
 
; coffee : काफ़ी &mdash; kāfī
 
; tea : चाय &mdash; cāy (i.e. ''chai'')
 
; juice : रस &mdash; ras
 
; water : पानी, जल &mdash; pānī, jal
 
; carbonated water : सोडा &mdash; soḍa
 
; milk : दूध &mdash; dūdh
 
; lassi (yoghurt drink) : लस्सी &mdash; lassī
 
; sweet, salty, mango (lassi): मीठा, नमकी, आम &mdash; mīṭha, namakī, ām
 
; cool drink (''Indian Eng. 'soda, cola, etc.''') :  ठंडी/सौफ़्ट ड्रिंक &mdash; ţhanḍī/saufṭ ḍrink
 
; soft drink (''attn- in S. Asia this means a sherbet drink, not cola!'') : शरबत &mdash; śarbat
 
; alcohol : शराब &mdash; sharāb
 
; beer : बियर &mdash; biyar
 
; red/white wine : (लाल/साफ़ेद) मिदरा, वाइन &mdash; &mdash; madira (< Port. Madeira), vāin
 
; Whisky : ह्विस्की, स्काच &mdash; hviskī/wiskī, skāc
 
; May I have some _____? : May I have some _____? (''...'')
 
; salt : नमक &mdash; namak
 
; black pepper : काली मिर्च &mdash; kālī mirc
 
; chile : मिर्च &mdash; mirc
 
; butter : मक्खन &mdash; makkhan
 
; Excuse me, waiter? (''getting attention of server''): बैरा!, वेटर! &mdash; baira!, veṭar!
 
; I'm finished. : मैं ख़तम है &mdash; mai<sup>n</sup> <u>kh</u>atam hai (?)
 
; It was delicious. : बढ़िया &mdash; بڑهيا &mdash; baṛhiya
 
; Please clear the plates. : प्लेटें लीजिये &mdash; plete<sup>n</sup> lījiye
 
; The check, please. : बिल/चेक लाइये &mdash; bil/cek lāiye
 
 
===Bars===
 
; Do you serve alcohol? : Do you serve alcohol? (''kya aap shaarab bechte hain'')
 
; Is there table service? : Is there table service? (''kya table service mil sakti hai'')
 
; A beer/two beers, please. : A beer/two beers, please. (''krupaya ek beer/do beers de'')
 
; A glass of red/white wine, please. : A glass of red/white wine, please. (''ek glass lal/safed wine'')
 
; A pint, please. : A pint, please. (''ek bottle de'')
 
; A bottle, please. : A bottle, please. (''ek bottle de'')
 
; _____ (''hard liquor'') and _____ (''mixer''), please. : _____ and _____, please. (''...'')
 
; whiskey : whiskey (''...'')
 
; vodka : vodka (''...'')
 
; rum : rum (''...'')
 
; water : पानी (''pānī'')
 
; club soda : club soda (''...'')
 
; tonic water : tonic water (''...'')
 
; orange juice : orange juice (''...'')
 
; Coke (''soda'') : Coke (''...'')
 
; Do you have any bar snacks? : Do you have any bar snacks? (''...'')
 
; One more, please. : One more, please. (''...'')
 
; Another round, please. : Another round, please. (''...'')
 
; When is closing time? : When is closing time? (''...'')
 
 
===Shopping===
 
 
; Do you have this in my size? : Do you have this in my size? (''...'') mere saiz ka milegaa?
 
; How much is this? : How much is this? (''...'') iska kitna hoga?
 
; That's too expensive. : That's too expensive. (''...'') bahut mehnga hai
 
; Would you take _____? : Would you take _____? (''...'') kya aap _____ lena chahege?
 
; expensive : expensive (''...'') mehnga
 
; cheap : cheap (''...'') sastā
 
; I can't afford it. : I can't afford it. (''...'') main nahi le sakta
 
; I don't want it. : I don't want it. (''...'') mujhe nahi chahiye
 
; You're cheating me. : You're cheating me. (''...'') tu mujhe fassa rahe hoo
 
; I'm not interested. : I'm not interested. (..) mujhe shauk nahi hai
 
; OK, I'll take it. : OK, I'll take it. (''...'') theek hai, main le letā hoon
 
; Can I have a bag? : Can I have a bag? (''...'') kyā āp mujhe thaili dege
 
; Do you ship (overseas)? : Do you ship (overseas)? (''...'') parcel kar sakthe hoo
 
; I need... : मुझे ...चाहिये &mdash; mujhe ... cāhiye
 
; ...toothpaste. : (दँत) मंजन... &mdash; (da<sup>n</sup>t) manjan
 
; ...a toothbrush. : टूथ ब्रश... &mdash; tūth braś
 
; ...tampons. : टैम्पोन... &mdash; ṭaimpon
 
; ...soap. : साबुन... &mdash; sābun
 
; ...shampoo. : शैंपू... &mdash; śaimpū
 
; ...pain reliever. (''e.g., aspirin or ibuprofen'') : दर्द की दवा/"ऐस्प्रिन"... &mdash; dard kī dawā
 
; ...cold medicine. : खाँसी की दवा... &mdash; khā<sup>n</sup>sī kī dawā
 
; ...stomach medicine. : दस्तावर... &mdash; dastāvar
 
; ...a razor. : रेज़र/उस्तरा... &mdash; rezar, ustara
 
; ...an umbrella. : छाता... &mdash; chātā
 
; ...sunblock lotion. : ...sunblock lotion. (''...'')
 
; ...a postcard. : पोस्ट कार्ड... &mdash; posṭ kārḍ
 
; ...postage stamp. : डाक शुल्क/महसूल... &mdash; ḍāk mehsūl/sṭaimp
 
; ...batteries. : बैट्री... &mdash; baiṭrī
 
; ...writing paper. : काग़ज़... &mdash; kā<u>g</u>az
 
; ...a pen. : क़लम... &mdash; kalam
 
; ...a pencil : पेन्सिल... &mdash; pensil
 
; ...an English-language book. : अंग्रेज़ी की किताब... &mdash; angrezī kī kitāb/pothI
 
; ... an English-language magazine. : अंग्रेज़ी की पत्रिका... &mdash; angrezī ka/kī patrika/risālah/maigazīn
 
; ...an English-language newspaper. : अंगरेज़ी का अख़बार... &mdash; angrezī kā akhbār; ...an English-Hindi dictionary. : अंग्रेज़ी-हिन्दी कोश... &mdash; angrezī-hindī koś
 
 
===Driving===
 
 
; I want to rent a car. : मुझे कार किराया चाहिये &mdash; mujhe kār kirāya cāhiye
 
; Can I get insurance? : मुझे बीमा का कार सकता है? &mdash; mujhe insurance ka kār sakta (-ī) hai? (?) 
 
; gas (''petrol'') station : पेट्रोल पंप &mdash; peṭrol pamp
 
; petrol : पेट्रोल &mdash; peṭrol
 
; diesel : डीज़ल &mdash; ḍīzal
 
 
Note: Indian Traffic Signs are much like those in Europe. Words are written in English and sometimes the regional language.
 
 
===Problems===
 
; Leave me alone. : मुझे अकेला छोड़ दो । (''mujhe akela chod do'')
 
; Don't touch me! : मुझे मत छूओ । (''mujhe chunā mat'' / mujhe mat chuo)
 
; I'll call the police. : I'll call the police. पोलीस को बुलाता हूं । (''police ko bulata hum'')
 
; Police! : पोलीस ! पोलीस ! (''police ! police !'')
 
; Stop! Thief! : रुको ! चोर ! (''rukho! chor!'')
 
; I need your help. : मुझे अपकी सहायता चाहिये । (''mujhe āpki sahayta chahie'')
 
; It's an emergency. : मुसीबत है । (''samasya hai'')
 
; I'm lost. : मैं रास्ता भूल गया । (''me rasta bhul gaya'')
 
; I lost my bag. : मेरा बैग गुम हो गया । (''mera bag alage ho gaya'')
 
; I lost my wallet. : मेरा पर्स गुम हो गया । (''mera purse alag ho gaya'')
 
; I'm sick. : मुझे बुख़ार है । (''mujhe bhukaar hai'')
 
; I've been injured. : मुझे चोट लगी है । (''mucheko chot lagi hai'')
 
; I need a doctor. : मुझे डॉक्टर चाहिये । (''mucheko doctor chahie'')
 
; Can I use your phone? : फ़ोन कर सकता हूं ? (''phone kar sakta hum ?'')
 
 
===Authority===
 
; I haven't done anything wrong. : I haven't done anything wrong. (''.maine kuch galath nahi kia..'')
 
; It was a misunderstanding. : It was a misunderstanding. (''.Woh bhool thi..'')
 
; Where are you taking me? : Where are you taking me? (''.Aap mujhe kahan le ja rahe hain?..'')
 
; Am I under arrest? : Am I under arrest? (''.Kya mein giraftaar ho raha hoon?..'')
 
; I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen. : I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen. (''.Mein America/Australia/Britain/Canada ka nagrik hoon..'')
 
; I want to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate. : I need to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate. (''.Mujhe America/ Australia/Britain/Canada ke rajdoot se sampark karna hai..'')
 
; I want to talk to a lawyer. : I want to talk to a lawyer. (''.Mujhe apne vakil se baat karin hai..'')
 
; Can I just pay a fine now? : Can I just pay a fine now? (''.Kya mein jurmaana abhi de sakta hoon?..'')
 
 
==Learning more==
 
 
===Books===
 
Despite Hindi being among Chinese, Spanish and English as the most spoken languages, there is a dearth of resources on the subject(s), and even fewer which are worth-while. Instead of anger of frustration, the Hindi student should instead feel a smug superiority of being ahead of everyone else who are learning other languages, which may fill the rows of bookshelves in bookstores ''now'', but cannot compare with the vast amount of volumes to be written on Hindi in the future! Here is a list of the better books and dictionaries. Stay away from books written for Indians who already know another related Indian language (such as the National Integration series), which make such claims as "Learn This or That Language in 30 days!" Remember the rule of thumb: If it sounds too good to be true, it usually is. If you know German, Margot Gatzlaff-Hälsig, has continued the incomparable German tradition of ''Indologie'' with two dictionaries and numerous books on Hindi.
 
 
 
*''Lonely Planet Hindi & Urdu Phrasebook'' by Richard Delacy (Lonely Planet Publications). ISBN: 0864424256. Excellent. Rare, in that both Hindi Devanagari and Urdu Nas<u>kh</u> are ''en face''. Also includes glossary and cultural notes, etc. Highly recommended for travellers, and a great auxiliary source for students.
 
*''Teach Yourself Beginner's Hindi Script'' by Rupert Snell (McGraw-Hill). ISBN: 0071419845. - An entertaining and easy to use introduction to Devanagari.
 
*''Teach Yourself Beginner's Hindi'' by Rupert Snell (McGraw-Hill). ISBN: 0071424369. If you've never studied a language before or are a younger student this book might be where to start. Otherwise, don't waste your money and get the Complete Course instead.
 
*''Teach Yourself Hindi Complete Course'' by Rupert Snell with Simon Weightman (McGraw-Hill). ISBN: 0071420126. By far this book is the most popular, and the usual starting point for those interested in learning Hindi. It is highly recommended that you purchase this with accompanying CD's (they are not available separately).
 
*''Teach Yourself Hindi Dictionary'' by Rupert Snell (McGraw-Hill). ISBN: 0071435034. Companion to his other books in the Teach Yourself series. For Beginners, or younger students. Is '''not''' a complete dictionary in any sense of the word.
 
*''Introduction to Hindi Grammar'' by Usha R. Jain (IAS Publishers). ISBN: 094461325X. Usha R. Jain's books, which she wrote for her Hindi class at the University of California at Berkeley are more straightforward and easier to use than Snell. Her books are preferred by Hindi professors and private teachers alike throughout North America and Europe. Available with a set of accompanying CD's.
 
*''Intermediate Hindi Reader'' by Usha R Jain (IAS Publishers). ASIN: B000739HIG. 21 readings with serial glossaries to improve the student's comprehension of Hindi and expand vocabulary. Available with accompanying CD's and/or multimedia CD-Rom.
 
*''A Primer of Modern Standard Hindi'' by Michael C. Shapiro (Motilal Banarsidass Publishers). ISBN: 8120804759. An academic approach, by an eminent scholar of South Asia. Focuses more on written than conversational Hindi.
 
*''Say It in Hindi'' by Veena T. Oldenburg (Dover Publications). ISBN: 0486239594. If Delacy's book lacked anything, you may find it here. Mostly due to the fact that the book focuses on Hindi only. One major flaw is that the book uses an archaic Devanagari font, which may prove difficult to some readers. Worth taking a look at, but as a supplement to other books.
 
*''Colloquial Hindi: A Complete Language Course'' by Tej K. Bhatia (Routledge). ISBN: 0415110874. Takes a different approach to teaching the language. Is more sympathetic to the average learner and doesn't go warp speed like Snell and Weightman's ''Teach Yourself Hindi''. However; the biggest flaw is the minimal attention given to Devanagari, and the transliteration is not standard - may be more confusing than necessary to those already comfortable with the conventional style. Perhaps the best feature are the accompanying CD's.
 
 
====Dictionaries====
 
*''The Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary'' by R. S. McGregor (Oxford University Press). ISBN: 019864339X. Essential for the student.
 
*''Oxford English-Hindi Dictionary'' by S. K. Verma (Laurier Books Ltd). ISBN: 0195648196. Common companion to R.S. McGregor's dictionary, but somewhat lacking compared with the former.
 
*''The Modern English Hindi-Dictionary'' by I. N. Anand (Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers). ISBN: 8121504619. Though designed for Indians translating English, this is also a great tool for students. Includes modern and technical terms.
 
*''English-Hindi Dictionary'' by Father Camille Bulcke (French & European Publications). ISBN: 0828811318. Recommended by many professors for their students.
 
 
===Audio===
 
*''Hindi'' by Pimsleur (Pimsleur). ISBN: 0743506251. Great for the auditory learner of for listening to in the car. Helps immerse listener into the sounds of Hindi and developing listening skills.  Good overall introduction to the language, but be aware that many of the phrases are much too formal to use in common, everyday speech.
 
*''Teach Yourself Hindi Conversation'' by Rupert Snell (McGraw-Hil). ISBN: 0071456554. Focus on spoken Hindi. Includes small reference book.
 
*''Spoken Hindi'' by Surendra K. Gambhir (Audio-Forum). ISBN: 0884326993. Includes book.
 
 
===Software===
 
*''Rosetta Stone Hindi Personal Edition Level 1'' (CD-Rom). Both Mac and PC.
 
 
{{usablephrasebook}}
 

Revision as of 14:12, 25 September 2007

Contents

Writing

Sanskrit is written in the Devanāgarī (देवनागरी) script, shared with Nepali, Marathi and a number of other Indian languages. Learning Devanagari is not quite as difficult as you might think at first glance, but mastering it takes a while and is beyond the scope of most travellers. See Learning Devanagari for a primer.

Pronunciation

Most English speakers find Sanskrit pronunciation rather challenging, as there are 11 separate vowels and 35 separate consonants, employing a large number of distinctions not found in English. Don't let this intimidate you: for most of its speakers, Sanskrit is not a mother tongue, and many native speakers are quite used to regional accents and mangling in various degrees.

Vowels

The key distinction is the difference between short and long vowels. In this phrase book, long vowels are noted with a macron (ā), which short vowels are listed without one. You will often come across non-standard romanizations, noted in parentheses below when applicable.

Devanagari Transliteration Equivalent
a as in about
ā as in father
i as in sit
ī (ee) as in elite
u as in put
ū (oo) as in flute
as in Scottish heard, trip.
e long e as in German "zehn". It is not a diphthong; the tone does not fall.
ai as in Mail, sometimes a longer ए. In Eastern dialects as in bright (IPA ıj).
o as in German Kohle, not a diphthong; tone does not fall.
au as in oxford. In Eastern dialects as in German lauft, or English town.

Consonants

Many Sanskrit consonants come in three different forms: aspirated, unaspirated and retroflex.

Aspiration means "with a puff of air", and is the difference between the sound of the letter "p" in English pin (aspirated) and spit (unaspirated). In this phrasebook, aspirated sounds are spelled with an h (so English "pin" would be phin) and unaspirated sounds without it (so "spit" is still spit). Hindi aspiration is quite forceful and it's OK to emphasize the puff: bharti.

Sanskrit retroflex consonants, on the other hand, are not really found in English. They should be pronounced with the tongue tip curled back. Practice with a native speaker, or just pronounce as usual — you'll usually still get the message across.

Devanagari Transliteration Equivalent/Comments
k as in skip.
kh as in sinkhole.
g as in go.
gh as in doghouse.
as in sing. Used only in Sanskrit loan words, does not occur independently.
c as in church.
ch as in pinchhit.
j as in jump.
jh as in dodge her.
ñ as in canyon. Used only in Sanskrit loan words, does not occur independently.
as in tick. Retroflex, but still a "hard" t sound similar to English.
as in lighthouse. Retroflex
as in doom. Retroflex
as in mudhut. Retroflex
retroflex n. Used only in Sanskrit loan words.
t does not exist in English. more dental t, with a bit of a th sound. Softer than an English t.
th aspirated version of the previous letter, not as in thanks or the.
d dental d.
dh aspirated version of the above.
n dental n.
p as in spin.
ph as in uphill.
b as in be.
bh as in abhor.
m as in mere.
y as in yet.
r as in Spanish pero, a tongue trip. Don't roll as in Spanish rr, German or Scottish English.
l as in lean.
v as in Spanish vaca, between English v and w, but without the lip rounding of an English w. (IPA: ʋ).
ś as in shoot.
almost indistinguishable retroflex of the above. slightly more aspirated. Used only in Sanskrit loan words.
s as in see.
h as in him.

Variants

Actions

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In other languages