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|ढ||ḍ||as in mu'''dh'''ut. Retroflex
 
|ढ||ḍ||as in mu'''dh'''ut. Retroflex
 
|-
 
|-
|ण||ṇ||retroflex '''n'''.  
+
|ण||ṇ||retroflex '''n''' as in Pa'''n'''dit.
 
|-
 
|-
|त||t||does not exist in English. more dental '''t''', with a bit of a th sound. Softer than an English '''t'''.
+
|त||t||as in hi'''t'''her ( and thither)
 
|-
 
|-
|थ||th||aspirated version of the previous letter, ''not'' as in '''th'''anks or '''th'''e.
+
|थ||th||aspirated version of the previous letter, as in '''th'''ither
 
|-
 
|-
|द||d||dental '''d'''.
+
|द||d||dental '''d'''. as in '''th'''e
 
|-
 
|-
 
|ध||dh||aspirated version of the above.
 
|ध||dh||aspirated version of the above.
 
|-
 
|-
|न||n||dental '''n'''.
+
|न||n||dental '''n'''. as in '''n'''ear.
 
|-
 
|-
 
|प||p||as in s'''p'''in.
 
|प||p||as in s'''p'''in.
Line 134: Line 134:
 
; FORBIDDEN : }}
 
; FORBIDDEN : }}
  
; Hello. : . ('' '')
+
; Hello. : नमस्ते। (''namaste'')
; Hello. (''informal'') :  . ('' '')
+
; How are you? : कथमस्ति भवान्? (''katham asti bhavān?'' (m.), कथमस्ति भवती? ''katham asti bhavatī?'' (f.))
; How are you? :  ? ('' ?'')
+
; I am fine. :  अहं कुशली। (''ahaṃ kuśalī'')
; Fine, thank you. :  . ('' '')
+
; What is your name? : तव नाम किम्? (''tava nāma kim?'')
; What is your name? : ? ('' ?'')
+
; My name is ______ . : मम नाम ______ (''mama nāma _____ .'')
; My name is ______ . :   ______ . ('' _____ .'')
+
 
; Nice to meet you. :  . ('' '')
 
; Nice to meet you. :  . ('' '')
; Please. : . ('' '')
+
; Please. : कृपया (''kṛpayā'')
; Thank you. : . ('' '')
+
; Thank you. : धन्यवादः। (''dhanyavādaḥ'')
 
; You're welcome. :  . ('' '')
 
; You're welcome. :  . ('' '')
; Yes. :  . ('' '')
+
; Yes. :  आम् (''ām'')
; No. : . ('' '')
+
; No. : (''na'')
 
; Excuse me. (''getting attention'') :  . ('' '')
 
; Excuse me. (''getting attention'') :  . ('' '')
 
; Excuse me. (''begging pardon'') :  . ('' '')
 
; Excuse me. (''begging pardon'') :  . ('' '')
Line 183: Line 182:
  
 
; 1 : एक (''éka'')
 
; 1 : एक (''éka'')
; 2 : du ('' '')
+
; 2 : द्व (''dvá''),
 
; 3 : त्रि (''trí'')
 
; 3 : त्रि (''trí'')
 
; 4 : चतुर् (''catur'')
 
; 4 : चतुर् (''catur'')
 
; 5 : पञ्चन् (''páñcan'')
 
; 5 : पञ्चन् (''páñcan'')
 
; 6 : sash ('' '')
 
; 6 : sash ('' '')
; 7 : सप्तन् (''sáptan'')
+
; 7 : सप्तन् (''saptán'')
 
; 8 : hesd ('' '')
 
; 8 : hesd ('' '')
 
; 9 : nooh ('' '')
 
; 9 : nooh ('' '')
Line 205: Line 204:
 
; 22 :  ('' '')
 
; 22 :  ('' '')
 
; 23 :  ('' '')
 
; 23 :  ('' '')
; 30 : siiy ('' '')
+
; 30 : त्रिंशत् (''triṃśát'')
; 40 : jehiy ('' '')
+
; 40 : चत्वारिंशत् (''catvāriṃśát'')
; 50 : panjahiy (''panjah'')
+
; 50 : पञ्चाशत् (''pañcāśát'')
 
; 60 : sashdiy (''sashdi'')
 
; 60 : sashdiy (''sashdi'')
 
; 70 : hafteth ('' '')
 
; 70 : hafteth ('' '')
Line 528: Line 527:
  
 
{{Outlinephrasebook}}
 
{{Outlinephrasebook}}
 +
{{phrasebookguide}}

Revision as of 02:47, 25 November 2012

Contents

Writing

Sanskrit is written in the Devanāgarī (देवनागरी) script, shared with Nepali, Marathi and a number of other Indian languages. Learning Devanagari is not quite as difficult as you might think at first glance, but mastering it takes a while and is beyond the scope of most travellers. See Learning Devanagari for a primer.

Pronunciation

Most English speakers find Sanskrit pronunciation rather challenging, as there are 11 separate vowels and 35 separate consonants, employing a large number of distinctions not found in English. Don't let this intimidate you: for most of its speakers, Sanskrit is not a mother tongue, and many native speakers are quite used to regional accents and mangling in various degrees.

Vowels

The key distinction is the difference between short and long vowels. In this phrase book, long vowels are noted with a macron (ā), which short vowels are listed without one. You will often come across non-standard romanizations, noted in parentheses below when applicable.

Devanagari Transliteration Equivalent
a as in about
ā as in father
i as in sit
ī (ee) as in elite
u as in put
ū (oo) as in flute
as in Scottish heard, trip.
e long e as in German "zehn". It is not a diphthong; the tone does not fall.
ai as in Mail, sometimes a longer ए. In Eastern dialects as in bright (IPA ıj).
o as in German Kohle, not a diphthong; tone does not fall.
au as in oxford. In Eastern dialects as in German lauft, or English town.

Consonants

Many Sanskrit consonants come in three different forms: aspirated, unaspirated and retroflex.

Aspiration means "with a puff of air", and is the difference between the sound of the letter "p" in English pin (aspirated) and spit (unaspirated). In this phrasebook, aspirated sounds are spelled with an h (so English "pin" would be phin) and unaspirated sounds without it (so "spit" is still spit). Sanskrit aspiration is quite forceful and it's OK to emphasize the puff: bharti.

Sanskrit retroflex consonants, on the other hand, are not really found in English. They should be pronounced with the tongue tip curled back. Practice with a native speaker, or just pronounce as usual — you'll usually still get the message across.

Devanagari Transliteration Equivalent/Comments
k as in skip.
kh as in sinkhole.
g as in go.
gh as in doghouse.
as in sing. Does not occur independently.
c as in church.
ch as in pinchhit.
j as in jump.
jh as in dodge her.
ñ as in canyon. Does not occur independently.
as in tick. Retroflex, but still a "hard" t sound similar to English.
as in lighthouse. Retroflex
as in doom. Retroflex
as in mudhut. Retroflex
retroflex n as in Pandit.
t as in hither ( and thither)
th aspirated version of the previous letter, as in thither
d dental d. as in the
dh aspirated version of the above.
n dental n. as in near.
p as in spin.
ph as in uphill.
b as in be.
bh as in abhor.
m as in mere.
y as in yet.
r as in Spanish pero, a tongue trip. Don't roll as in Spanish rr, German or Scottish English.
l as in lean.
v as in Spanish vaca, between English v and w, but without the lip rounding of an English w. (IPA: ʋ).
ś as in shoot.
almost indistinguishable retroflex of the above. slightly more aspirated.
s as in see.
h as in him.

Common diphthongs

Phrase list

Some phrases in this phrasebook still need to be translated. If you know anything about this language, you can help by plunging forward and translating a phrase.


Basics

Common signs

OPEN 
CLOSED 
ENTRANCE 
EXIT 
PUSH 
PULL 
TOILET 
MEN 
WOMEN 
FORBIDDEN 


Hello. 
नमस्ते। (namaste)
How are you? 
कथमस्ति भवान्? (katham asti bhavān? (m.), कथमस्ति भवती? katham asti bhavatī? (f.))
I am fine. 
अहं कुशली। (ahaṃ kuśalī)
What is your name? 
तव नाम किम्? (tava nāma kim?)
My name is ______ . 
मम नाम ______ । (mama nāma _____ .)
Nice to meet you. 
. ( )
Please. 
कृपया (kṛpayā)
Thank you. 
धन्यवादः। (dhanyavādaḥ)
You're welcome. 
. ( )
Yes. 
आम् (ām)
No. 
न (na)
Excuse me. (getting attention
. ( )
Excuse me. (begging pardon
. ( )
I'm sorry. 
. ( )
Goodbye 
. ( )
Goodbye (informal
. ( )
I can't speak name of language [well]. 
[ ]. ( [ ])
Do you speak English? 
 ? ( ?)
Is there someone here who speaks English? 
 ? ( ?)
Help! 
 ! ( !)
Look out! 
 ! ( !)
Good morning. 
. ( )
Good evening. 
. ( )
Good night. 
. ( )
Good night (to sleep
. ( )
I don't understand. 
. ( )
Where is the toilet? 
 ? ( ?)

Problems

Leave me alone. 
. ( .)
Don't touch me! 
 ! ( !)
I'll call the police. 
. ( .)
Police! 
 ! ( !)
Stop! Thief! 
 ! ! ( ! !)
I need your help. 
. ( .)
It's an emergency. 
. ( .)
I'm lost. 
. ( .)
I lost my bag. 
. ( .)
I lost my wallet. 
. ( .)
I'm sick. 
. ( .)
I've been injured. 
. ( .)
I need a doctor. 
. ( .)
Can I use your phone? 
 ? ( ?)

Numbers

एक (éka)
द्व (dvá),
त्रि (trí)
चतुर् (catur)
पञ्चन् (páñcan)
sash ( )
सप्तन् (saptán)
hesd ( )
nooh ( )
10 
daah ( )
11 
oozdaa ( )
12 
doazdaa ( )
13 
seezdaa ( )
14 
jaahardaa ( )
15 
panjardaa ( )
16 
sashadaa ( )
17 
hafdaa ( )
18 
hesdaa ( )
19 
nuzhadaa ( )
20 
bisd ( )
21 
( )
22 
( )
23 
( )
30 
त्रिंशत् (triṃśát)
40 
चत्वारिंशत् (catvāriṃśát)
50 
पञ्चाशत् (pañcāśát)
60 
sashdiy (sashdi)
70 
hafteth ( )
80 
hestath ( )
90 
nwaad ( )
100 
saad ( )
200 
du-saad ( )
300 
se-saad ( )
1,000 
hezaar ( )
2,000 
du-hezaar ( )
1,000,000 
ek-milyoon ( )
1,000,000,000 
( )
1,000,000,000,000 
( )
number _____ (train, bus, etc.) 
( )
half 
( )
less 
( )
more 
( )

Time

now 
( )
later 
( )
before 
( )
morning 
( )
afternoon 
( )
evening 
( )
night 
( )

Clock time

one o'clock AM 
( )
two o'clock AM 
( )
noon 
( )
one o'clock PM 
( )
two o'clock PM 
( )
midnight 
( )

Duration

_____ minute(s) 
( )
_____ hour(s) 
( )
_____ day(s) 
( )
_____ week(s) 
( )
_____ month(s) 
( )
_____ year(s) 
( )

Days

today 
( )
yesterday 
( )
tomorrow 
( )
this week 
( )
last week 
( )
next week 
( )
Sunday 
( )
Monday 
( )
Tuesday 
( )
Wednesday 
( )
Thursday 
( )
Friday 
( )
Saturday 
( )

Months

January 
( )
February 
( )
March 
( )
April 
( )
May 
( )
June 
( )
July 
( )
August 
( )
September 
( )
October 
( )
November 
( )
December 
( )

Writing time and date

Colors

black 
( )
white 
( )
gray 
( )
red 
( )
blue 
( )
yellow 
( )
green 
( )
orange 
( )
purple 
( )
brown 
( )

Transportation

Bus and train

How much is a ticket to _____? 
( )
One ticket to _____, please. 
( )
Where does this train/bus go? 
( )
Where is the train/bus to _____? 
( )
Does this train/bus stop in _____? 
( )
When does the train/bus for _____ leave? 
( )
When will this train/bus arrive in _____? 
( )

Directions

How do I get to _____ ? 
( )
...the train station? 
( )
...the bus station? 
( )
...the airport? 
( )
...downtown? 
( )
...the youth hostel? 
( )
...the _____ hotel? 
( )
...the American/Canadian/Australian/British consulate? 
( )
Where are there a lot of... 
( )
...hotels? 
( )
...restaurants? 
( )
...bars? 
( )
...sites to see? 
( )
Can you show me on the map? 
( )
street 
( )
Turn left. 
( )
Turn right. 
( )
left 
( )
right 
( )
straight ahead 
( )
towards the _____ 
( )
past the _____ 
( )
before the _____ 
( )
Watch for the _____. 
( )
intersection 
( )
north 
( )
south 
( )
east 
( )
west 
( )
uphill 
( )
downhill 
( )

Taxi

Taxi! 
( )
Take me to _____, please. 
( )
How much does it cost to get to _____? 
( )
Take me there, please. 
( )

Lodging

Do you have any rooms available? 
( )
How much is a room for one person/two people? 
( )
Does the room come with... 
( )
...bedsheets? 
( )
...a bathroom? 
( )
...a telephone? 
( )
...a TV? 
( )
May I see the room first? 
( )
Do you have anything quieter? 
( )
...bigger? 
( )
...cleaner? 
( )
...cheaper? 
( )
OK, I'll take it. 
( )
I will stay for _____ night(s). 
( )
Can you suggest another hotel? 
( )
Do you have a safe? 
( )
...lockers? 
( )
Is breakfast/supper included? 
( )
What time is breakfast/supper? 
( )
Please clean my room. 
( )
Can you wake me at _____? 
( )
I want to check out. 
( )

Money

Do you accept American/Australian/Canadian dollars? 
( )
Do you accept British pounds? 
( )
Do you accept Euros? 
( )
Do you accept credit cards? 
( )
Can you change money for me? 
( )
Where can I get money changed? 
( )
Can you change a traveler's check for me? 
( )
Where can I get a traveler's check changed? 
( )
What is the exchange rate? 
( )
Where is an automatic teller machine (ATM)? 
( )

Eating

A table for one person/two people, please. 
( )
Can I look at the menu, please? 
( )
Can I look in the kitchen? 
( )
Is there a house specialty? 
( )
Is there a local specialty? 
( )
I'm a vegetarian. 
( )
I don't eat pork. 
( )
I don't eat beef. 
( )
I only eat kosher food. 
( )
Can you make it "lite", please? (less oil/butter/lard
( )
fixed-price meal 
( )
a la carte 
( )
breakfast 
( )
lunch 
( )
tea (meal
( )
supper 
( )
I want _____. 
( )
I want a dish containing _____. 
( )
chicken 
( )
beef 
( )
fish 
( )
ham 
( )
sausage 
( )
cheese 
( )
eggs 
( )
salad 
( )
(fresh) vegetables 
( )
(fresh) fruit 
( )
bread 
( )
toast 
( )
noodles 
( )
rice 
( )
beans 
( )
May I have a glass of _____? 
( )
May I have a cup of _____? 
( )
May I have a bottle of _____? 
( )
coffee 
( )
tea (drink
( )
juice 
( )
(bubbly) water 
( )
(still) water 
( )
beer 
( )
red/white wine 
( )
May I have some _____? 
( )
salt 
( )
black pepper 
( )
butter 
( )
Excuse me, waiter? (getting attention of server)
( )
I'm finished. 
( )
It was delicious. 
( )
Please clear the plates. 
( )
The check, please. 
( )

Bars

Do you serve alcohol? 
( )
Is there table service? 
( )
A beer/two beers, please. 
( )
A glass of red/white wine, please. 
( )
A pint, please. 
( )
A bottle, please. 
( )
_____ (hard liquor) and _____ (mixer), please. 
( )
whiskey 
( )
vodka 
( )
rum 
( )
water 
( )
club soda 
( )
tonic water 
( )
orange juice 
( )
Coke (soda
( )
Do you have any bar snacks? 
( )
One more, please. 
( )
Another round, please. 
( )
When is closing time? 
( )
Cheers! 
( )

Shopping

Do you have this in my size? 
( )
How much is this? 
( )
That's too expensive. 
( )
Would you take _____? 
( )
expensive 
( )
cheap 
( )
I can't afford it. 
( )
I don't want it. 
( )
You're cheating me. 
( )
I'm not interested. 
(..)
OK, I'll take it. 
( )
Can I have a bag? 
( )
Do you ship (overseas)? 
( )
I need... 
( )
...toothpaste. 
( )
...a toothbrush. 
( )
...tampons. 
. ( )
...soap. 
( )
...shampoo. 
( )
...pain reliever. (e.g., aspirin or ibuprofen
( )
...cold medicine. 
( )
...stomach medicine. 
... ( )
...a razor. 
( )
...an umbrella. 
( )
...sunblock lotion. 
( )
...a postcard. 
( )
...postage stamps. 
( )
...batteries. 
( )
...writing paper. 
( )
...a pen. 
( )
...English-language books. 
( )
...English-language magazines. 
( )
...an English-language newspaper. 
( )
...an English-English dictionary. 
( )

Driving

I want to rent a car. 
( )
Can I get insurance? 
( )
stop (on a street sign
( )
one way 
( )
yield 
( )
no parking 
( )
speed limit 
( )
gas (petrol) station 
( )
petrol 
( )
diesel 
( )

Authority

I haven't done anything wrong. 
( )
It was a misunderstanding. 
( )
Where are you taking me? 
( )
Am I under arrest? 
( )
I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen. 
( )
I want to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate. 
( )
I want to talk to a lawyer. 
( )
Can I just pay a fine now? 
( )

Learning more

This phrasebook is an outline and needs more content. It has an introduction and a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

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